Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes Azeri Turkic, or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken by the Azerbaijanis, who live in the Republic of Azerbaijan where the North Azerbaijani variety is spoken, in Iranian Azerbaijan where the South Azerbaijani variety is spoken. Although there is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are some significant differences in phonology, morphology and sources of loanwords. North Azerbaijani has official status in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan but South Azerbaijani does not have official status in Iran, where the majority of Azerbaijanis live, it is spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia and Turkey and by diaspora communities in Europe and North America. Both Azerbaijani varieties are members of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages; the standardized form of North Azerbaijani is based on the Shirvani dialect, while Iranian Azerbaijani uses the Tabrizi dialect as its prestige variety.
Azerbaijani is related to Gagauz, Crimean Tatar and Turkmen, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages. According to linguistic comparative studies, the closest relative of Azerbaijani is the Turkmen language; the language was referred by its native speakers as Türki meaning "Turkic" or Azərbaycan türkcəsi meaning "Azerbaijani Turkic". Prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, who adopted the name of "Azerbaijan" for political reasons in 1918, the name of "Azerbaijan" was used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. After the establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR, on the order of Soviet leader Stalin, the "name of the formal language" of the Azerbaijan SSR was "changed from Turkish to Azeri". Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe, northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations. Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian.
Azerbaijani is after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian languages have exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology and vocabulary, less in morphology. Turkic language of Azerbaijan supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northern Iran, a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus Udi and Old Azeri. By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region, was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids and Afsharids; the historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: modern. Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian, Arabic loanwords and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects; as Azerbaijani moved from being a language of epic and lyric poetry to being a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, other words and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.
Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in what is now the Azerbaijan Republic, popularized by the scholars such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski. Despite major differences, they all aimed at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature, they all criticized the overuse of Persian and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style. The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956. After independence, the Azerbaijan Republic decided to switch back to a modified Latin script; the development of Azerbaijani literature is associated with Anatolian Turkish, written in Perso-Arabic script. Examples of its detachment date to the 14th century or earlier.
Kadi Burhan al-Din and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azerbaiijani as a literary language in the 14th century through poetry and other works. The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī during the fifteenth century During the 16th century, the poet and thinker Fuzûlî wrote in Azerbaijani but translated his poems into Arabic and Persian. Starting in the 1830s, several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani. In 1875 Akinchi became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire, it was started by a journalist and education advocate. Following the rule of the Qajar d
Jeftimije Popović was a Serbian painter whose work is representative of the Neo-Classicism style of the period. He started out as a portrait painter, though commissions for religious themes took precedence, his works are the iconostases in Vranjevo, Nadalj and the one in the village church in Grgeteg. The portraits he painted for the palace of the Patriarchate of Karlovci were lost during the turbulent times that followed, he was born in 1792 in Bečkerek into a family of artists. He was first taught drawing and painting in his father's atelier, after his father's death in 1807, he continued working with his older brother Georgije at the same studio. So it was until 1819 when he went to Vienna to the Academy of Fine Arts to pursue his academic training, his stay in Vienna was an fruitful artistic period because it was there that he held exhibitions of his early work in 1822. He planned in 1824 to become Prince Miloš Obrenović's court painter, to paint the likenesses of all the members of the princely family, but this was thwarted by the Austrian authorities in Zemun.
At the beginning of 1828, he went to Zadar where he spent a year teaching students modern painting techniques freed of post-Byzantine, zoographic schemata. In Zadar he was commissioned to do some restoration work by the Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Dalmatia on the iconostasis of the Serbian Orthodox Church of Saint Elijah. After Zadar, he returned to Bečkerek for a short period before setting off on another painting junket. After 1830 he returned to Beckerek, with short periods of interruption, he remained for the rest of his life, he lived in Krunski Sokak. During the 1830s and 1840s, his creative energy did not falter, after that period Jeftemije fell into oblivion, his place became occupied by another exceptionally talented painter, Konstantin Danil. Jeftimije Popović died in Bečkerek in 1876, he was 84. Jeftimije Popović painted religious themes and portraits of distinguished individuals in both Serbia and Serbian Vojvodina, his works are the icons in the iconostases found in the Serbian Orthodox Church of Saint Elijah, build in 1773, in Zadar, in the Serbian Orthodox Church of Saint John the Precursor in Vranjevo, Nadalj, Beška and the one in the village church in Grgeteg.
The portraits he painted for the palace of the see of the Metropolitanate of Karlovci were all lost in the chaos of World War II. List of painters from Serbia List of Serbian painters: https://sr.wikipedia.org/sr-el/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%BA_%D1%81%D1%80%D0%BF%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%85_%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0#%D0%9F
Margot Taulé was an architect-engineer and the first woman to become a registered professional engineer and architect in the Dominican Republic. Taulé was one of two daughters of French immigrants, she studied in the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture in the former Universidad de Santo Domingo from 1940 to 1944, was awarded her bachelor's degree in Engineering and Architecture in 1948. She was responsible for the structural design of the building that houses the Dominican National Congress; this structure was commissioned by the dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in the 1960s and is still in use today. She worked as a structural engineer alongside other great Dominican architects such as Henry Gazón, Guillermo Gonzales, Leo Pou and José A. Caro. Margot Taulé made significant and lasting contributions to the academic development of the engineering and architecture profession in Dominican Republic. In 1956 she earned by opposition the title of Full Professor in the University of Santo Domingo.
She held the position until 1964 when the university changed its name to Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo. In 1966 a group of professors and distinguished intellectuals frustrated with the situation in the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo founded the Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena. Margot Taule was one of a member of the main steering committee. In UNPHU she worked as professor in the civil engineering and mathematics department. At various times she held the position Dean of Architecture, Dean of Engineering and in 2003 was elected by the board of trustees as President of the university, a position she held until 2005. In 1985 she received the title of Distinguished Professor by UNPHU citing her contributions to education in engineering and architecture