The vuvuzela known as lepatata, is a plastic horn, about 65 centimetres long, which produces a loud monotone note around B♭} 3. Some models are made in two parts to facilitate storage, this design allows pitch variation. Many types of vuvuzela, made by several manufacturers, may produce various intensity and frequency outputs; the intensity of these outputs depends on the blowing pressure exerted. Traditionally made and inspired from a kudu horn, the vuvuzela was used to summon distant villagers to attend community gatherings; the vuvuzela is used at football matches in South Africa, it has become a symbol of South African football as the stadiums are filled with its sound. The intensity of the sound caught the attention of the global football community during the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup in anticipation of South Africa hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup; the vuvuzela has been the subject of controversy. Its high sound pressure levels at close range can lead to permanent hearing loss for unprotected ears after exposure, with a sound level of 120 dB at one metre from the device opening.
Plastic aerophones, like corneta and similar devices, have been used in Brazil and other Latin American countries since the 1960s. These plastic horns have been marketed and available in the United States as "Stadium Horns" since the mid-1960s. Similar horns have been in existence for much longer. An instrument that looks like a vuvuzela appears in Winslow Homer's 1870 woodcut "The Dinner Horn"; the origin of the device is disputed. The term vuvuzela was first used in South Africa from the Zulu language or Nguni dialect meaning to make a vuvu sound. Controversies over the invention arose in early 2010. South African Kaizer Chiefs fan Freddie "Saddam" Maake claimed the invention of the vuvuzela by fabricating an aluminium version in 1965 from a bicycle horn and has photographic evidence of himself holding the aluminium vuvuzela in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, he claimed to have coined vuvuzela from the Zulu language for "welcome", "unite" and "celebration". Plastics factory Masincedane Sport popularised the ubiquitous plastic vuvuzela heard at South African football games in 2002, the Nazareth Baptist Church claimed the vuvuzela belonged to their church.
The world association football governing body, FIFA, proposed banning vuvuzelas from stadiums, as they were seen as potential weapons for hooligans and could be used in ambush marketing. Columnist Jon Qwelane described the device as "an instrument from hell". South African football authorities argued that the vuvuzela was part of the South African football experience; the Spanish midfielder Xabi Alonso said, "Those trumpets? That noise I don't like... FIFA must ban those things... it is not nice to have a noise like that". Dutch coach Bert van Marwijk remarked, "... it was annoying... in the stadiums you get used to it but it is still unpleasant". Commentator Farayi Mungazi said, "Banning the vuvuzela would take away the distinctiveness of a South African World Cup... essential for an authentic South African footballing experience". FIFA President Sepp Blatter responded, "we should not try to Europeanise an African World Cup..., what African and South Africa football is all about – noise, dancing and enjoyment".
Despite the criticisms, FIFA agreed to permit their use in stadiums during the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2010 FIFA World Cup. The South African football authority argued that during FIFA World Cup 2010, vuvuzelas achieved great popularity, though TV spectators suffered a lot due to vuvuzela noise pollution. Hyundai constructed the world's largest working vuvuzela as part of a marketing campaign for the World Cup; the 35-metre blue vuvuzela mounted on the Foreshore Freeway Bridge, Cape Town was intended to be used at the beginning of each match. Its ubiquity led to many suggestions for limiting its use, muffling its sound, an outright ban. Broadcasting organisations experienced difficulties with their presentations. Television and radio audiences heard only the sound of vuvuzelas; the BBC, RTÉ, ESPN and BSkyB have examined the possibility of filtering the ambient noise while maintaining game commentary. The vuvuzelas raised safety concerns. Competitors believed the incessant noise hampered the ability of the players to get their rest, degraded the quality of team performance.
Other critics remarked that vuvuzelas disrupted team communication and players' concentration during matches. Demand for earplugs to protect from hearing loss during the World Cup outstripped supply, with many pharmacies out of stock. One major vuvuzela manufacturer began selling its own earplugs to spectators. Notch filtering, an audio filtration technique, is proposed to reduce the vuvuzela sound in broadcasts and increase clarity of commentary audio; the vuvuzela produces notes at a frequency of 235 Hz and its first partial at 465 Hz. However, this filtration technique affects the clarity of commentary audio. Proposals of adaptive filters by universities and research organisations address this issue by preserving the amplitude and clarity of the commentators' voices and crowd noise; such filtration techniques have been adopted by some cable television providers. The vuvuzelas made a comeback at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, have been used by Iranian supporters. Much like in 2010, there has been a backlash against the use of vuvuzelas.
