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Azerbaijan (Iran)

Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Iranian Azerbaijan includes three northwestern Iranian provinces: West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Ardabil. Several authors include Zanjan in this list, some in a geographical sense, others only culturally; the region is populated by Azeri Turks, with minority populations of Kurds, Tats, Talysh and Persians. Iranian Azerbaijan is the land and called Azerbaijan. Historic Azerbaijan was called Atropatene in antiquity and Aturpatakan in the pre-Islamic Middle Ages; some people refer to Iranian Azerbaijan as South Azerbaijan and the Republic of Azerbaijan as Northern Azerbaijan, although others believe that these terms are irredentist and politically motivated. This term is used by the people of the Republic of Azerbaijan and its usage in Iran is rare. Following military defeats at the hands of the Russian Empire, Qajar Persia ceded all of its territories in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia to Russia via the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 and the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.

The territories south of the Aras River, which comprised the region known as Azerbaijan, became the new north-west frontier of the Persian Empire and Iran. The territories north of the Aras River, which were not known by the name Azerbaijan at the time of their capture by Russia, were absorbed into the Russian Empire, renamed the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic during the country's short-lived independence from 1918 to 1920, incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, became the independent Republic of Azerbaijan when the Soviet Union dissolved; the name Azerbaijan itself is derived from Atropates, the Persian Satrap of Medea in the Achaemenid empire, who ruled a region found in modern Iranian Azerbaijan called Atropatene. Atropates name is believed to be derived from the Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire." The name is mentioned in the Avestan Frawardin Yasht: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide which translates to: "We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata."

According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam: "In Middle Persian the name of the province was called Āturpātākān, older new-Persian Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, at present Āzerbāydjān/Āzarbāydjān, Greek Atropatíni, Byzantine Greek Adravigánon, Armenian Atrpatakan, Syriac Adhorbāyghān." The name Atropat in Middle Persian is connected with Zoroastrianism. A famous Zoroastrian priest by the name Adarbad Mahraspandan is well known for his counsels. Azerbaijan, due to its numerous fire-temples has been quoted in a variety of historic sources as being the birthplace of the prophet Zoroaster although modern scholars have not yet reached an agreement on the location of his birth. With Qajar Iran being forced to cede to Imperial Russia its Caucasian territories north of the Aras River during the course of the 19th century, through the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay, vast amounts of soil were irrevocably lost. Following the disintegration of the Russian Empire in 1917, as well as the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, in 1918, the leading Musavat government adopted the name "Azerbaijan" for the newly established Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, proclaimed on May 27, 1918, for political reasons though the name of "Azerbaijan" had always been used to refer to the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran.

Thus, until 1918, when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. The oldest kingdom known in Iranian Azerbaijan is that of the Mannea who ruled a region south-east of Lake Urmia centred around modern Saqqez; the Manneans were a confederation of non-Iranian groups. According to Professor Zadok: it is unlikely. Like other peoples of the Iranian plateau, the Manneans were subjected to an increasing Iranian penetration; the Mannaeans were conquered and absorbed by an Iranian people called Matieni, the country was called Matiene, with Lake Urmia called Lake Matianus. Matiene was conquered by the Medes and became a satrapy of the Median empire and a sub-satrapy of the Median satrapy of the Persian Empire. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the Medes were an: Indo-European people, related to the Persians, who entered northeastern Iran as early as the 17th century BC and settled in the plateau land that came to be known as Media.

After Alexander the Great conquered Persia, he appointed as governor the Persian general Atropates, who established an independent dynasty. The region, which came to be known as Atropatene or Media Atropatene, was much disputed. In the 2nd century BC, it was liberated from Seleucid domination by Mithradates I of Arsacid dynasty, was made a province of the Sassanid Empire of Ardashir I. Under the Sassanids, Azerbaijan was ruled by a marzubān, towards the en

Equine encephalosis virus

Equine encephalosis virus is a species of virus the Orbivirus genus, a member of the Reoviridae family, related to African horse sickness virus and Bluetongue virus. First described in South Africa over a hundred years ago by Arnold Theiler, EEV is the causative agent of equine encephalosis, an arthropod-borne disease transmitted by the Culicoides spp. midges affecting all equids. Since the disease has become both widespread and prevalent, taking on epidemic proportions in certain parts of the country. Serological studies estimated a presence of anti-EEV antibodies in over 75% of all South African horses. Prior to 2008, Equine encephalosis virus had been identified and isolated only in South Africa, where seven antigenetically distinct serotypes, EEV1-7, have been characterised. In 2009, the outbreak of a febrile horse disease across Israel diagnosed as EEV, caused great concern due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating equine pathogens.

The name equine encephalosis is misleading as the disease is not a neurological disorder. Although the majority of infections result only in mild clinical signs, in more severe cases clinical signs include a short period of fluctuating fever, accompanied by varying degrees of inappetence. Elevated heart and respiratory rates are common, as a result of nasal congestion, a red-brown discolouration of the mucous membranes may be observed. Although rare, more severe clinical signs may occur including facial swelling, respiratory distress, petechial haemorrhages of the conjunctivae. Pregnant mares may abort during their first 5 months of gestation. Neurological signs are atypical, but in certain cases hindquarter ataxia, hyperexcitability, depression have been reported; the mortality rate is low, accounting for only 5% of infected animals. Equine encephalosis virus is an Orbivirus, as such encodes 4 non-structural and 7 structural proteins derived from 10 linear dsRNA genome segments; the smallest of those genome segments, segment-10, encodes the NS3 protein, which allows the release of the viral particles from the infected cell.

