Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers. Aymara, along with Spanish, is an official language of Bolivia, it is spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in southern Peru and in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language. Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more spoken neighbor, Quechua; that claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage. Aymara is an agglutinating and, to a certain extent, a polysynthetic language, it has a subject–object–verb word order. The ethnonym "Aymara" may be derived from the name of some group occupying the southern part of what is now the Quechua speaking area of Apurímac.
Regardless, the use of the word "Aymara" as a label for this people was standard practice as early as 1567, as evident from Garci Diez de San Miguel's report of his inspection of the province of Chucuito. In this document, he uses; the language was called Colla. It is believed that Colla was the name of an Aymara nation at the time of conquest, was the southernmost region of the Inca empire Collasuyu. However, Cerrón Palomino disputes this claim and asserts that Colla were in fact Puquina speakers who were the rulers of Tiwanaku in the first and third centuries; this hypothesis suggests that the linguistically-diverse area ruled by the Puquina came to adopt Aymara languages in their southern region. In any case, the use of "Aymara" to refer to the language may have first occurred in the works of the lawyer and tax collector in Potosí and Cusco, Juan Polo de Ondegardo; this man, who assisted Viceroy Toledo in creating a system under which the indigenous population would be ruled for the next 200 years, wrote a report in 1559 entitled'On the lineage of the Yncas and how they extended their conquests' in which he discusses land and taxation issues of the Aymara under the Inca empire.
More than a century passed before "Aymara" entered general usage to refer to the language spoken by the Aymara people. In the meantime the Aymara language was referred to as "the language of the Colla"; the best account of the history of Aymara is that of Cerrón-Palomino, who shows that the ethnonym Aymara, which came from the glottonym, is derived from the Quechuaized toponym ayma-ra-y'place of communal property'. The entire history of this term is outlined in his book, Voces del Ande and Lingüística Aimara; the suggestion that "Aymara" comes from the Aymara words "jaya" and "mara" is certainly a mistaken folk etymology. It is assumed that the Aymara language descends from the language spoken in Tiwanaku on the grounds that it is the native language of that area today; that is far from certain and most specialists now incline to the idea that Aymara did not expand into the Tiwanaku area until rather as it spread southwards from an original homeland, more to have been in Central Peru. Aymara placenames are found all the way north into central Peru.
Indeed, Aymara is the one of two extant members of a wider language family, the other surviving representative being Jaqaru. The family was established by the research of Lucy Briggs and Dr. Martha Hardman de Bautista of the Program in Linguistics at the University of Florida. Jaqaru and Kawki communities are in the district of Tupe, Yauyos Valley, in the Dept. of Lima, in central Peru. Terminology for this wider language family is not yet well established. Hardman has proposed the name'Jaqi' while other respected Peruvian linguists have proposed alternative names for the same language family. Alfredo Torero uses the term'Aru'; each of these three proposals has its followers in Andean linguistics. In English usage, some linguists use the term Aymaran languages for the family and reserve'Aymara' for the Altiplano branch. There is some degree of regional variation within Aymara, but all dialects are mutually intelligible. Most studies of the language focused on either the Aymara spoken on the southern Peruvian shore of Lake Titicaca or the Aymara spoken around La Paz.
Lucy Therina Briggs classifies both regions as being part of the Northern Aymara dialect, which encompasses the department of La Paz in Bolivia and the department of Puno in Peru. The Southern Aymara dialect is spoken in the eastern half of the Iquique province in northern Chile and in most of the Bolivian department of Oruro, it is found in northern Potosí and southwest Cochabamba but is being replaced by Quechua in those regions. Intermediate Aymara shares dialectical features with both Northern and Southern Aymara and is found in the eastern half of the Tacna and Moquegua departments in southern Peru and in the northeastern tip of Chile. There are two million Bolivian speakers, half a million Peruvian speakers, a few thousand speakers in Chile. At the time of the Spanish conquest in the sixteenth century, Aymara was the dominant language over a much larger area than today, including most of highland Peru south of Cu
The Broxbourne Council election, 2006 was held to elect council members of the Broxbourne Borough Council, the local government authority of the borough of Broxbourne, England. An election was held in all 13 wards on 4 May 2006; the Conservative Party gained a seat in Bury Green Ward from the independent "Bury Green Residents". Martin Greensmyth who had won the seat for the "Bury Green Residents" in the 2002 Local Government Election stood for the Conservative Party in 2006 and retained his seat as a Conservative; the new political balance of the council following this election was: Conservative 35 seats Labour 2 seats British National Party 1 seatThe next Local Government Election will be held on 1 May 2007 when seats will be contested in all of the 13 wards
Midnight Café is the third studio album by the English rock band Smokie, released in April 1976. "I'll Meet You At Midnight" is the 12th track on the 2007 and 2016 remastered editions, lifting "Train Song" and "The Loser" up to 10-11, bumping the remaining bonus tracks to 13-16. Credits are adapted from the album's 2016 liner notes. SmokieChris Norman – lead vocals, back vocals, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, piano Alan Silson – lead guitar, back vocals, acoustic guitars, lead vocals Terry Uttley – bass guitar, back vocals Pete Spencer – drums, back vocalsTechnical personnelMike Chapman – production Nicky Chinn – production Pete Coleman – engineering Chris Blair – mastering MM Sound Digital Mastering Studios – 2016 remastering Jimmy Haskell – string arrangements Michael Ross – sleeve design Gered Mankowitz – photography Notes^ "What Can I Do" was recorded at Audio International Studios. Citations Discography 1975-1982
Joel Ryan Hanrahan is an American former professional baseball relief pitcher. Hanrahan was a starting pitcher for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball before moving to the closer role for the Nationals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Boston Red Sox. Hanrahan was born in Des Moines, Iowa, USA, he attended Norwalk High School in Iowa. After graduating, he turned down a scholarship to play baseball at the University of Nebraska and entered the 2000 Major League Baseball draft. At that time, he was ranked as the 70th-best prospect in the nation by Baseball America; as profiled in The Des Moines Register, while in second grade in Gainesville, Hanrahan was asked by his teacher what he wanted to be when he grew up. After he responded with "a Major League ballplayer", the teacher suggested. "I think. Nobody believes it, but it's something I said, that's what I tried to work for."He married Kim Donovan in January 2012. In the 2000 Major League Baseball draft, Hanrahan was selected in the second round and signed by the Los Angeles Dodgers.