A study in 2010 by Dr Ruth McNerney of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical
Abdol-Aziz Mirza Farmanfarmaian
Abdol Aziz Farmanfarmaian was an Iranian architect, offspring of Iranian nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and a member of the Qajar dynasty of Iran. In 1976, the company known as AFFA was created for the design of the Aryamehr Stadium. Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian was born is Shiraz in 1920 as the tenth son to Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma, at the time Governor General of the province of Shiraz. In 1928, at the age of 8 he was sent to school in France, where he remained for his primary, secondary school at Lycée Michelet in Paris until 1938. A brief trip to Iran during the short summer of 1935 was his first contact as an adolescent with his family, his Baccalaureate degree was received in 1938. Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian and three other brothers were lucky that their father, Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza, Had organized for them as guardian Mr. Desiré Roustan a leading French philosopher and writer, they in fact owe to him excellent education away from home. Architectural studies were initiated in the École Spéciale d'Architecture, where he started to prepare for the Beaux Arts School.
The onset of World War II broke the continuity of his studies and had to leave for Iran in 1940 where he stayed until 1945. During this period of worldwide uncertainty he worked at different jobs such as: Teheran Municipality and the Ministry of Culture. In 1942 he formed a family having a son. After the end of World War II Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian came back to Paris with his family to continue his studies and was admitted at the Atelier of Mr. Nicot at the world-famous Ecole des Beaux Arts where he received his degree in 1950; the final project presented as his thesis was the design for a modern caravanserai to be situated in southern Iran. This project received the prize for the best thesis of the year. In 1950 Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian moved back to Teheran for good until 1979, where he proceeded to create one of Iran's most important modern-day architectural legacies; the initial years—The Razmara period followed by the Mossadegh years—were marked by an unstable political and economical situation.
Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian started to work as a civil servant at the university of Teheran in the Department of Construction where he became departmental director after a few years. During the same period he was given a professorial chair at the Teheran University school of Architecture, where he taught students architecture until 1957–58. In 1954 Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian was admitted by the Plan Organization as a recognized consultant, At this time when Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian designed numerous private residences for his extended relatives and clients; the legal entity, set up was known as Moassessehye Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian. In 1976, the company known as AFFA, Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian and Associates, was created for the design of the Stadium and in accordance with the directive of the Plan Organization to be associated with younger architects; the new associates were belonged to Reza Majd and Farokh Hirbod, both graduates from first-class American universities. AFFA's associates increased with the years.
Farman-Farmaian permanently moved to Paris in 1980 and afterwards to Spain, where he died aged 93. He was in close contact with his partner Reza Majd, who still practiced architecture until in Palma, Spain. In 1975 AFFA's rating in the plan organization was ranked first in Iran as a design and engineering consultant organization. Office buildingsMinistry of Agriculture, 22 story headquarters office building, 1976 National Iranian Oil Company Headquarters, 13 story office in Tehran, 1961 Telecommunication Center, 2 story tower in Tehran, 1974 Ministry of Roads, 14 story headquarter building, 1959 National Iranian Television Center, Studios and other facilities in Tehran, 1972 Beh Shahr Group Office and other facilities, 1969 Khaneh Center Commercial Complex, 3 three-story towers of 200,000 square metes half finished, Bank Saderat Isfahan Branch Office, Banking facilities, 1978 Bank Kar Building, 23-story building offices, 1960 Bank Etebarat/Credit Lyonnais and banking facilities, 1968 Oil Consortium Head Offices, eight-story office building, 1960 Cement Company Office, Built at the Plant, 1960Teheran Olympic CenterTrack and field and football stadium, 100,000 seat stadium with all related facilities with an artificial lake at the north of the complex, 1970 Multi purpose covered stadium, 12,000 seat, 1979 Covered swimming and diving pool, 3,000 seat, 1974 Office Building and press center, 1974 Shooting range, Hand gun and rifles, 1974 Trap shooting range, 1974 Out door training fields, Hockey and field, 1974 Out door tennis court and field hockey, For training purposes, 1974 Connecting roads and bridges to main Karaj road, 1974Hosting projectsSaman 1 apartment building, Two 22-story towers with 170 apartment units, 1970 Saman 2 tower apartment building, 3 thirteen-story towers, totaling 400 apartments, 1972 Vanak Park Apartment Complex, 4 towards, 1978 Sarcheshmeh housing complex, 2,500 building units of single-family housing for the copper mining industry employees, 1978 Polyacr residential community, Employee housing in 154 units, 1978 Bid Boland housing project, 500 units of lousing for the gas pumping station workers, 1968 Khaneh Karaj, Different housing type
Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science and empirical evidence, to the innovation, construction and maintenance of structures, materials, devices, systems and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."
