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Axon

An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, in vertebrates, that conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials away from the nerve cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons and glands. In certain sensory neurons, such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve fibers and the electrical impulse travels along these from the periphery to the cell body, from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon. Axon dysfunction has caused many inherited and acquired neurological disorders which can affect both the peripheral and central neurons. Nerve fibers are classed into three types – group A nerve fibers, group B nerve fibers, group C nerve fibers. Groups A and B are myelinated, group C are unmyelinated; these groups include both sensory fibers and motor fibers. Another classification groups only the sensory fibers as Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV. An axon is one of two types of cytoplasmic protrusions from the cell body of a neuron.

Axons are distinguished from dendrites by several features, including shape and function. Some types of neurons have no transmit signals from their dendrites. In some species, axons can emanate from dendrites known as axon-carrying dendrites. No neuron has more than one axon. Axons are covered by a membrane known as an axolemma. Most axons branch, in some cases profusely; the end branches of an axon are called telodendria. The swollen end of a telodendron is known as the axon terminal which joins the dendron or cell body of another neuron forming a synaptic connection. Axons make contact with other cells—usually other neurons but sometimes muscle or gland cells—at junctions called synapses. In some circumstances, the axon of one neuron may form a synapse with the dendrites of the same neuron, resulting in an autapse. At a synapse, the membrane of the axon adjoins the membrane of the target cell, special molecular structures serve to transmit electrical or electrochemical signals across the gap; some synaptic junctions appear along the length of an axon as it extends—these are called en passant synapses and can be in the hundreds or the thousands along one axon.

Other synapses appear as terminals at the ends of axonal branches. A single axon, with all its branches taken together, can innervate multiple parts of the brain and generate thousands of synaptic terminals. A bundle of axons make a nerve tract in the central nervous system, a fascicle in the peripheral nervous system. In placental mammals the largest white matter tract in the brain is the corpus callosum, formed of some 200 million axons in the human brain. Axons are the primary transmission lines of the nervous system, as bundles they form nerves; some axons can extend up to more while others extend as little as one millimeter. The longest axons in the human body are those of the sciatic nerve, which run from the base of the spinal cord to the big toe of each foot; the diameter of axons is variable. Most individual axons are microscopic in diameter; the largest mammalian axons can reach a diameter of up to 20 µm. The squid giant axon, specialized to conduct signals rapidly, is close to 1 millimetre in diameter, the size of a small pencil lead.

The numbers of axonal telodendria can differ from one nerve fiber to the next. Axons in the central nervous system show multiple telodendria, with many synaptic end points. In comparison, the cerebellar granule cell axon is characterized by a single T-shaped branch node from which two parallel fibers extend. Elaborate branching allows for the simultaneous transmission of messages to a large number of target neurons within a single region of the brain. There are two types of axons in the nervous system: unmyelinated axons. Myelin is a layer of a fatty insulating substance, formed by two types of glial cells Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. In the peripheral nervous system Schwann cells form the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon. In the central nervous system oligodendrocytes form the insulating myelin. Along myelinated nerve fibers, gaps in the myelin sheath known as nodes of Ranvier occur at evenly spaced intervals; the myelination enables an rapid mode of electrical impulse propagation called saltatory conduction.

The myelinated axons from the cortical neurons form the bulk of the neural tissue called white matter in the brain. The myelin gives the white appearance to the tissue in contrast to the grey matter of the cerebral cortex which contains the neuronal cell bodies. A similar arrangement is seen in the cerebellum. Bundles of myelinated axons make up the nerve tracts in the CNS. Where these tracts cross the midline of the brain to connect opposite regions they are called commissures; the largest of these is the corpus callosum that connects the two cerebral hemispheres, this has around 20 million axons. The structure of a neuron is seen to consist of two separate functional regions, or compartments – the cell body together with the dendrites as one region, the axonal region as the other

Roman Temple of √Čvora

The Roman Temple of Évora referred to as the Templo de Diana is an ancient temple in the Portuguese city of Évora. The temple is part of the historical centre of the city, included in the classification by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, it represents one of the most significant landmarks relating to the Roman and Lusitanian civilizations of Évora and in Portuguese territory. The temple is believed to have been constructed around the first century A. D. in honour of Augustus, venerated as a god during and after his rule. The temple was built in the main public square of Évora called Liberalitas Iulia. During the 2nd and 3rd centuries, from the traditionally accepted chronology, the temple was part of a radical redefinition of the urban city, when religious veneration and administrative polity were oriented around the central space; the temple was destroyed during the 5th century by invading Germanic peoples. During the 14th century, the temple's space served as a stronghouse for the town's castle, while Fernão Lopes described the structure as being in shambles.

