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An ayatollah or ayatullah is a high-ranking Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah cleric. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, Quran reading, philosophy and teach in Islamic seminaries; the next lower clerical rank is Hujjat al-Islam. The name "ayatullah" originates from a passage in the Quran which the Shi'a, unlike the Sunni, interpret to mean human beings can be regarded as'signs' or'evidence' of God. Passage 51:20–21 of the Quran states: On the earth are signs for those of assured Faith, As in your own selves: Will ye not see? The term was not used as a title until the early twentieth century; the title of Ayatollah became popularized with the creation of Qom Seminary in 1922. The title is granted to top Shia mujtahid, after completing sat'h and kharij studies in the hawza. By the mujtahid would be able to issue his own edicts from the sources of Islamic religious laws: the Qur'an, the Sunnah, ijmāʻ, and'aql. Most of the time this is attested by an issued certificate from his teachers.

The ayatollah can teach in hawzas according to his speciality, can act as a reference for their religious questions, act as a judge. There are a few women who are equal in ranking to the ayatollahs but are not ayatollahs, are known as Lady Mujtahideh. A Mujtahid cannot have a congregation; the most outstanding in recent history was Nosrat Amin known as Banu Isfahani. Current examples of the Lady Mujtahidehs are Zohreh Sefati and Lady Ayatollah Aatieh Hassani known as Imam'ah Al-Hassani, daughter of Grand Ayatollah Gholamreza Hassani. There have been several Mujtahidehs in Shi'ism, most famously the women in the family of Allama Hilli, as well as the Baraghani family of 19th-century Qazvin. Only a few of the most important ayatollahs are accorded the rank of Grand Ayatollah; when an ayatollah gains a significant following and they are recognized for religiously correct views, they are considered a Marja'-e-Taqlid, which in common parlance is "grand ayatollah". As a prelude to such status, a mujtahid is asked to publish a juristic treatise in which he answers questions about the application of Islam to present-time daily affairs.

Risalah is the word for treatise, such a juritic work is called a risalah-yi'amaliyyah or "practical law treatise", it is a reinvention of the book Al-Urwatu l-Wuthqah. There are 86 Maraji living worldwide as of 2017 based in Najaf and Qom; the most prominent of these include Ali al-Sistani, Seyyed Ali Khamenei, Muhammad al-Fayadh, Muhammad Saeed al-Hakim, Bashir al-Najafi in Najaf. List of Ayatollahs List of Grand Ayatollahs Allamah Clericalism in Iran Mullah

Dennis Patrick O'Neil

Dennis Patrick O'Neil was an auxiliary bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of San Bernardino. A native of Fremont, Dennis O'Neil grew up in southern California, he attended St. John's Seminary in Camarillo and was ordained a priest on April 30, 1966, he served in the Archdiocese of Los Angeles from 1966 to 1979. In 1979, he undertook a missionary assignment in the Diocese of Juneau for 5 years. O'Neil became administrator and pastor of St. Thomas the Apostle parish in Los Angeles in 1984, he served on the archdiocesan clergy personnel board from 1990 to 1998, was appointed pastor of St. Emydius parish in 1998. On January 16, 2001, he was appointed by Pope John Paul II as the Auxiliary Bishop of San Bernardino and titular bishop of Mâcon, he was consecrated a bishop on March 27, 2001. Gerald Richard Barnes was his principal consecrator, Gabino Zavala and Stephen Edward Blaire were his principal co-consecrators. O'Neil died of an apparent heart attack on October 17, 2003, at the age of 63

University of the Philippines Visayas

The University of the Philippines Visayas is a public research university in the Philippines. A constituent university of the University of the Philippines system, it teaches management, marketing, chemistry, applied mathematics and physics, marine science education and research and aquaculture, it offers regional studies programs on the preservation and enrichment of the Visayan cultural heritage. UP Visayas has three campuses--Miagao, Iloilo City, Tacloban—with Miagao being the main campus with its central administration offices; the University of the Philippines Cebu College was part of UP Visayas but it separated in September 2010, after being declared an autonomous unit. Most of the students of the university are drawn from the Visayan linguistic groups. Many of the leaders of the Visayas graduated from its predecessor institutions; as of 2007, the Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines awarded four National Centers of Excellence and Development to UPV including Fisheries, Marine Science, Biology.