The second largest of those segments in turn codes for one of the outer capsid proteins, VP. By analogy with Bluetongue virus, both these proteins may be used to determine the serotype of EEV, of which seven have been identified to date; this is achieved by analysing the interaction between VP, the antibodies generated by the host during infection. The sequence variation between the proteins is associated with various viral serotypes. First isolated in 1967, Equine encephalosis virus appeared until to be unique to the South African equidae; as of 2008 however, evidence seems to suggest the virus has circulated beyond southern Africa, outbreaks have been reported in a number of other countries including Israel, Ethiopia and Gambia. Intriguingly, Morocco remains free of the epidemic, suggesting the Sahara desert may be acting as a natural barrier to the progression of the disease; such a progression is of major concern to the worldwide livestock industry due to the similarity between EEV and other more devastating equid pathogens, such as the African horse sickness virus.

As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather infection requires another intermediate organism that will transmit the pathogen. In the case of Equine encephalosis virus, the transmission occurs via the Culicoides midges during a blood meal. Several studies have shown that between 50 and 75% of South African equids are seropositive for EEV or have anti-EEV antibodies indicating a prior infection, with serotype 1 being the most prevalent. Antibodies have occasionally been reported in elephants. In the vast majority of cases the animal will recover without further complications, a course of anti-inflammatories or appetite stimulants may be administered. Antibiotics are prescribed in order to prevent the appearance of secondary infections; some equids are biliary carriers. Although in this instance the animal is not in immediate danger, it must be treated in order to prevent the reemergence of the virus were the immune system to be challenged by another disease simultaneously.

Due to the absence of an effective vaccine, vector control remains one of the primary methods of prevention. Control of the midges is only instigated for domesticated stabled horses, includes precautionary measures such as the limited use of lights at night, as well as the use of fly repellents and fans

Leslie Ayres

Leslie F. Ayres was an American architect active in Indianapolis, Indiana from 1926 to 1945. Leslie F. Ayres was a well known artist in Indianapolis, Indiana, he was known within the architectural circles for his refined and exquisite renderings. Ayres began his career early with the firm of Wright. During his time with the firm he was awarded the Princeton Prize in Architecture in 1926, which allowed him to attend Princeton University, earn his certificate of proficiency in 1927. Upon his graduation from Princeton, he moved back to Indianapolis, started his own firm, his renderings done in watercolor and colored pencil were used to sell the client on a project, in 1948 National Architect stated he was “just about the only professional renderer in Indiana. Ayres was born in 1906 in Indiana to Frank and Bertha Wolf Ayres; the Ayres had a younger son named Robert. The two brothers both attended Arsenal Technical High School where Leslie learned to draw and developed a passion for architecture. In 1937, Ayres married Edna C.

Silcox. The two were together until he died of a heart attack in 1952 at the age of 46, they had no children. He is buried in Indianapolis, in the Washington Park East Cemetery Leslie F. Ayres was recruited out of high school, by a young Indianapolis architect by the name of Edward Pierre. Pierre recognized his talent for rendering, in 1925 he gave Ayres a job in his newly formed company, Pierre & Wright He would become Ayres’ mentor, Ayres stayed with the company until 1926, when he received the prestigious Princeton Prize in architecture; the award allowed him to attend Princeton University for one year for free tuition. During his time at Princeton, professors lauded him for his natural drawing ability, but his performance was somewhat lackluster, professors complained about his lack of focus on assignments. Despite his difficulties during his year there, Ayres earned his Certificate of Proficiency in 1927, returned to Indianapolis. Upon his return to Indianapolis, Leslie Ayres began working as an architect and renderer in the area.

He received work from his former employers, Pierre & Wright, as well as other prominent Indianapolis architectural firms such as Rubush & Hunter, A. M. Strauss, Robert Frost Daggett, his renderings were popular made in watercolor and colored pencil. His early drawings depict a wide variety of subjects including: power plants, high schools, clubs, civic structures, religious buildings, his professional drawings in the 1930s and 1940s depicted residences, apartment buildings, churches. During a visit to the Chicago World’s Fair in 1933, Ayres sketched scenes from Belgian Village. In 1948, National Architect magazine described him as “just about the only professional renderer in Indiana.” His most celebrated work was the design for the Wilkinson House in Muncie, which he did in the early 1930s. An Art Moderne masterpiece, the house was, still is, celebrated as one of the best examples of this style of residential architecture in Indiana. Ayres was an active leader in the Indianapolis Home Show between 1940 and 1947.

He designed many of the model homes used in the show during this time. His focus was on small sophisticated homes. Depew Memorial Fountain, University Park, Indianapolis, IN, En-Ar-Co and White Rose Service Stations, c. 1930s Columbia Club Sketch, Monument Circle, Indianapolis, IN, c.1930s Polar Ice and Fuel Company, Indianapolis, IN, 1927 Wilkinson House, 3100 West University Avenue, Muncie, IN, c. 1933