In 2000, Hanrahan played for the Wilmington Waves. Hanrahan split the 2002 season between the Jacksonville Suns. In 2003, he played for the Dodgers Triple-A affiliate, the Las Vegas 51s. In 2004, his first full season with Las Vegas, Hanrahan went 7–7 with an earned run average of 5.05 in 25 games, ranked second on the club with 22 starts, ranked third with 1191⁄3 innings pitched, batted.281 on the season and hit a home run on May 4 against the Tucson Sidewinders and posted a 4.11 ERA at home and 6.39 mark on the road in the Pacific Coast League. After the 2006 season, Hanrahan became a free agent. On November 6, 2006, the Washington Nationals signed Hanrahan to a one-year contract, he did not make the team out of spring training, so started with the AAA Columbus Clippers, starting 17 games, going 5–4 with a 3.70 ERA. The Nationals, their starting pitching decimated by injuries, purchased Hanrahan's contract in late July, on July 28, 2007, Hanrahan made his Major League debut against the New York Mets.
In that game, he gave up three runs in six innings, striking out seven, hitting a triple in his first at-bat. He did not receive a decision, but the Nationals defeated the Mets 6–5. One week on August 4, 2007, Hanrahan got his first big league victory over the St. Louis Cardinals, allowing one run and six hits in 52⁄3 innings, helping his cause by hitting a two-run double. In late 2008, after the trades of Jon Rauch and Luis Ayala, Hanrahan was named the closer, he finished. He competed on Team USA for the 2009 World Baseball Classic after an injury to BJ Ryan. On June 30, 2009 the Nationals traded Hanrahan and Lastings Milledge to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Nyjer Morgan and Sean Burnett. On July 9, 2009, Hanrahan earned a win for the Nationals while on the Pirates roster when Washington beat the Houston Astros in the bottom of the 11th inning in the completion of a game from May 5 because he was the pitcher of record, recording the final out for the Nats in the top of the 11th. In 2010, Hanrahan struck out 100 batters in 692⁄3 innings and became the Pirates closer at the end of the season.
On February 16, 2011, Pirates manager Clint Hurdle announced Hanrahan as the opening day closer for the Pirates. He was named the DHL Delivery Man Award winner for the month of June 2011. Hanrahan was named to the All-Star game in 2011, garnered a career high 40 saves in one season, finished the year with a 1.83 ERA. On January 16, 2012, Hanrahan agreed to a one-year, $4.1 million deal that included incentives with the Pirates to avoid arbitration. On July 1, Hanrahan and teammate Andrew McCutchen were both named to the All-Star Game's National League roster for a second consecutive year. At the time of his selection, Hanrahan was third in the National League in saves and had converted in 22 save appearances. "It feels good to come back a second time. Sometimes, people can get in on a fluke. To get voted in by my peers, again, is a huge honor." On December 26, 2012, Hanrahan was traded to the Boston Red Sox for Jerry Sands, Stolmy Pimentel, Iván DeJesús, Jr. and Mark Melancon. On May 2, Hanrahan got his 100th career save in a 3–1 victory over the Toronto Blue Jays, his first save since coming off the disabled list.