In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hungarian armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was used by artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clock makers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. A standard reference for the state of mechanical arts during the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica, which contains sections on geology and chemistry. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next 180 years; the science of classical mechanics, sometimes called Newtonian mechanics, formed the scientific basis of much of modern engineering. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. In addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the "father" of civil engineering, he was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton introduced iron gears to water wheels. Smeaton made mechanical improvements to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse, he is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime.
2018 AFC Champions League Final
The 2018 AFC Champions League Final was the final of the 2018 AFC Champions League, the 37th edition of the top-level Asian club football tournament organized by the Asian Football Confederation, the 16th under the current AFC Champions League title. The final was contested in a two-legged home-and-away format between Kashima Antlers from Japan and Persepolis from Iran; the first leg was hosted by Kashima Antlers at the Kashima Soccer Stadium in Kashima on 3 November 2018, while the second leg was hosted by Persepolis at the Azadi Stadium in Tehran on 10 November 2018. Kashima Antlers won the final 2–0 on aggregate for their first AFC Champions League title; as winners, they earned the right to represent the AFC at the 2018 FIFA Club World Cup, entering at the second round. In the following table, finals until 2002 were in the Asian Club Championship era, since 2003 were in the AFC Champions League era; the 2018 AFC Champions League Final was contested in two-legged home-and-away format, held at the home of both finalists.
It is the sixth consecutive year. Kashima Antlers's home venue, 40,728 seater Kashima Soccer Stadium hosted the first leg; this was the first time. 78,116 seater Azadi Stadium hosted the second leg. It is the third time that an Asian club final played in the Azadi Stadium, with the previous final being 1999 and 2002. One of the problems for Azadi's hosting was women's presence at stadium ban, runs since 1979. Persepolis officials promised to provide their presence; the stadium had minor renovations after Persepolis' qualification to the final. Both Persepolis and Kashima Antlers reached their first final. Persepolis became the fifth different Iranian side, third in the AFC Champions League era to qualify for the final, it was the first time since 2010 that an Iranian side qualified for the final, Zob Ahan losing 1–3 to Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma of South Korea, that time around. They faced some tough opponents on their road to the final, the highlight being their challengers in the semifinal — Al-Sadd of Qatar who lined up with Barcelona great Xavi in the midfield and former Atletico Madrid legend Gabi manning the defence.
Kashima Antlers became the seventh different Japanese side, third in the AFC Champions League era to qualify for the final. They made consecutive appearances for Japanese clubs in the final, Urawa Red Diamonds winning 2–1 on aggregate against Al-Hilal of Saudi Arabia in the previous edition, they were the runners-up of the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup where they lost 2–4 to the Spanish giants Real Madrid in extra time. Note: In all results below, the score of the finalist is given first; the final was played on a home-and-away two-legged basis, with the order of legs reversed from the previous season's final. The away goals rule, extra time and penalty shoot-out were used to decide the winner. Ma Ning from China has been chosen to officiate the first leg match, he has been a full international referee for FIFA since 2011. Ahmed Al-Kaf from Oman officiated the second leg; the ambassador for the first leg final was former Brazilian footballer and Kashima Antlers legend Zico. Zico is technical manager of the team and brought the trophy before the first match.
