The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.
An analog synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog signals to generate sound electronically. The earliest analog synthesizers in the 1920s and 1930s, such as the Trautonium, were built with a variety of vacuum-tube and electro-mechanical technologies. After the 1960s, analog synthesizers were built using operational amplifier integrated circuits, used potentiometers to adjust the sound parameters. Analog synthesizers use low-pass filters and high-pass filters to modify the sound. While 1960s-era analog synthesizers such as the Moog used a number of independent electronic modules connected by patch cables analog synthesizers such as the Minimoog integrated them into single units, eliminating patch cords in favour of integrated signal routing systems; the earliest mention of a "synthetic harmoniser" using electricity appears to be in 1906, created by the Scottish physicist James Robert Milne FRSE. The earliest synthesizers used a variety of electro-mechanical technologies.
While some electric instruments were produced in bulk, such as Georges Jenny's Ondioline, the Hammond organ, the Trautonium, many of these would not be considered synthesizers by the standards of instruments. However, some individual studios and instruments achieved a high level of sophistication, such as the Trautonium of Oskar Sala, the Electronium of Raymond Scott, the ANS synthesizer of Evgeny Murzin. Another notable early instrument is the Hammond Novachord, first produced in 1938, which had many of the same features as analog synthesizers. Early analog synthesizers used technology from electronic analog computers and laboratory test equipment, they were "modular" synthesizers, consisting of a number of independent electronic modules connected by patch cables into a patchbay that resembled the jackfields used by 1940s-era telephone operators. Synthesizer modules in early analog synthesizers included voltage-controlled oscillators, voltage-controlled filters, voltage-controlled amplifiers.
The control voltage varied frequency in VCOs and VCFs, attenuation in VCAs. Additionally, they used envelope generators, low-frequency oscillators, ring modulators; some synthesizers had effects devices, such as reverb units, or tools such as sequencers or sound mixers. Because many of these modules took input sound signals and processed them, an analog synthesizer could be used both as a sound-generating and sound-processing system. Famous modular synthesizer manufacturers included Buchla & Associates, Moog Music, ARP Instruments, Inc. and Electronic Music Studios. Moog established standards recognized worldwide for control interfacing on analog synthesizers, using an exponential 1-volt-per-octave pitch control and a separate pulse triggering signal; these control signals were routed using the same types of connectors and cables that were used for routing the synthesized sound signals. A specialized form of analog synthesizer is the analog vocoder, based on equipment developed for speech synthesis.
Vocoders are used to make a sound that resembles a musical instrument talking or singing. Patch cords were expensive, could be damaged by use, made complex patches difficult and time-consuming to recreate, thus analog synthesizers used the same building blocks, but integrated them into single units, eliminating patch cords in favour of integrated signal routing systems. The most popular of these was the Minimoog. In 1970, Moog designed an innovative synthesizer with a built-in keyboard and without modular design - the analog circuits were retained, but made interconnectable with switches in a simplified arrangement called "normalization". Though less flexible than a modular design, normalization made the instrument more portable and easier to use; this first pre-patched synthesizer, the Minimoog, became popular, with over 12,000 units sold. The Minimoog influenced the design of nearly all subsequent synthesizers, with integrated keyboard, pitch wheel and modulation wheel, a VCO->VCF->VCA signal flow.
In the 1970s, miniaturized solid-state components let manufacturers produce self-contained, portable instruments, which musicians soon began to use in live performances. Electronic synthesizers become a standard part of the popular-music repertoire; the first movie to use music made with a synthesizer was the James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service in 1969. After the release of the film, composers produced a large number of movie soundtracks that featured synthesizers. Notable makers of all-in-one analog synthesizers included Moog, ARP, Roland and Yamaha; because of the complexity of generating a single note using analog synthesis, most synthesizers remained monophonic. Polyphonic analog synthesizers featured limited polyphony supporting four voices. Oberheim was a notable manufacturer of analog polyphonic synthesizers; the Polymoog was an attempt to create a polyphonic analog synthesizer, with sound generation circuitry for every key on the keyboard. However, its architecture resembled an electronic organ more than a traditional analog synthesizer, the Polymoog was not imitated.