UPV was created by merging four UP colleges: UP College of Fisheries founded in 1944. When the Miagao campus was established, many of the academic programs offered in the Iloilo City campus were moved there. To this day, the faculty and students travel between the Iloilo City and Miagao campuses. During the term of UP President Onofre D. Corpuz in 1975 an interdisciplinary team within the university conceived of an autonomous unit which would become an institution for fisheries and marine science education and research; the idea was fleshed out in a proposal entitled "Education Development Plan for the University of the Philippines in the Visayas", a six-volume report by the interdisciplinary team. The new university would evolve from the UP College of Iloilo and the College of Fisheries in Diliman, which would transfer to its new site in the Visayas. Funding was to come from a government loan, to be negotiated with the World Bank for the development of fisheries education. On September 21, 1977, President Ferdinand E. Marcos issued Presidential Decree 1200, known as the Philippine Five-Year Development Plan, which provides, among others, that Region VI would be the site of the University of the Philippines in the Visayas with emphasis on fisheries and marine sciences.

A second UPV Project Development Team was organized in December 1977 to review and update the plans. The development plan was approved by the UP Board of Regents on May 28, 1978; the fisheries educational loan was re-negotiated with the World Bank inasmuch as its appraisal team had earlier favorably endorsed the development plan. On May 31, 1979, the Board of Regents approved the establishment of the University of the Philippines in the Visayas as an autonomous unit of the University of the Philippines System with its main campus in Miagao, Iloilo, it would start with two colleges, the UP College Iloilo as its College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Fisheries as its flagship college. Through the Sixth Educational Loan of the Philippine Government approved by the World Bank in January 1980, the development of the UPV flagship college was made possible. On February 29, 1980, the groundbreaking of the UPV site in Miagao was held. On June 26, 1980, Executive Order No. 628 of President Ferdinand E. Marcos operationalized UPV, Dr. Dionisia A. Rola was appointed the first Chancellor, becoming the first woman Chancellor in the history of UP.

The development of the site and construction of facilities began in September 1981 and was made possible through the Sixth Educational Loan. The loan of about $18 million was used for site acquisition, construction of buildings, procurement of equipment, the transfer of the College of Fisheries personnel and other property from Diliman to Miagao. UPV consisted of two colleges - the College of Fisheries and the College of Arts and Sciences UP College Iloilo. Now it has five colleges and a school in four campuses with the establishment of the College of Management in 1981 and the School of Technology in 1984, the integration of UP Cebu College and UP Tacloban College into UPV in 1986. On April 30, 1987, the Board of Regents approved the reorganization of the College of Fisheries and the establishment of four institutes, the Institute of Aquaculture, the Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology, Institute of Fish Processing Technology, the Institute of Fisheries Policy and Development Studies.

The Brackishwater Aquaculture Center facilities in Leganes, Iloilo became the Brackishwater Aquaculture Research Station of IA. In May 1988, the College of Fisheries transferred to the new site in Miagao under the leadership of Chancellor Rogelio O. Juliano and Dean Efren Ed. C. Flores; the Diliman-based programs of the College of Fisheries were relocated to its present site together with most of its faculty and staff. In January 1990, the School of Technology transferred to the Miagao Campus. In June of the same year, Chancellor Francisco Nemenzo effected the transfer of the Division of Humanities and the Division of Social Sciences of the College of Arts and Sciences. In May 1993, the transfer of the Division of Physical Sciences and Mathematics and the Division of Biological Sciences, along with the Office of the Dean, completed the transfer of the CAS. On September 24, 2010, the U. P. Board of Regents elevated the status of UP Cebu as an autonomous unit, in preparation for its constituent university status after five to seven years.

Two degree-granting units remain on the Iloilo City Campus. They are the College of Manag

Yan Xishan

Yan Xishan IPA:. He controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War; as the leader of a small, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule, he was born in the late Qing Dynasty in Wutai County, Shanxi, to a family, bankers and merchants for generations. As a young man he worked for several years at his father's bank while pursuing a traditional Confucian education at a local village school.

After his father was ruined by a late 19th-century depression that ravaged the Chinese economy, Yan enrolled in a free military school, run and financed by the Manchu government in Taiyuan. While studying at this school he was first introduced to mathematics and various other subjects imported directly from the West. In 1904 he was sent to Japan to study at the Tokyo Shimbu Gakko, a military preparatory academy, after which he entered the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, from which he graduated in 1909. Over the five years that Yan studied in Japan, he became impressed by the country's efforts to modernize, he observed the progress made by the Japanese and began to worry about the consequences if China were to fall behind the rest of the world. This formative experience was cited as a period of great inspiration for his efforts to modernize Shanxi. Yan concluded that the Japanese had modernized due to the government's abilities to mobilize its populace in support of its policies and to the close, respectful relationship that existed between the military and civilian populations.

