Axial precession

In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis. In particular, it can refer to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of rotation in a cycle of 25,772 years; this is similar to the precession of a spinning-top, with the axis tracing out a pair of cones joined at their apices. The term "precession" refers only to this largest part of the motion. Earth's precession was called the precession of the equinoxes, because the equinoxes moved westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the yearly motion of the Sun along the ecliptic; the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes is attributed in the West to the 2nd-century-BC astronomer Hipparchus. With improvements in the ability to calculate the gravitational force between planets during the first half of the nineteenth century, it was recognized that the ecliptic itself moved, named planetary precession, as early as 1863, while the dominant component was named lunisolar precession.

Their combination was named general precession, instead of precession of the equinoxes. Lunisolar precession is caused by the gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun on Earth's equatorial bulge, causing Earth's axis to move with respect to inertial space. Planetary precession is due to the small angle between the gravitational force of the other planets on Earth and its orbital plane, causing the plane of the ecliptic to shift relative to inertial space. Lunisolar precession is about 500 times greater than planetary precession. In addition to the Moon and Sun, the other planets cause a small movement of Earth's axis in inertial space, making the contrast in the terms lunisolar versus planetary misleading, so in 2006 the International Astronomical Union recommended that the dominant component be renamed the precession of the equator, the minor component be renamed precession of the ecliptic, but their combination is still named general precession. Many references to the old terms exist in publications predating the change.

"Precession" and "procession" are both terms. "Precession" is derived from the Latin praecedere, while "procession" is derived from the Latin procedere. The term "procession" is used to describe a group of objects moving forward; the stars viewed from Earth are seen to proceed in a procession from east to west daily, due to the Earth's diurnal motion, yearly, due to the Earth's revolution around the Sun. At the same time the stars can be observed to anticipate such motion, at the rate of 50 arc seconds per year, a phenomenon known as the "precession of the equinoxes". In describing this motion astronomers have shortened the term to "precession". In describing the cause of the motion physicists have used the term "precession", which has led to some confusion between the observable phenomenon and its cause, which matters because in astronomy, some precessions are real and others are apparent; this issue is further obfuscated by the fact that many astronomers are physicists or astrophysicists. The term "precession" used in astronomy describes the observable precession of the equinox, whereas the term "precession" as used in physics describes a mechanical process.

The precession of the Earth's axis has a number of observable effects. First, the positions of the south and north celestial poles appear to move in circles against the space-fixed backdrop of stars, completing one circuit in 26,000 years. Thus, while today the star Polaris lies at the north celestial pole, this will change over time, other stars will become the "north star". In 3200 years, the star Gamma Cephei in the Cepheus constellation will succeed Polaris for this position; the south celestial pole lacks a bright star to mark its position, but over time precession will cause bright stars to become south stars. As the celestial poles shift, there is a corresponding gradual shift in the apparent orientation of the whole star field, as viewed from a particular position on Earth. Secondly, the position of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun at the solstices, equinoxes, or other time defined relative to the seasons changes. For example, suppose that the Earth's orbital position is marked at the summer solstice, when the Earth's axial tilt is pointing directly toward the Sun.

One full orbit when the Sun has returned to the same apparent position relative to the background stars, the Earth's axial tilt is not now directly toward the Sun: because of the effects of precession, it is a little way "beyond" this. In other words, the solstice occurred a little earlier in the orbit. Thus, the tropical year, measuring the cycle of seasons, is about 20 minutes shorter than the sidereal year, measured by the Sun's apparent position relative to the stars. After about 26 000 years the difference amounts to a full year, so the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started". For identical

Vaska Easoff

Vaska Easoff known as Letgohand Vaska, is a 1996 Hungarian comedy film directed by Péter Gothár. The film was selected as the Hungarian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 69th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee. Maksim Sergeyev as Vászka, a pityeri tolvaj Evgeniy Sidikhin as Ványka, a falusi tolvaj Valentina Kasyanova as Luvnya Boris Solominovits as Fetyka At the Hungarian Film Week of 1996, the film won the Grand Prize, Péter Gothár won the Best Director award, Francisco Gózon won the Best Cinematographer, Enikő Eszenyi won the Best Actress and Antal Cserna the Best Actor. At the 31st Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, the film was nominated for the Crystal Globe and Péter Gothár won the Best Director Award. At the 1996 Chicago International Film Festival, the film won the Audience Choice Award. List of submissions to the 69th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Hungarian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Vaska Easoff on IMDb


Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, bisexual or transgender. It has been defined as contempt, aversion, hatred or antipathy, may be based on irrational fear and ignorance, is related to religious beliefs. Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. Recognized types of homophobia include institutionalized homophobia, e.g. religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia, internalized homophobia, experienced by people who have same-sex attractions, regardless of how they identify. Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets bisexuality and bisexual people, transphobia targets transgender and transsexual people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity.

According to 2010 Hate Crimes Statistics released by the FBI National Press Office, 19.3 percent of hate crimes across the United States "were motivated by a sexual orientation bias." Moreover, in a Southern Poverty Law Center 2010 Intelligence Report extrapolating data from fourteen years, which had complete data available at the time, of the FBI's national hate crime statistics found that LGBT people were "far more than any other minority group in the United States to be victimized by violent hate crime."The term homophobia and its usage have been criticized by several sources as unwarrantedly pejorative. Although sexual attitudes tracing back to Ancient Greece (8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity have been termed homophobia by scholars, is used to describe an intolerance towards homosexuality and homosexuals that grew during the Middle Ages by adherents of Islam and Christianity, yet the term itself is new. Coined by George Weinberg, a psychologist, in the 1960s, the term homophobia is a blend of the word homosexual, itself a mix of neo-classical morphemes, phobia from the Greek φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear", "morbid fear" or "aversion".

Weinberg is credited as the first person to have used the term in speech. The word homophobia first appeared in print in an article written for the May 23, 1969, edition of the American pornographic magazine Screw, in which the word was used to refer to heterosexual men's fear that others might think they are gay. Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice as a social problem worthy of scholarly attention was not new. A 1969 article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosexuality as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic. In 1971, Kenneth Smith used homophobia as a personality profile to describe the psychological aversion to homosexuality. Weinberg used it this way in his 1972 book Society and the Healthy Homosexual, published one year before the American Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists and their allies.

He describes the concept as a medical phobia: phobia about homosexuals.... It was a fear of homosexuals which seemed to be associated with a fear of contagion, a fear of reducing the things one fought for — home and family, it was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does. In 1981, homophobia was used for the first time in The Times to report that the General Synod of the Church of England voted to refuse to condemn homosexuality. However, when taken homophobia may be a problematic term. Professor David A. F. Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions and behaviours toward homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing." Five key differences are listed as distinguishing homophobia, as used, from a true phobia. Homophobia manifests in different forms, a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, others.

There were ideas to classify homophobia and sexism as an intolerant personality disorder. In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association, recognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed by the Board of Trustees, July 2011: "Whereas homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association calls on all international health organizations, psychiatric organizations, individual psychiatrists in other countries to urge the repeal in their own countries of legislation that penalizes homosexual acts by consenting adults in private. Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all, possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur." Many world religions contain anti-homosexual teachings, while other religions have varying degrees of ambivalence, neutrality, or incorporate teachings that regard homosexuals as third gender.

Within some religions which discourage homosexuality, there are people who view homosexuality positively, some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages. There exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. In 2015, attorney and autho