In 1978, the first microprocessor-controlled analog synthesizers were created by Sequential Circuits. These used microprocessors for system control and control voltage generation, including envelope trigger generation, but the main sound generating path remained analog; the MIDI interface standard was developed for these systems. This generation of synthesizers featured six or eight voice polyphony. During this period, a number of analog/digital hybrid synthesizers were introduced, w
Stream of Passion
Stream of Passion was a Dutch progressive metal band with symphonic and gothic influences founded by guitarist and composer Arjen Anthony Lucassen and Mexican singer and lyricist Marcela Bovio. They have released four studio albums. In 2007, Lucassen left the band to continue on their own as he had planned, together with his girlfriend guitarist Lori Linstruth, keyboardist Alejandro Millán. After keeping a steady line-up since 2009, the band announced in April 2016 that they would disband, wanting to end on a high note rather than letting the interest and inspiration fade away, after a live album entitled Memento and a final show on December 28, 2016. Lucassen and Bovio had collaborated in Ayreon's album The Human Equation, for which Bovio was selected by Lucassen via an internet female singing contest. Lucassen decided to create a new band with her as lead vocalist, selected other little-known musicians to form the rest of the band: van Stratum, keyboardist Alejandro Millán, guitarist Lori Linstruth, drummer Davy Mickers.
Because the musicians in the band lived thousands of miles apart, Lucassen composed the group's 2005 debut album, Embrace the Storm, over the Internet, with Bovio writing all the lyrics. A live album, Live in the Real World, featuring songs from Lucassen's other projects Ayreon and Star One, was released the following year. In 2007, half of the Stream of Passion's line-up decided to leave: Lucassen left to make them continue their own career as he had planned since the creation, while Linstruth and Millán decided to quit; the three were replaced by Hazebroek and Revet. After the release in 2009 of the band's first album without Lucassen on composition, The Flame Within, Mickers decided to leave the band, with Bovio and van Stratum being the only original members left, he was replaced by Peters who featured on the band's third album in Darker Days. In 2012 Stream of Passion left Napalm Records and decided to become an independent band, launching an Indiegogo campaign to finance their fourth full studio album.
The new album, A War of Our Own, was released on April 18, 2014. In April of 2016 the band announced via Facebook that they would be separating at the end of the year, saying "Over the past eleven years we've had the time of our lives playing in stages all over the world and sharing moments of joy on stage, but all good things come to an end, we feel it's time to move on and search for new musical challenges. We're proud of everything we've achieved, with your help, we want to end the band history on a high note instead of losing focus and drive. Before parting ways as a band we will perform a few goodbye shows. Once again, we'd like to express our eternal gratitude for the support you've given us all these years. All of us will continue to make one way or the other. Thank you for being part of the wonderful adventure, Stream of Passion!"The band released a live album entitled Memento and performed a final show on December 28, 2016. After the split-up, bassist Johan van Stratum and singer Marcela Bovio became part of the line-up for progressive metal band VUUR, but Bovio left the band before its debut release because she and VUUR singer Anneke van Giersbergen realized they wanted to approach the vocals in different ways.
Last LineupMarcela Bovio - lead vocals, violin Johan van Stratum - bass Eric Hazebroek - lead/rhythm guitar Stephan Schultz - lead/rhythm guitar Jeffrey Revet - keyboards, piano Martijn Peters - drums Other membersArjen Anthony Lucassen - lead/rhythm guitar, backing vocals Lori Linstruth - lead/rhythm guitar Alejandro Millán - keyboards, live backing vocals Davy Mickers - drums Session membersDamian Wilson - vocals, acoustic guitar Diana Bovio - backing vocals Joost van den Broek - production, mastering, songwriting André Borgman - drums Studio albumsEmbrace the Storm The Flame Within Darker Days A War of Our Own Live albumsLive in the Real World Memento Singles"Out in the Real World" – No. 49* NL Singles Top 100 "I Have a Right" – from A Tribute to Sonata Arctica Official band website Interview with Arjen on Lebmetal.com October 2009
Star One (band)
Star One is a Dutch progressive metal supergroup/side-project of Arjen Anthony Lucassen of Ayreon fame. The band released two albums in 2002 and in 2010, plus a live album in 2003, features four different singers: Russell Allen, Damian Wilson, Dan Swanö, Floor Jansen. Unlike Ayreon, albums do not follow one storyline; the band takes its name from the second season finale of Blake's 7. The band includes four singers alternating in all the songs, not including Lucassen, who sings plays all guitars and keyboards and is writing and composing all the songs. Star One was born out of the remnants of an abandoned collaboration between Lucassen and Iron Maiden frontman Bruce Dickinson. Dickinson proposed the idea and the two exchanged ideas and put together four songs, Lucassen writing the music and Dickinson writing the lyrics; the project was abandoned however after Lucassen mentioned the project on the internet and Dickinson's manager called off negotiations. Instead of abandoning the material, produced, Lucassen decided to put his own lyrics to the music and created Star One.
