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Aydın, ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region. The city is located at the heart of the lower valley of Büyük Menderes River at a commanding position for the region extending from the uplands of the valley down to the seacoast, its population was 207,554 in 2014. Aydın city is located along a region, famous for its fertility and productivity since ancient times. Figs remain the province's best-known crop, although other agricultural products are grown intensively and the city has some light industry. At the crossroads of a busy transport network of several types, a six-lane motorway connects Aydın to İzmir, Turkey's second port, in less than an hour, in still less time to the international Adnan Menderes Airport, located along the road between the two cities. A smaller airport, namely Aydın Airport, is located a few kilometers in the South-East of Aydın; the region of Aydın pioneered the introduction of railways into Turkey in the 19th century and still has the densest railroad network.

The province of Aydın is where a number of internationally known historic sites and centers of tourism are concentrated. The weather is hot in summer, warm all year round. After the first capture of the city by the Turks under the emirate of Menteşe, whose lands extended towards the south, who named it for a first period as Güzelhisar "the beautiful castle"; the city was taken over by Turks of the Aydinids, whose lands extended towards the north, who named it after Aydinid dynasty. "Aydın" meant "lucid, enlightened" in Turkish and in a distinct evolution of the term, came to mean "lettered, intellectual" in modern Turkish. It is still a popular male name. In ancient Greek sources, the name of the city is given as Anthea and Euanthia. During the Seleucid period, it received the name Antiochia. At other times it was called Seleucia ad Maeandrum and Erynina. In Roman and Byzantine times, it was known as Tralles or Tralleis, was one of the largest Aegean cities in antiquity. There is some indication that it once bore the name Charax, but that name may have belonged to Acharaca.

The name Güzelhisar was used throughout the early centuries of the Ottoman administration as well recorded in adjectival form, as "Güzelhisar of Aydın", but the name Aydın was preferred. This previous Turkish name found its way into the international trade vocabulary until at least the end of the 18th century and its modified forms Joselassar and Joseph Lasat were used to describe a fine type of cotton produced in this same region and much sought after. According to Strabo Tralles was founded by the Argives and Trallians. Along with the rest of Lydia, the city fell to the Persian Empire. After its success against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, Sparta unsuccessfully sought to take the city from the Persians, but in 334 BC, Tralles surrendered to Alexander the Great without resistance and therefore was not sacked. Alexander's general Antigonus held the city from 313 to 301 BC and the Seleucids held the city until 190 BC when it fell to Pergamon. From 133 to 129 BC, the city supported Aristonicus of Pergamon, a pretender to the Pergamene throne, against the Romans.

After the Romans defeated him, they revoked the city's right to mint coins. Tralles was a conventus for a time under the Roman Republic, but Ephesus took over that position; the city was taken by rebels during the Mithridatic War during which many Roman inhabitants were killed. Tralles suffered from an earthquake in 26 BC. Augustus provided funds for its reconstruction after which the city thanked him by renaming itself Caesarea. Strabo describes the city as a prosperous trading center, listing famous residents of the city, including Pythodoros, orators Damasus Scombrus and Dionysocles. Several centuries Anthemius of Tralles, architect of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, was born in Tralles. An early bishop Polybius is attested by a letter from Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the church at Tralles; the city was Christianized, along with the rest of Caria, early after the conversion of Constantine, at which time the see was confirmed. Among the recorded bishops are: Heracleon, Uranius, Theophylactus and Theopistus both ninth century, John.

The Catholic Church includes this bishopric in its list of titular sees as Tralles in Asia, distinguishing it from the see of Tralles in Lydia. It has appointed no new titular bishop to these Eastern sees since the Second Vatican Council. After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, with the Byzantine Empire was in civil chaos, the Seljuks took Tralles for the first time but Alexios I Komnenos re-captured the city for Byzantium in the half of the eleventh century. By the 13th century, the city lay in ruins. In 1278, Andronikos II Palaiologos decided to rebuild and repopulate it, now to be renamed Andronikopolis or Palaiologopolis, with the aim of forming a bulwark against Turkish encroachment in the area; the megas domestikos Michael Tarchaneiotes was given the task: he rebuilt the walls and settled 36,000 people from the surrounding regions. 13th century Byzantine settlement policy along the Meander Valley notably involved the Turkic Cumans. Turkish attacks resumed soon after; the city was besieged and, lacking sufficient supplies and access to water, captured by the beylik of Menteshe in 1284.

The city suffered extensive destruction and part of its inhabitants were ma

Woodlawn Cemetery (Carbondale, Illinois)

Woodlawn Cemetery is a cemetery located at 405 E. Main Street in Carbondale, known for hosting one of the first Memorial Day celebrations in the United States; the cemetery was established in two years before the incorporation of Carbondale. Over twenty Civil War soldiers, most of them Carbondale natives, were buried in the cemetery during the war. In April 1866, three Civil War veterans from Carbondale organized an event to honor the dead soldiers and decorate their gravesites; the event included a speech by General John A. Logan, who in 1868 called for the national observance of Memorial Day as commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic; the cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 19, 1985


In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing. One definition of material toughness is the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb before rupturing, it is defined as a material's resistance to fracture when stressed. Toughness requires a balance of ductility. Toughness is related to the area under the stress–strain curve. In order to be tough, a material must be both ductile. For example, brittle materials that are strong but with limited ductility are not tough. To be tough, a material should withstand high strains. Speaking, strength indicates how much force the material can support, while toughness indicates how much energy a material can absorb before rupturing. Toughness can be determined by integrating the stress-strain curve, it is the energy of mechanical deformation per unit volume prior to fracture. The explicit mathematical description is: energy volume = ∫ 0 ϵ f σ d ϵ where ϵ is strain ϵ f is the strain upon failure σ is stressAnother definition is the ability to absorb mechanical energy up to the point of failure.

The area under the stress-strain curve is called toughness. If the upper limit of integration up to the yield point is restricted, the energy absorbed per unit volume is known as the modulus of resilience. Mathematically, the modulus of resilience can be expressed by the product of the square of the yield stress divided by two times the Young's modulus of elasticity; that is, Modulus of resilience = Yield stress2/2 The toughness of a material can be measured using a small specimen of that material. A typical testing machine uses a pendulum to strike a notched specimen of defined cross-section and deform it; the height from which the pendulum fell, minus the height to which it rose after deforming the specimen, multiplied by the weight of the pendulum is a measure of the energy absorbed by the specimen as it was deformed during the impact with the pendulum. The Charpy and Izod notched impact strength tests are typical ASTM tests used to determine toughness. Tensile toughness is measured in units of joule per cubic metre in the SI system and inch-pound-force per cubic inch in US customary units.

1.00 N·m.m−3 ≃ 0.000145 in·lbf·in−3 and 1.00 in·lbf·in−3 ≃ 6.89 kN·m.m−3. In the SI system, the unit of tensile toughness can be calculated by using area underneath the stress–strain curve, which gives tensile toughness value, as given below: UT = Area underneath the stress–strain curve = σ × ε UT Pa × ΔL/L = · UT N·m·m−3 UT J·m−3 Fracture toughness Graph toughness Hardness Impact Resilience Rubber toughening Shock Tablet hardness testing

Sexy Song

"Sexy Song" is a song recorded by the American R&B singer Keke Wyatt for her fourth studio album, Rated Love. The song was released as the lead single on November 20, 2015, by her own label, Aratek Entertainment; the song was produced by Dominic Gordon. In May 2014, Wyatt released two singles from her first extended play, Ke'Ke'. Promotion for Ke'Ke' from Aratek Entertainment ended in late 2015. However, Wyatt continued to do spot-date performances in the US throughout 2014 and 2015, she continued starring in TV One's R&B Divas: Atlanta for three seasons. "Sexy Song" was written by Brandon Hesson and Peter Penn.. It was produced by Dominic Gordon. Speaking about the song Wyatt said, "All women should feel sexy in their own skin. I’m a wife, mother of eight, business woman and so many other things, yes, I can still be sexy while juggling my everyday life. I want to reach the lovers in the world with this track those women who need to be reminded that they are sexy too."On November 7, 2015, Wyatt released a short video on her YouTube account previewing "Sexy Song" and asking fans to request the song on the radio.

The song was released on November 2015, via Apple Music/iTunes and other streaming websites. YouKnowIGotSoul stated in a review, "Just days after teasing r&b fans with a snippet of her new single “Sexy Song”, Keke Wyatt releases the song in full for all to hear; the song is the lead single from her upcoming album, set to release in early 2016. With “Sexy Song”, Keke shows us her soft and sexy side while remaining true to the genre of r&b." The lyric video for the song was released onto Wyatt's YouTube channel on November 20, 2015. The music video for "Sexy Song" was released on Wyatt's YouTube channel on February 18, 2016 directed by Steven C. Pitts and filmed by Rite Media Group. Digital download"Sexy Song" – 3:54 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

The Act of Killing

The Act of Killing is a 2012 documentary film about individuals who participated in the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66. The film is directed by Joshua Oppenheimer and co-directed by Christine Cynn and an anonymous Indonesian, it is a Danish-British-Norwegian co-production, presented by Final Cut for Real in Denmark and produced by Signe Byrge Sørensen. The executive producers were Werner Herzog, Errol Morris, Joram ten Brink, Andre Singer, it is a Centre for Research and Education in Arts and Media project of the University of Westminster. The Act of Killing won the 2013 European Film Award for Best Documentary, the Asia Pacific Screen Award, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 86th Academy Awards, it won best documentary at the 67th BAFTA awards. In accepting the award, Oppenheimer asserted that the United States and the United Kingdom have "collective responsibility" for "participating in and ignoring" the crimes, omitted from the video BAFTA posted online.