For the second leg, Persepolis announced its legend Ali Parvin as the ambassador. With a stadium capacity of 90,000 for the second leg final, a total of 84,412 tickets were available to fans and the general public, with the guest team had 5,000 tickets; the price of the tickets was: 500,000 Rial and 300,000 Rial. Iranian singer Mohsen Ebrahimzadeh performed at the opening ceremony preceding the second leg final; the time of concert was two songs performed. One of the songs was be English and other Persian; the first big chance fell to the visitors when a cross from the right was nodded into the path of Ali Alipour in the fourth minute. Just eight yards from goal, the striker looked certain to score but Jung Seung-hyun threw himself into the path of the shot and blocked it with his head. Two minutes Ahmad Nourollahi's free-kick from the left was tipped over by Kwoun Sun-tae as Persepolis applied early pressure. Kashima worked their way back into the game but the away side's threat on the break was demonstrated when Hiroki Abe was booked for a cynical foul on Bashar Resan as the midfielder surged forward.
The hosts created an opening in the 25th minute as Daigo Nishi's cushioned header found Yuma Suzuki. But the striker's shot from a narrow angle flashed well wide of the far post. Six minutes Kashima had another opportunity when a through ball from Shoma Doi put Serginho through; the Brazilian created an angle for his shot but Shoja' Khalilzadeh slid in to make a vital block. Kashima made the first chance of the second half when Abe instigated a move that ended with Serginho laying the ball back for Silva; the Brazilian tried to curl a shot into the top corner but his attempt drifted wide. But Silva soon had reason to celebrate; the midfield man played a neat one-two with Shoma on the edge of the Persepolis penalty area and cut inside before curling a low left-footed shot into the corner from 18 yards. Kashima added their second in the 70th minute; the ball broke to Kento Misao 20 yards out and he played a deft pass into the path of Serginho on the right and the Brazilian placed his shot into the far corner from the edge of the six-yard box.
There was a further blow for Persepolis as Siamak Nemati received his second yellow card in added time and the
Varzeshgah-e Azadi Metro Station
Varzeshgah-e Azadi Metro Station, translated as Azadi Stadium Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 5. It is located south of Azadi Stadium, it is between Eram-e Sabz Metro Station and Chitgar Metro Station
Esteghlal Football Club known as Taj Football Club is an Iranian professional football club based in Tehran and founded on 26 September 1945. Esteghlal is the most successful Iranian club and competes in Iran's top flight Persian Gulf Pro League and the Iranian FA cup Hazfi Cup. Esteghlal F. C. is the football club of the multisport Esteghlal of Cultural Company. Esteghlal's home games are played at Azadi Stadium in western Tehran, the stadium, shared with city rivals Persepolis and Iran National Football Team has a total capacity of 100,000 making it the biggest football stadium in Iran. Esteghlal has won 34 official and regional trophies making them Iran's most decorated and most successful football club; the club has won 15 national titles which are a record of 7 Hazfi cup. Esteghlal has won 12 Tehran league and 4 Tehran Hazfi cup and 1 Tehran Super cup making them most successful club in Tehran football history. Esteghlal's international titles are 2 championship in AFC Champions League making them Iran's most successful club in Asian football and third in AFC champions league.
On 20 September 1945, some young athletes and students including a 23 year old military officer Parviz Khosravaani, Asghar Navaab, Enayat Jananpour and Khashaaei established a sports club on Ferdowsi Street, Tehran. Since the founders of the club were interested in cycling, the club's original name was Docharkhe Savaran, meaning'The Cyclists' in Persian. Ali Danaeifard coach and player of tour joined to them and became the first coach and Captain of Esteghlal. Esteghlal football club played its first official match in 1946. In the first year, the 1946 season, they stood in second place of Tehran Football League and Tehran Hazfi Cup, they played against strong teams like Daraei and Shahin. The 1947 season ended with the first Esteghlal's cup, after victories against Daraei and Oghaab to reach the Tehran Hazfi Cup. Docharkhe Savaran founders and players consisted of Ali Danaeifard, Parviz Khosravani, Amou Oghli and Seyyed Ali Agha agreed with the rename of the club to TAJ in 1949. From the beginning Taj or Docharkeh Savaran competed in the Tehran Local League, which at the time was the highest ranked league in Iran.