He attributed the surprising Japanese victory in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War to the enthusiastic mobilization of the Japanese public in support of the military. After returning to China in 1910 he wrote a pamphlet warning China that it was in danger of being overtaken by Japan unless it developed a local form of bushido. Before studying in Japan, Yan had become disgusted with the open and widespread corruption of Qing officials in Shanxi, had become convinced that China's relative helplessness in the 19th century was the result of the dynasty's hostile attitude towards modernization and industrial development, a grossly inept foreign policy. While he was in Japan he met Sun Yat-sen and joined his Tongmenghui, a semi-secret society dedicated to overthrowing the Qing dynasty, he attempted to popularize Sun's ideology by organizing an affiliated "Blood and Iron Society" within the ranks of Chinese students at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. The goal of this student group was to organize a revolution that would lead to the creation of a strong and united China, similar to how Otto von Bismarck had created a strong and united Germany.

Yan joined an more militant organization of Chinese revolutionaries, the "Dare-to-Die Corps". When he returned to China in 1909 he was assigned as a division commander of the New Army in Shanxi, but secretly worked to overthrow the Qing. During the 1911 Xinhai Revolution Yan led local revolutionary forces in driving Manchu troops from the province, proclaiming it independent of the Qing government, he justified his actions by attacking the Qing's failure to repel foreign aggression, promised a wide range of social and political reforms. In 1911 Yan hoped to join forces with another prominent Shanxi revolutionary, Wu Luzhen, in order to undermine Yuan Shikai's control of north China, but these plans were aborted after Wu was assassinated. Yan was elected military governor by his comrades but was unable to prevent a subsequent invasion by the troops of Yuan Shikai, who occupied most parts of Shanxi in 1913. During the period of Yuan's invasion, Yan was only able to survive by withdrawing northward and aligning himself with a friendly insurgent group in neighboring Shaanxi province.

By avoiding a decisive military confrontation with Yuan, Yan was able to preserve his own base of power. Though he was friends with Sun Yat-sen, Yan withheld support for him in the 1913 "Second Revolution", instead ingratiated himself with Yuan, who allowed him to return as military governor of Shanxi, commanding a military, staffed by Yuan's own henchmen. In 1917, shortly after Yuan Shikai's death, Yan solidified his control over Shanxi, ruling there uncontested. After Yuan's death in 1916, China descended into a period of warlordism; the determination of Shanxi to resist Manchu rule was a factor leading Yuan to believe that only the abolition of the Qing dynasty could bring peace to China and end the civil war. Yan's inability to resist Yuan's military domination of northern China was a factor contributing to Sun Yat-sen's decision not to pursue the presidency of the Republic of China, established after the end of the Qing dynasty; the demonstrated futility of opposing Yuan's military domination can only have made it seem more important to Sun to br

List of Watford F.C. players (1–49 appearances)

Watford Football Club is an English association football club, based in Watford, Hertfordshire. The club's history can be traced back to 1881. Since moving from a ground in Cassio Road in 1922, they have played their home matches at Vicarage Road stadium. Many players have contributed to the history of the club, despite playing a small number of games. Paul Atkinson, Mo Johnston and Neil Price all featured for Watford in the 1984 FA Cup Final. Nick Wright scored the opening goal in Watford's 2–0 win over Bolton in the 1999 Football League First Division play-off Final, a game that Israel international Alon Hazan participated in. Several players have gone on to become Premier League footballers following successful loan spells at Watford, including Chris Eagles and England international Adam Johnson. In the 2009–10 season, on-loan Tom Cleverley became the first person to win the club's Player of the Season award having made fewer than 50 Watford appearances. Others made significant contributions to the club.

Examples include Ron Gray, who managed the club after he retired as a player, Price, who at various points commentated on the club's matches for the BBC, worked for the club, formed the Watford Former Players' Association. This list contains players, it includes appearances and goals in the Premier League, Football League, Southern Football League, FA Cup, Football League Cup, Football League Trophy, Full Members Cup, UEFA Cup and the Anglo-Italian Cup. Appearances and goals in other competitions or non-competitive matches are not included; the table does not include appearances and goals from 1939–1940, when the season was abandoned after three matches due to the Second World War. Two players—William McKenzie Law and Thomas Postlethwaite—made their only competitive appearances for the club in this season, are therefore not listed. International appearances and goals given are for the senior national team only. Where a player represented his country, but not at full international level, details are given in the notes column.

Current players' statistics correct as of 5 September 2014. GeneralJones, Trefor; the Watford Football Club Illustrated Who's Who. ISBN 0-9527458-0-1. " Archive". The Football Association. Retrieved 24 August 2010. "Watford player appearances". Soccerbase. Centurycomm. Retrieved 23 April 2016. Specific

Joseph F. Rychlak

Joseph Frank Rychlak was a psychologist well known for his work with theoretical and philosophical psychology. He developed a theoretical stance known as "Rigorous Humanism." This term refers to Rychlak's argument that psychology with ecological validity should be directed toward issues that are relevant to our lives. Rychlak enlisted in the Army-Air Force after graduating from high school and served his enlistment at Barksdale Field in Shreveport, Louisiana. During his time in the military, Rychlak realized that the best way to get ahead in life was to obtain an education, he became inspired to go to college and spent the remainder of his enlistment reading books off of the Harvard List of Great Books, preparing himself for college. He received his B. S. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa, his M. A. and Ph. D. in Clinical Psychology from Ohio State University under George A. Kelly. Rychlak worked at Florida State University, Washington State University, Saint Louis University and Purdue University before retiring with emeritus status as the Maude C. Clark Professor in Humanistic Psychology at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois.

After his graduate degree, Rychlak joined Douglas W. Bray's 25-year Management Progress Study as a personal interviewer; this longitudinal study helped him design a "life themes" scoring system that enabled them to numerically analyze the information he received from his interviews. The scoring system and subsequent data are detailed in his book and Lifestyle of Young Male Managers: A Logical Learning Theory Analysis. Rychlak's work can be divided into two main areas: theoretical and empirical; the theoretical area of his work is centered on exploring and understanding the theoretical and philosophical foundations of psychology. The empirical area of his work focuses on scientific experiments designed to empirically test his logical learning theory. Rychlak authored 17 books and over 200 papers and served as a Fellow in the American Psychological Association, a Fellow in the American Psychological Society, was twice a president of the APA's division of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology.

Joseph Rychlak was married to Lenora Rychlak from June 16, 1956 until his death in April, 2013. They have two children, Ronald Rychlak, Stephanie Stilson, eight grandchildren. Lenora a graduate from Ohio State, assisted Rychlak by being his chief editor of his work and became his executive assistant at Loyola University, it was when Rychlak was in and a student of George Kelly, that he felt drawn to the views of Immanuel Kant. Rychlak found that he preferred both the Kantian model of the person and Kelly’s view of person and declared himself a Kantian and teleologist. Teleology, in which events take place for the sake of an end goal, is what led Rychlak to his logical learning theory. LLT first came to light, it was that he began to delve into human learning, focusing on cognition and memory, his goal to examine the influence of theories on our concept of human nature. Rychlak wanted to broaden traditional psychology's view of the model of causality, he believed that too much emphasis is on material and sufficient cause, but not on formal and final cause.

Rychlak’s LLT examined learning as a teleological practice rather than nontelic aspects of learning. This meant that he thought that all human actions were self-directed through the four causes - material, formal and final causes - and not through mechanistic or deterministic causes. Rychlak explains that "the responsibility of LLT is to explain the process that moves sound or unsound thought along." Rychlak's view on artificial intelligence was that it lacked in comparison to human beings the aspects of human reason. Human activity and thought processes are purposeful, such as participating in the examination of thought and ideas. Rychlak stated that artificial intelligence cannot exhibit such cognitive processes, nor can they predicate meanings like a person can or apply reasoning to rules. Rychlak explains that only humans can have an introspective point of view for reasoning and that this view can be meaningful and purposeful. On the other hand, artificial intelligence exhibits an extraspective point of view.

Rychlak explained extraspective as a third-person point of view, the introspective as first-person. These views demonstrate that the human being is what develops/reasons the process, artificial intelligence is able to follow the rules and carry the process out. Free will is something. According to Rychlak, the modern psychologist dismisses the idea of free will, claiming it as being something disproven by science. Rychlak points out that when dealing with legal matters, free will is abundant and in fact, the Supreme Court maintained their belief on the matter - "men intend to do what they do". Rychlak claimed that the determinism that psychology holds on to may have had a negative impact on the law. In a courtroom, a lawyer could look at an expert witness for their opinion on whether a person behaved on their own free will or if there were outside influences; this opinion is tainted by the expert witness’ denial of the existence of free will. In terms of human behavior, Rychlak believed that the courts couldn't vary from individual to individual in the way the mental health profession could.

Where a psychologist can modify their view and treatment of an individual, Rychlak insists that the judicial system looks at full picture of human behavior, employing Aristotle's four causes. Logical Learning Theory: A Human Teleology and its Empirical Support. Rychlak p