After a screening for US Congress members, Oppenheimer demanded that the US acknowledge its role in the killings. The Indonesian government had responded negatively to the film, its presidential spokesman on foreign affairs, Teuku Faizasyah, claimed that the film is misleading with respect to its portrayal of Indonesia. A companion piece to the film, The Look of Silence, was released in 2014; the film was ranked 19th on a list of the best documentaries made in a 2015 poll by the British Film Institute. In 2016, it was named the 14th greatest film released since 2000 by a poll of critics published by the BBC; the film focuses on the perpetrators of the Indonesian killings of 1965–66 in the present day. The genocide led to the killing of a million people, ostensibly for belonging to the local communist community; when Suharto overthrew Sukarno, the President of Indonesia, following the failed coup of the 30 September Movement in 1965, the gangsters Anwar Congo and Adi Zulkadry in Medan were promoted from selling black market movie theatre tickets to leading the most powerful death squad in North Sumatra.

They extorted money from the ethnic Chinese as the price for keeping their lives. Anwar is said to have killed 1,000 people. Today, Anwar is revered by the right wing of a paramilitary organization, Pemuda Pancasila, that grew out of the death squads; the organization is so powerful that its leaders include government ministers who are involved in corruption, election rigging and clearing people from their land for developers. Invited by Oppenheimer, Anwar recounts his experiences killing for the cameras, makes scenes depicting their memories and feelings about the killings; the scenes are produced in the style of their favorite films: gangster and musical. Various aspects of Anwar and his friends' filmmaking process are shown, but as they dig into Anwar's personal experiences, the reenacted scenes begin to take over the narrative. Oppenheimer has called the result "a documentary of the imagination"; some of Anwar's friends state that the killings were wrong, while others worry about the consequences of the story on their public image.

After Anwar plays a victim, he cannot continue. Oppenheimer, from behind the camera, states that it was worse for the victims because they knew they were going to be killed, whereas Anwar was only acting. Anwar expresses doubts over whether or not he has sinned, tearfully saying he does not want to think about it, he revisits the rooftop where he claims many of his killings took place, retches while describing how he had killed people during the genocide. The dancers from the film's theatrical poster are seen. In 2001, while conducting interviews for their 2003 film The Globalisation Tapes and Cynn began delving into the Indonesian killings of 1965–66. After moving up the ranks of those involved with the killings, Oppenheimer's interviews led him to meet Anwar Congo in 2005; the film was shot in Medan, North Sumatra, between 2005 and 2011. After seeing an early preview of The Act of Killing, filmmakers Werner Herzog and Errol Morris signed on as executive producers. Many of the people who worked on the film are not credited by name, instead appearing as "Anonymous," for fear of both legal and extrajudicial retribution for their participation.

Coinciding with the release of the film's director's cut in 2013, a free BitTorrent Bundle of behind the scenes content was uploaded to the internet by the distributor. The Act of Killing received widespread acclaim from critics; the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported a 95% approval rating with an average rating of 8.76/10 based on 149 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Raw and painfully difficult to watch, The Act of Killing offers a haunting testament to the edifying, confrontational power of documentary cinema." On Metacritic, the film holds an average score of 90 out of 100, based on 33 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim."Nick Schager of The Village Voice called it a "masterpiece." Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Chris Hedges called the film "an important exploration of the complex psychology of mass murderers" and wrote that "it is not the demonized digestible caricature of a mass murderer that most disturbs us. It is the human being." Award-winning filmmaker Ruhi Hamid said: "It is the most extraordinary film I have seen.

It turns around what we think of as extraordinary record of a horrendous part of Indonesian history."In some quarters Oppenheimer has been accused of treating his subjects in bad faith. As far as their goal at the beginning was to glorify mass murder, Oppenheimer responds that could never have been his goal

Steven T. Miller

Steven T. Miller was the acting Commissioner of Internal Revenue from 2012 to 2013, he has Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Maryland, a Juris Doctor degree from George Washington University, a Master of Laws degree in taxation from Georgetown University Law School. During his career at the IRS he was acting Assistant Commissioner and Special Assistant to the Assistant Commissioner, Employee Plans/Exempt Organizations. Miller became acting IRS commissioner on November 9, 2012, the day after Barack Obama was elected to a second term when Doug Shulman stepped down saying he did not want a second five-year term. Miller submitted his resignation on May 15, 2013, in the wake of the 2013 IRS scandal in which the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration released an audit report confirming that the IRS used inappropriate criteria to identify potential political cases, including organizations with Tea Party in their names for closer scrutiny on 501 applications, he joined the tax advisory firm alliantgroup as national director of tax.

Appearances on C-SPAN