When asked on the "Ask Arjen Anything" channel of communication if there would be another Star One album, Lucassen stated "Probably". However, he declared: "Space Metal was magic. I am afraid that I will fail to capture the same atmosphere and ruin it! I am against sequels. In an interview conducted by Ragnarok Radio in October 2009 Arjen stated Star One is "definitely not dead."In October 2009 in another interview, with Lebmetal.com, Arjen said he was working on what might become another Star One album: "In the meantime I will be working on a new, heavier album. Possible a new Star One album, but again things never work out the way I plan them", in a November 2009 interview with Lagrossradio.com, Arjen stated that he was working on a new Star One album and that he had written and recorded a song. In March 2010, a "demo listening party" was held where several members of the arjenlucassen.com messageboard were allowed to listen to the first demos for the new Star One album. In August of the same year, Arjen revealed the title of this second album, Victims of the Modern Age, announced that it was ready.
The album was released in October 2010. In a Q&A in August 2018, Lucassen stated that returning to Star One was "always an option, it's the same as with all my other projects. For Star One, I have to be in a certain mood, because it's based on guitar riffs." He confirmed that his next project would not be a Star One album, as his latest work, the Ayreon album The Source, was heavy-oriented, stated that if a new Star One album came to be, it would be with different singers. The music of Star One is heavier than that of Lucassen's progressive rock/metal opera project Ayreon, drawing influences from 1970s space rock and blending them with modern progressive metal. Lucassen explained that the songwriting was different in that Star One songs are built on guitar riffs whereas Ayreon songs stem off chord arrangements. However, similarities still exist in the song arrangements, the multi-layered vocals, the use of synthesizers and Hammond organs as part of the main instrumentation. Space Metal Victims of the Modern Age Live on Earth Star One official website Interview with Arjen on Lebmetal.com October 2009 Star One discography at MusicBrainz
Live on Earth (Star One album)
Live on Earth is the first live CD and DVD by Arjen Anthony Lucassen progressive metal project/supergroup Star One. It features songs from their debut album Space Metal, but numerous songs from Lucassen's other project Ayreon; the album was recorded live on 5 October 2002 at Lucky & Co in Rijssen, Netherlands by Andreas Grotenhoff and is the first live album Lucassen had recorded. "Intro/Lift Off" - 1:34 "Set Your Controls" - 6:19 "High Moon" - 5:28 "Dreamtime" - 2:55 "Eyes of Time" - 3:50 "Songs of the Ocean" - 5:59 "Dawn of a Million Souls" - 5:17 "The Dream Sequencer" - 6:03 "Into the Black Hole" - 11:28 "Actual Fantasy" - 1:26 "Valley of the Queens" - 3:23 "Isis and Osiris" - 8:48 "Amazing Flight in Space" - 8:00 "Intergalactic Space Crusaders" - 5:15 "Castle Hall" - 4:58 "The Eye of Ra" - 9:16 "Starchild" - 9:22 "The Two Gates" - 14:35 Photo gallery Behind the Scenes "Space Truckin’" "Intergalactic Laxative" "Dreamtime" with Edward Reekers The DVD comes with two extra tracks: a keyboard and a bass solo.
Sir Russell Allen - vocals Damian Wilson - vocals Robert Soeterboek - vocals Floor Jansen - vocals Arjen Anthony Lucassen - guitar Joost van den Broek - keyboards Peter Vink - bass Ed Warby - drums Irene Jansen - backing vocals Edward Reekers - vocals Ewa Albering - flute Star One's official homepage Live on Earth at MusicBrainz
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher