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Aylesbury

Aylesbury is the county town of Buckinghamshire, England. It is a large ancient market town with several historic pubs, is home to the Roald Dahl Children's Gallery and, since 2010, the 1,200 seat Waterside Theatre; the town is recognized as the spiritual cradle of the Paralympic Games. The town name is of Old English origin, its first recorded name Æglesburgh is thought to mean "Fort of Ægel", though who Ægel was is not recorded. It is possible that Ægeles-burh, the settlement's Saxon name, means "church-burgh", from the Welsh word eglwys meaning "a church". Excavations in the town centre in 1985 found an Iron Age hill fort dating from the early 4th century BC. Aylesbury was one of the strongholds of the ancient Britons, from whom it was taken in the year 571 by Cutwulph, brother of Ceawlin, King of the West Saxons. Aylesbury was a major market town in Anglo-Saxon times, the burial place of Saint Osgyth, whose shrine attracted pilgrims; the Early English parish church of St. Mary has a crypt beneath.

Once thought to be Anglo-Saxon, it is now recognised as being of the same period as the medieval chapel above. At the Norman conquest, the king took the manor of Aylesbury for himself, it is listed as a royal manor in the Domesday Book, 1086; some lands here were granted by William the Conqueror to citizens upon the tenure that the owners should provide straw for the monarch's bed, sweet herbs for his chamber and two green geese and three eels for his table, whenever he should visit Aylesbury. In 1450, a religious institution called the Guild of St Mary was founded in Aylesbury by John Kemp, Archbishop of York. Known popularly as the Guild of Our Lady it became a meeting place for local dignitaries and a hotbed of political intrigue; the guild was influential in the final outcome of the Wars of the Roses. Its premises at the Chantry in Church Street, are still there, though today the site is used for retail. Aylesbury was declared the new county town of Buckinghamshire in 1529 by King Henry VIII: Aylesbury Manor was among the many properties belonging to Thomas Boleyn, the father of Anne Boleyn, it is rumoured that the change was made by the King to curry favour with the family..

The plague decimated the population in 1603/4. The town played a large part in the English Civil War when it became a stronghold for the Parliamentarian forces, like many market towns a nursing-ground of Puritan sentiment and in 1642 the Battle of Aylesbury was fought and won by the Parliamentarians, its proximity to Great Hampden, home of John Hampden has made of Hampden a local hero: his silhouette is on the emblem used by Aylesbury Vale District Council and his statue stands prominently in the town centre. Aylesbury-born composer, Rutland Boughton inspired by the statue of John Hampden, created a symphony based on Oliver Cromwell. On 18 March 1664, Robert Bruce, 2nd Earl of Elgin in the Peerage of Scotland was created 1st Earl of AilesburyThe grade II* listed Jacobean mansion of Hartwell adjoining the southwest of the town was the residence of Louis XVIII during his exile. Bourbon Street in Aylesbury is named after the king. Louis's wife, Marie Josephine of Savoy died at Hartwell in 1810 and is the only French queen to have died on English soil.

After her death, her body was carried first to Westminster Abbey, one year to Sardinia, where the Savoy King of Sardinia had withdrawn during Napoleonic occupation of Turin and Piedmont. Aylebury's heraldic crest displays the Aylesbury duck, bred here since the birth of the Industrial Revolution, although only one breeder, Richard Waller, of true Aylesbury ducks remains today; the town received international publicity in the 1963 when the culprits responsible for the Great Train Robbery were tried at Aylesbury Rural District Council Offices in Walton Street and sentenced at Aylesbury Crown Court. The robbery took place at Bridego Bridge, a railway bridge at Ledburn, about six miles from the town. A notable institution is Aylesbury Grammar School, founded in 1598; the original building is now part of the County Museum buildings in Church Street and has grade II* architecture. Other notable buildings are the King's Head Inn, the Queens Park Centre. James Henry Govier the British painter and etcher lived at Aylesbury and produced a number of works relating to the town including the church, Walton, Aylesbury Gaol, the King's Head Inn and views of the town during the 1940s and 1950s, examples of which can be seen in the Buckinghamshire County Museum in Aylesbury.