In 1467, King Afonso V of Portugal authorized Soeiro Mendes to remove stones from the structure for building purposes and defense. The ruins of the temple were incorporated into a tower of the Castle of Évora during the Middle Ages; the base and architraves of the temple were kept embedded in the walls of the medieval building. In the 16th-century Manueline foral, the temple is represented, during a period when oral tradition suggested that the temple was attributed to Quintus Sertorius, the famous Lusitanian general, it was in the 17th century that references to the'Temple of Diana', first made by Father Manuel Fialho, began to appear. Although the Roman temple of Évora is called the Temple of Diana, any association with the Roman goddess of hunt stems not from archaeology but from a legend created in the 17th century by the Portuguese priest. Other interpretations suggest that it might have been dedicated to Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of Zeus; the first reconstitution of the temple's appearance occurred in 1789 by James Murphy.

By the beginning of the 19th century, the structure still had the pydramidal merlons typical of the post-Reconquista Arabic structures around the colonnade. In 1836 it ceased being a butchershop. In 1840, Cunha Rivara director of the Public Library of Évora, obtained the right to dispose of the buildings annexed to the monument from the Portuguese Inquisition, which were annexed to the northern façade of the temple; these structures were demolished, the first great archaeological excavation was undertaken in Portugal. The resulting survey uncovered tanks of a primitive aqueduct; the stress on the space had begun to reach its limits by 1863, when the ceiling was destroyed. By 1869, Augusto Filipe Simões proposed the urgent demolition of the medieval structures, defending the restoration of the primitive face of the Roman temple. Three years under the direction of Italian architect Giuseppe Cinatti, the vestiges of the medieval structures were removed, a program of restoration was carried out in line with the Romantic thinking of the period.

On 1 June 1992, the Portuguese Institute of Architectural Patrimony became responsible for conservancy of the monument. Following a 13 September 1992 publication, a public tender was issued for proposals relative the Roman temple and area surrounding it. Between 1989 and 1994, new excavations in the vicinity of the temple were completed under the supervision of the German archeologist Theodor Hauschild; the temple is located in the central square of Évora, in what would have been the highest elevation of the city's acropolis. It is surrounded by religious buildings associated with the Inquisition in Portugal, including: the Sé Cathedral, the Palace of the Inquisitor, Palace of the Dukes of Cadaval, the Court of the Inquisition and, the Church and Lóios' Convent, as well as the Public Library and Museum of Évora; the original temple was similar to the Maison Carrée in Nîmes. What remains of this structure is the complete base, marked by the ruins of a staircase, an intact colonnade along its northern facade with architrave and frieze, four columns to the east with architrave and frieze and the western facade with three columns, without columns and one deconstructed base, along with architrave and frieze.

The structure is oriented towards the south, evidenced by its ample staircase. The portico was hexastyle, six columns across; the masonry platform is superimposed onto a granite base, with square corners and remnants of rounded surfaces: the podium is 25 metres long by 15 metres wide and 3.5 metres in height. The fluted shafts of the Corinthian columns, consisting of seven irregular barrel-shaped supports, range from 1.2 metres to

Wayne M. Perry

Wayne M. Perry is a retired American businessman and former national president of the Boy Scouts of America. After graduating from the University of Washington with a bachelor's degree, Perry earned his law degree from Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College and earned an L. L. M. in Taxation from New York University School of Law. He is a member of the Washington State Bar Association. Perry started at McCaw Cellular Communications Inc. in 1976. He served as legal officer, General Counsel, Executive Vice President before becoming President in 1985. After McCaw's merger with AT&T Wireless Services in September 1994, Perry served as Vice-Chairman of AT&T Wireless Services. Perry joined NEXTLINK Communications as chief executive officer and vice-chairman before co-founding Edge Wireless in 1999. Owned by AT&T Wireless, Edge Wireless was acquired in its entirety by AT&T Wireless in 2008, he maintains close ties with his L. L. M. Alma mater, New York University Law School, where he serves on the board of trustees and on the finance committee.