On March 6, 1950, Taj played its first official game in front of over 20,000 spectators in Amjadieh Stadium against Shahin. Taj won seven first titles in 60's. Taj won four Tehran Hazfi Cup in 1947, 1951, 1958 and 1959; the most successful club in Iran between that years, so far than other great teams like Daraei with three first titles and Shahin with two first titles and four second place. The first national cup was obtained in 1957 National Football League after victory against Tabriz team by three goals. Taj represented tehrans's football in those games. Ali Danaeifard managed Esteghlal for about twenty years, first as midfielder and coach and in 1950 until 1967 as Coach of Taj, his son Iraj Danaeifard became the star of Taj and National team in the 70s and his daughter is a football coach. Fans call him Father of Esteghlal. Iraj scored the First Iranian goal during a World Cup Finals in 1978, with the equalizer against Scotland; some of the best players of those years as follows: Boyuk Jeddikar, Aref Gholizadeh, Parviz Koozehkanani, Mahmoud Bayati, Mohammad Ranjbar, Mohammad Amir Khatami, Nader Afshar Alavinejad, George Markarian, Kambozia Jamali, Karam Nayyerloo, Hassan Habibi, Heshmat Mohajerani, Fariborz Esmaeili, Parviz Aboutaleb, Mohammad Reza Adelkhani and Ali Jabbari.
Tehran old derby was a sensitive match which played between TAJ and Shahin in mid century, until 1967. After desolation of Shahin. Other teams Added Shahin's players to their teams including Newborn team Persepolis. Shahin was not related to Persepolis. Boyuk Jeddikar is best scorer of that rival matches for Taj; the 1970 Asian Club Championship was the 3rd edition of the annual Asian club football competition hosted by Asian Football Confederation. Seven clubs from seven countries competed in the tournament; the tournament was held in Iran in April. The clubs were split in two groups and the group winners and runners-up advanced to semifinals. Taj defeated Hapoel Tel Aviv of Israel 2–1 in the final to win its first Asian Club Championship and started new era in Iranian football with announced of professionalization of football in Iran; this year had another Honor for TAJ, The first Iranian national league title: 1970–71 Local League under management of legendary Rajkov. TAJ defeated PAS 2-1 in final match.
Captain Ali Jabbari introduced as best player of the league. TAJ have reached to third place of 1971 Asian Club Championship, a year after the first Asian Cup of club, they were defeated ROK Army of Korea 3-2 in Third place match. Esteghlal stood with only two points less than Persepolis. Gholam Hossein Mazloumi was the top scorer of the league, with 15 goals. TAJ reached the 1974-75 Takht Jamshid Cup the next year, the second official Ir
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements; the primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities. Urban planning is considered an interdisciplinary field that includes social and design sciences, it is related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks and other urban areas. Urban planning is referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide. Urban planning guides orderly development in urban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources and agricultural land and conserving areas of natural environmental significance.
Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations and management. Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants. Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, public administration to achieve strategic and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were members of these cognate fields. Today urban planning is a independent professional discipline; the discipline is the broader category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, economic development, environmental planning, transportation planning. There is evidence of urban planning and designed communities dating back to the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Egyptian civilizations in the third millennium BCE. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were laid out at right angles in a grid pattern.
The idea of a planned out urban area evolved. Beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were centered on orthogonal plans; the ancient Romans, inspired by the Greeks used orthogonal plans for their cities. City planning in the Roman world was developed for public convenience; the spread of the Roman Empire subsequently spread the ideas of urban planning. As the Roman Empire declined, these ideas disappeared. However, many cities in Europe still held onto the planned Roman city center. Cities in Europe from the 9th to 14th centuries grew organically and sometimes chaotically, but in the following centuries some newly created towns were built according to preconceived plans, many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. From the 15th century on, much more is recorded of the people that were involved. In this period, theoretical treatises on architecture and urban planning start to appear in which theoretical questions are addressed and designs of towns and cities are described and depicted.
During the Enlightenment period, several European rulers ambitiously attempted to redesign capital cities. During the Second French Republic, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III, redesigned the city of Paris into a more modern capital, with long, wide boulevards. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century; the industrialized cities of the 19th century grew at a tremendous rate. The pace and style of this industrial construction was dictated by the concerns of private business; the evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era, was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged. Around 1900, theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age, by providing citizens factory workers, with healthier environments.
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning began to be recognized as a profession. The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in 1899 and the first academic course in Great Britain on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in 1909. In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism and uniformity began to surface in urban planning, lasted until the 1970s. Many planners started to believe that the ideas of modernism in urban planning led to higher crime rates and social problems. Urban planners now focus more on diversity in urban centers. Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, behavioral relationships, assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, the humanist or phenomenological approach.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve the applying scientific, technical processes and features that are involved