The town's population has grown from 28,000 in the 1960s to 72,000 in 2011 due in the main to new housing developments, including many London overspill housing estates, built to ease pressure on the capital, to move people from crowded inner city slums to more favourable locations. Indeed, Aylesbury, to a greater extent than many English market towns, saw substantial areas of its own heart demolished in the 1950s/1960s as 16th–18th century houses were demolished to make way for new retail, development. Aylesbury's population in the ten-year period since 2001 has grown by two thousand related to the development of new housing estates which will cater for eight thousand people on the north side, between the A41 and the A413 and the expansion o

Emin County

Emin County, the official romanized name transliterated from Mongolian as Dörbiljin County, is a county situated in the north of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administration of the Tacheng Prefecture, bordering Kazakhstan's districts of Tarbagatay and Zaysan. It has an area of 9,092 km2 with a population of 200,000; the Postcode is 834600. Geographically, the county is located on the southern slopes of the Tarbagatai Mountains and in the Emin Valley; the main watercourse is the Emin River. The place was named Dörbiljin. In 1918, Yang Zengxin, the governor of Xinjiang, petitioned to have a county set up in the Emin Valley; the new county was named after the Emin River. The Karamay–Tacheng Railway will serve Emin County

François de Bonne, Duke of Lesdiguières

François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières was a French soldier of the French Wars of Religion and Constable of France. He was born to a family of notaries with pretensions to nobility, he was educated at Avignon under a Protestant tutor, had begun the study of law in Paris when he enlisted in the French army as an archer. He served under the lieutenant-general of his native province of Dauphiné, Bertrand de Simiane, baron de Gordes, but when the Huguenots raised troops in Dauphiné Lesdiguières threw in his lot with them, under his kinsman Antoine Rambaud de Furmeyer, whom he succeeded in 1570, distinguished himself in the mountain warfare that followed by his bold yet prudent handling of troops, he fought at the Battle of Jarnac and the Battle of Moncontour, was a guest at the wedding of Henry III of Navarre. Warned of the impending St. Bartholomew's Day massacre he retired hastily to Dauphiné, where he secretly equipped and drilled a determined body of Huguenots, in 1575, after the execution of Charles du Puy de Montbrun in Grenoble, became the acknowledged leader of the Huguenot resistance in the district with the title of commandant general, confirmed in 1577 by Marshal Doraville, by Henry II, Prince of Condé in 1580, by Henry of Navarre in 1582.

He seized Gap by a lucky night attack on 3 January 1577, re-established the reformed religion there, fortified the town. He refused to acquiesce in the treaty of Poitiers which involved the surrender of Gap, after two years of fighting secured better terms for the province. In 1580 he was compelled to hand the place over to Mayenne and to see the fortifications dismantled, he took up arms for Henry IV in 1585, capturing Chorges, Embrun, Châteauroux and other places, after the truce of 1588–1589 secured the complete submission of Dauphiné. In 1590 he beat down the resistance of Grenoble, was now able to threaten the leaguers and to support the governor of Provence against the raids of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, he defeated the Savoyards at Esparron in April 1591, began in 1592 the reconquest of the marquessate of Saluzzo, seized by Charles Emmanuel. After the seizing of Grenoble in December 1590, he built new walls for the city in 1606 and fortified the hill of the Bastille between 1611 and 1619.

After his defeat of the Spanish allies of Savoy at Salbertrand in June 1593 there was a truce, during which Lesdiguières was occupied in maintaining the royal authority against Épernon in Provence. The war with Savoy proceeded intermittently until 1605, when Henry IV concluded peace, much to the dissatisfaction of Lesdiguières; the king regarded his lieutenant's domination in Dauphiné with some distrust, although he was counted among the best of his captains. He made him a marshal of France in 1609, ensured the succession to the lieutenant-generalship of Dauphiné, vested in Lesdiguières since 1597, to his son-in-law Charles de Crequy. Sincerely devoted to the throne, Lesdiguières took no part in the intrigues which disturbed the minority of Louis XIII, he moderated the political claims made by his co-religionists under the terms of the Edict of Nantes. After the death of his first wife, Claudine de Berenger, he married the widow of Ennemond Matel, a Grenoble shopkeeper, murdered in 1617. Lesdiguières was 73, this lady, Marie Vignon, had long been his mistress.

He had one of whom, Françoise, married Charles de Crequy. In 1622 he formally abjured the Protestant faith, his conversion being due to the influence of Marie Vignon, he was a duke and peer of France. He had long since lost the confidence of the Huguenots, but he helped the Vaudois against the duke of Savoy, he led the Royal troops against the Huguenots in the Siege of Montpellier in 1622 and was key in finding a negotiated peace. Lesdiguières had the qualities of a great general, but circumstances limited him to the mountain warfare of Dauphiné, Provence and Savoy, he had unvarying success through sixty years of fighting. His last campaign, fought in alliance with Savoy to drive the Spaniards from the Valtellina, was the least successful of his enterprises, he died of fever at Valence on 21 September 1626. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lesdiguières, François de Bonne, Duc de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press.

P. 489. C. Dufuyard, Le Connêtable de Lesdiguières, Paris, 1892. Louis Videl, Histoire de la vie du connestable de Lesdiguières, Paris, 1638. Comte Douglas and J. Roman, Actes et correspondance du connêtable de Lesdiguières, in Documents historiques inédits pour servie a l'histoire de Dauphiné', Grenoble, 1878. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Le Carnaval de Romans, Editions Gallimard, 1979