He is a minority owner of the Seattle Mariners Perry has taught at the University of Washington Business School as a visiting professor for classes on mergers and acquisitions. Perry joined the Boy Scouts of America as a Cub Scout, he has served as Scoutmaster, district chairman, Explorer advisor and president of the Chief Seattle Council as well as of the Western Region. Perry has been awarded the Silver Buffalo Award, Silver Antelope Award, Silver Beaver Award and District Award of Merit, he is a member of the Order of the Arrow and earned the Wood Badge advanced training recognition and is staffing as a Troop Guide on Wood Badge course W1-609-15-2 in the Chief Seattle Council. In addition Perry was awarded the BSA Heroism Award, he is a holder of the World Organization of the Scout Movement's Bronze Wolf Award. He was appointed to the National Executive Board, became the International Commissioner of the BSA in May 2006. Perry served as a member of the World Committee until July 2008, having been selected to replace Steve Fossett in September 2006.

Perry was elected the National President of the BSA by the National Executive Board in May 2012. Perry served as National President of the BSA until May 2014, at which time he was succeeded by Robert Gates. Perry is married to Christine and has four sons, Gregory and Justin, he is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Wayne Perry, new member of the World Scout Committee BSA International Volunteer Leadership Wayne Perry: The Future of Wireless Communications

New Zealand Natural

New Zealand Natural Premium Ice Cream is a global franchise network based in Auckland, New Zealand. It operates as an international franchisor of ice cream, frozen yoghurt and juice parlours and mini-parlours, which can be found in shopping centres in Australia, New Zealand and other countries; the ice cream is available at supermarkets throughout New Zealand and Australia. New Zealand Natural began as a small ice creamery in Christchurch New Zealand in 1984 that specialized in ice cream with no artificial colours or flavours. By chance, Rael Polivnick, who founded the company, met the owner on a flight crossing the Tasman Sea. Polivnick, seeing the potential, purchased the rights to open a New Zealand Natural store at Sydney's famous Bondi Beach in 1985. New Zealand Natural has won the Export Award at the Westpac New Zealand Franchise Awards and the SIAL D'Or Award in France; the company's Gold Pure Vanilla was named best in Category at the 14th New Zealand Ice Cream Awards in 2010

Yoga Upanishads

Yoga Upanishads are a group of minor Upanishads of Hinduism related to Yoga. There are twenty Yoga Upanishads in the anthology of 108 Upanishads listed in the Muktika anthology; the Yoga Upanishads, along with other minor Upanishads, are classified separate from the thirteen major Principal Upanishads considered to be more ancient and from the Vedic tradition. The Yoga Upanishads deal with the theory and practice of Yogic techniques, with varied emphasis on methodology and meditation, but with some shared ideas, they contrast from other groups of minor Upanishads, such as the Samanya Upanishads which are of a generic nature, the Sannyasa Upanishads which focus on the Hindu renunciation and monastic practice, the Shaiva Upanishads which highlight aspects of Shaivism, the Vaishnava Upanishads which highlight Vaishnavism, the Shakta Upanishads which highlight Shaktism. The composition date of each Yoga Upanishad is unclear, estimates on when they were composed vary with scholar. According to Mahony, they are dated between 100 BC and 1100 AD.

However, Gavin Flood dates the Yoga Upanishads to the 100 BCE to 300 CE period. According to James Mallinson, some Yoga Upanishads were revised in the eighteenth century to incorporate the Hatha Yoga ideas of the Hindu Natha sub-tradition. Mircea Eliade states that textual style, archaic language and the mention of some Yoga Upanishads in other Indian texts, suggests the following Yoga Upanishads were composed in the same period as the didactic parts of the Mahabharata and the chief Sannyasa Upanishads: Brahmabindu, Amritabindu, Tejobindu Upanishad, Yogashikha and Yogatattva. Eliade's suggestion places these in the final centuries of BCE or early centuries of the CE. All these, adds Eliade, were composed earlier than the ten or eleven Yoga Upanishads such as the Yoga-kundalini and Pashupatabrahma Upanishads. Yoga Upanishads discuss different aspects and kinds of Yoga, ranging from postures, breath exercises, sound and others; some of these topics are not covered in the Bhagavad Patanjali's Yogasutras.

Many texts describe Yoga as consisting of steps or members and according to Paul Deussen, the important Yoga Upanishads which deal with these are the Brahmavidya, Culika, Brahmabindu, Dhyanabindu, Yogashika and Hamsa. These 11 Yoga Upanishads belong to Vedic shaka from the Vedantic point of view; these Upanishads include discussion of ethics, pranayama, dharana and samadhi. Hindu texts Vedas Derek, Coltman. Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0543-9. Deussen, Paul. Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7. Deussen, Paul; the Philosophy of the Upanishads. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 978-1-61640-239-6. Flood, Gavin D. An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780 Mahony, William K.. The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3579-3. Mallinson, James; the Gheranda Samhita: The Original Sanskrit and an English Translation. YogaVidya.com. ISBN 978-0-9716466-3-6.

Sen, S. C.. The Mystical Philosophy Of The Upanishads. Cosmo Publications. ISBN 978-81-307-0660-3

New Baptist Covenant

New Baptist Covenant is an association of Baptist organizations formed to address poverty, the environment and global conflicts. Former United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton proposed the establishment of the broadly inclusive alternative Baptist movement to counter the public image of Baptists as being predominantly tied to conservative political and cultural perspectives; the effort began with a "Celebration of the New Baptist Covenant," a major conference of diverse Baptist organizations held in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008. Carter said the meeting would be "one of the most historic events at least in the history of Baptists in this country, maybe Christianity." Clinton told reporters that those who "did not have both the privilege and the burden to be raised in the Baptist church cannot appreciate" how unique such cooperation is. "This is an attempt to bring people together and say,'What would our Christian witness require of us in the 21st century?'" Clinton said."Our goal is to have a major demonstration of harmony and a common commitment to personify and to accomplish the goals that Jesus Christ expressed in his sermon to his own hometown of Nazareth," said Carter.

Planners announced. The Biblical basis for the meeting is cited as Jesus’ reading of scripture in the Synagogue as recorded in Luke 4:18-19. In these verses, Jesus reads from Isaiah: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor, he has sent me to proclaim the release of the captives, the recovering of sight of the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. This call by Jesus to pursue both evangelism and ministry to "the least of these" is said to be the Biblical foundation for the New Baptist Covenant; the New Baptist Covenant traces its roots to April 10, 2006, when former U. S. President and prominent Baptist layman Jimmy Carter and Mercer University President Bill Underwood convened at The Carter Center in Atlanta a group of 18 Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America; the leaders were said to be unanimous in their desire to transcend their differences–including such factors as race, culture and convention affiliation–and seek common purpose.

The outcome of the meeting was a document called A North American Baptist Covenant and preliminary plans to hold a major gathering of Baptists from throughout North America in 2008. The initiative stems from the adoption of the "North American Baptist Covenant" in which leaders reaffirmed their commitment to Baptist values including evangelism, helping the needy and promoting religious liberty, it will be the first time since 1845 that there has been a major effort to bring together Baptists from diverse racial and regional backgrounds. Most US Baptists met in 1814 to form a missionary society known as the Triennial Convention. Southern Baptists broke away over the slavery issue in 1845. Since Baptists have splintered further, most due to the Conservative Resurgence/Fundamentalist Takeover of the Southern Baptist Convention in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Many object to the use of the word "takeover", since the Southern Baptist Convention is a conservative denomination as found in'The Baptist Faith and Message', among other sources and reasons.

A follow-up meeting attended by 80 representatives of more than 30 Baptist organizations was held on January 9, 2007, at The Carter Center. The core group of those who gathered were representatives of organizations that are members of the North American Baptist Fellowship, a regional affiliate of the Baptist World Alliance. At the conclusion of the meeting, the representatives announced plans to hold a "Celebration of a New Baptist Covenant" in Atlanta on January 30-February 1, 2008; the 80 representatives at this meeting are leaders of 30 Baptist organizations in the United States and Mexico. This meeting was termed by one of the organizers "a historic demonstration of Baptist unity" by deciding to focus on concerns shared by attendees as followers of Christ rather than dwell on obvious differences. Most participants at the Atlanta meeting are members of the 20-million-member North American Baptist Fellowship, part of the 102-year-old Baptist World Alliance; the Nashville-based Southern Baptist Convention decided in 2004 to pull out of the Baptist World Alliance.

While individual Southern Baptists were involved in the announcement, no current leaders of the 16 million-member denomination attended the meeting. The four largest of the predominantly African-American Baptist conventions began meeting jointly in recent years, they planned to do so again in early 2008 and join with other Baptists a few days for the "Celebration of a New Baptist Covenant." The general secretary of the American Baptist Churches USA said this vision of Baptists coming together could encourage American Baptists soured by their denomination's fragmentation over homosexuality. The national coordinator of the Atlanta-based Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, a quasi-denomination that emerged from the recent moderate/fundamentalist controversy, said the Carter initiative fills a need for "a broader Baptist witness, committed to social justice as well as evangelism."The New Baptist Covenant will be a "re-claiming of Baptist heritage," according to a statement from the Baptist Joint Committee.

Further, it will be "a commitment to working cooperatively, being agreeable in our disagreements, honoring historic Baptist tenets of soul freedom and religious liberty."The 2008 "Celebration of a New Baptist Covenant" is not expected to create a new denomination or political coalition. However, planners hope it will inspire co