Hanrahan was placed on the 15-day disabled list with a right forearm strain on May 7. He was moved to the 60-day disabled list on May 9. An MRI revealed. Hanrahan underwent season ending Tommy John surgery on May 16. Hanrahan finished the 2013 season with an 0–1 record, four saves, a 9.82 ERA in nine games. Hanrahan was released on October 31, 2013. On May 2, 2014, Hanrahan signed a one-year, $1 million contract with the Detroit Tigers, he never played a game for the Tigers in 2014 due to his recovery from Tommy John surgery and on October 31, 2014, Hanrahan became a free agent. On November 14, 2014, he signed a minor league contract with the Detroit Tigers. On March 4, 2015, Hanrahan was released by the Tigers after being diagnosed with a tear of the ulnar collateral ligament in his right elbow, requiring him to undergo another Tommy John surgery. Hanrahan announced his retirement from playing baseball on November 15, 2016. On February 22, 2017, it was announced that Hanrahan will be the assistant pitching coach to the Class A West Virginia Black Bears of the New York-Penn League.
The team is the short season Class A team of the Pittsburgh Pirates. On January 17, 2018, the Pirates
Bismarck is the capital of the U. S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second-most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo; the city's population was estimated in 2018 at 73,112, while its metropolitan population was 132,678. In 2017, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States. Bismarck was founded by European Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River, it has been North Dakota's capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union. Bismarck is across the river from Mandan, named after a historic Native American tribe of the area; the two cities make up the core of the Bismarck-Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area. The North Dakota State Capitol, the tallest building in the state, is in central Bismarck; the state government employs more than 4,600 in the city. As a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.
For thousands of years, present-day central North Dakota was inhabited by indigenous peoples, who created successive cultures. The historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area; the Hidatsa name for Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash. In 1872 European Americans founded a settlement at what was called Missouri Crossing, so named because the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed the river there on their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804-1806, it had been an area of Mandan settlement. The new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson, engineer-in-chief for the Northern Pacific Railway, its construction of railroads in the territory attracted settlers. In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city to Bismarck, in honor of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, it is the only US state capital named for a foreign statesman. Railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad; the discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was a greater impetus for growth.
Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory and leading to heightened tensions with the Native Americans. Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the "Custer Route" from the Black Hills. In 1883 Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, in 1889 as the state capital of the new state of North Dakota. Bismarck is located at 46°48′48″N 100°46′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.23 square miles, of which, 30.85 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. The city has developed around the center of historic development, it is distinctive because the city's major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is in the city center rather than in the suburbs. Several other major retail stores are in the vicinity of Kirkwood Mall, developed near the Bismarck Civic Center; the two Bismarck hospitals, St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health are both downtown; the streets are lined with small restaurants.
Much recent commercial and residential growth has taken place in the city's northern section because of expanding retail centers. Among the shopping centers in northern Bismarck are Gateway Fashion Mall, Northbrook Mall, Arrowhead Plaza, the Pinehurst Square "power center" mall; the North Dakota State Capitol complex is just north of downtown Bismarck. The 19-story Art Deco capitol is the tallest building in the state, at a height of 241.75 feet. The capitol building towers over the city's center and is seen from 20 miles away on a clear day. Completed during the Great Depression in 1934, it replaced a capitol building that burned to the ground in 1930; the capitol grounds encompass the North Dakota Heritage Center, the North Dakota State Library, the North Dakota Governor's Residence, the State Office Building, the Liberty Memorial Building. The North Dakota State Penitentiary is in eastern Bismarck; the Cathedral District, named after the Art Deco Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, is an historic neighborhood near downtown Bismarck.
Some homes in this neighborhood date to the 1880s, although many were built in the first decades of the 20th century. At times, the city has proposed widening the streets in the neighborhood to improve traffic flow. Many residents object because such a project would require the removal of many of the towering American elms which line the streets; these have escaped the elm disease. After the completion of Garrison Dam in 1953 by the Army Corps of Engineers, which improved flood control, the floodplain of the Missouri River became a more practical place for development. Significant residential and commercial building has taken place in this area on the south side of the city; the Upper Missouri River is still subject to seasonal flooding. Situated in the middle of the Great Plains, between the geographic centers of the United States and Canada, Bismarck displays a variable four-season humid continental climate. Bismarck's climate is characterized by cold, somewhat snowy and windy winters, hot humid summers.
Thunderstorms occur in spring and summer. The warmest month in Bismarck is July, with a daily mean of 71.1 °F, with wide variations between day and night. The coldest month is January, with a 24-hour average of 12.8 °F. Precipitation peaks from May to September and
Law of the Lash is a 1947 American western film directed by Ray Taylor. The screenplay concerns a U. S. marshal who attempts to clean up a town, taken over by crooks. It was the first lead role of Lash LaRue who had appeared in three of PRC's Eddie Dean Cinecolor Westerns, the first pairing of Lash with sidekick Al "Fuzzy" St. John. Lash LaRue as "Cheyenne" Davis Al St. John as Fuzzy Lee Roberts as Henchman "Lefty" Mary Scott as Jane Hilton Jack O'Shea as Gang Leader Decker, aka Dude Bracken Charles King as Sheriff Rand Carl Mathews as Henchman "Blackie" Matty Roubert as Henchman "Peewee" John Elliott as Dad Hilton Slim Whitaker as Henchman Bart Ted French as Henchman "Smitty" Richard Cramer as Jake, the Bartender Law of the Lash on IMDb Law of the Lash is available for free download at the Internet Archive