Japanese castles were fortresses constructed of wood and stone. They evolved from the wooden stockades of earlier centuries, came into their best-known form in the 16th century. Castles in Japan were built to guard important or strategic sites, such as ports, river crossings, or crossroads, always incorporated the landscape into their defenses. Though they were built to last and used more stone in their construction than most Japanese buildings, castles were still constructed of wood, many were destroyed over the years; this was true during the Sengoku period, when many of these castles were first built. However, many were rebuilt, either in the Sengoku period, in the Edo period that followed, or more as national heritage sites or museums. Today there are more than one hundred castles extant, or extant, in Japan; some castles, such as the ones at Matsue and Kōchi, both built in 1611, remain extant in their original forms, not having suffered any damage from sieges or other threats. Hiroshima Castle, on the opposite end of the spectrum, was destroyed in the atomic bombing, was rebuilt in 1958 as a museum.
The character for castle,'城', by itself read as shiro, is read as jō when attached to a word, such as in the name of a particular castle. Thus, for example, Osaka Castle is called Ōsaka-jō in Japanese. Conceived as fortresses for military defense, Japanese castles were placed in strategic locations, along trade routes and rivers. Though castles continued to be built with these considerations, for centuries, fortresses were built as centres of governance. By the Sengoku period, they had come to serve as the homes of daimyōs, to impress and to intimidate rivals not only with their defences but with their sizes and elegant interiors. In 1576, Oda Nobunaga was among the first to build one of these palace-like castles: Azuchi Castle was Japan's first castle to have a tower keep, it inspired both Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle and Tokugawa Ieyasu's Edo Castle. Azuchi served as the governing center of Oda's territories, as his lavish home, but it was very keenly and strategically placed. A short distance away from the capital of Kyoto, which had long been a target of violence, Azuchi's chosen location allowed it a great degree of control over the transportation and communication routes of Oda's enemies.
Before the Sengoku period, most castles were called yamajirō. Though most castles were built atop mountains or hills, these were built from the mountains. Trees and other foliage were cleared, the stone and dirt of the mountain itself was carved into rough fortifications. Ditches were dug, to present obstacles to attackers, as well as to allow boulders to be rolled down at attackers. Moats were created by diverting mountain streams. Buildings were made of wattle and daub, using thatched roofs, or wooden shingles. Small ports in the walls or planks could be used to deploy bows or fire guns from; the main weakness of this style was its general instability. Thatch caught fire more than wood, weather and soil erosion prevented structures from being large or heavy. Stone bases began to be used, encasing the hilltop in a layer of fine pebbles, a layer of larger rocks over that, with no mortar; this support allowed larger and more permanent buildings. The first fortifications in Japan were hardly what one associates with the term "castles".
Made of earthworks, or rammed earth, wood, the earliest fortifications made far greater use of natural defences and topography than anything man-made. These kōgoishi and chashi were never intended to be long-term defensive positions, let alone residences; the Yamato people began to build cities in earnest in the 7th century, complete with expansive palace complexes, surrounded on four sides with walls and impressive gates. Earthworks and wooden fortresses were built throughout the countryside to defend the territory from the native Emishi and other groups; these were built as extensions of natural features, consisted of little more than earthworks and wooden barricades. The Nara period fortress at Dazaifu, from which all of Kyūshū would be governed and defended for centuries afterwards, was constructed in this manner, remnants can still be seen today. A bulwark was constructed around the fortress to serve as a moat to aid in the defense of the structure; this was called a mizuki, or "water fort".
The character for castle or fortress, up until sometime in the 9th century or was read ki, as in this example, mizuki. Though basic in construction and appearance, these wooden and earthwork structures were designed to impress just as much as to function against attack. Chinese and Korean architecture influenced the design of Japanese buildings, including fortifications, in this period; the remains or ruins of some of these fortresses, decidedly different from what would come can still be seen in certain parts of Kyūshū and Tōhoku today. The Heian period saw a shift from the need to defend the entire state from
Akechi Mitsuhide, first called Jūbei from his clan and Koretō Hyūga no Kami from his title, was a samurai and general who lived during the Sengoku period of Feudal Japan. His full name was thus Akechi Jūbei Minamoto-no-Mitsuhide. Mitsuhide was a general under daimyō Oda Nobunaga, who became famous for his rebellion against Nobunaga in 1582, which led to Nobunaga's death at Honnō-ji. Mitsuhide was born in Tara castle, Mino Province-now Gifu Prefecture Mitsuhide is a descendant of the Toki-Akechi family of the shugo Toki clan. Mitsuhide is rumored to be a childhood cousin of Nōhime, it is believed that he was raised to be a general among 10,000 by Saitō Dōsan and the Toki clan during their governorship of the Mino Province. When Dōsan's son, Saitō Yoshitatsu, rebelled against his father in 1556, Mitsuhide sided with Dōsan. Mitsuhide began serving the "wandering shōgun" Ashikaga Yoshiaki as one of his guardians under Hosokawa Yusai. Shōgun Ashikaga ordered Asakura Yoshikage to be his official protector, an offer which Yoshikage declined.
Yoshiaki appealed to Mitsuhide. In 1564, Nobunaga sent his sister Oichi to be the bride of Azai Nagamasa; this aided him in his 1566 conquest for Mino province, opened the path to Kyoto. The shōgun Yoshiaki and Mitsuhide arrived at Kyoto, the capital of Japan, converting Hongoku-ji temple to a temporary palace in November 1568. Nobunaga returned from Kyoto on January 4, 1569; the Miyoshi clan and Saito Tatsuoki defeated the daimyo of Mino, attacked Ashikaga Yoshiaki at Hongoku-ji, where Mitsuhide defended the shōgun. Nobunaga asked Mitsuhide to join his troops and Mitsuhide decided to serve both the shōgun and Nobunaga. Mitsuhide received Sakamoto in 1571 after the successful attack at the Enryaku-ji temple. Although Nobunaga put too much trust in his retainers, he trusted Shibata Katsuie, Hashiba Hideyoshi, Akechi Mitsuhide, the first subordinate to receive a castle from Nobunaga. After Mitsuhide received Sakamoto, he moved to pacify the Tanba region by defeating several clans such as the Hatano and the Isshiki of Tango.
Mitsuhide received Kameyama castle and Tanba Province. He participated in the Battle of Tedorigawa in 1577. In 1579, Nobunaga captured Yakami Castle from Hatano Hideharu by promising Hideharu peace terms; this reputedly displeased the Hatano family, a short while several of Hideharu's retainers murdered Akechi Mitsuhide's mother. The failing relationship between Nobunaga and Mitsuhide was further fueled through several public insults which Nobunaga directed at Mitsuhide. In 1582, Mitsuhide was ordered to march west and assist Hashiba Hideyoshi, fighting the Mōri clan. Ignoring his orders, Mitsuhide assembled an army of 13,000 soldiers and moved against Nobunaga's position at Honnō-ji. On June 21, Mitsuhide was quoted as saying, "The enemy is at Honnō-ji!" His army surrounded the temple and set it on fire. Oda Nobunaga was killed either by his own hand. Nobunaga's son, Oda Nobutada, was surrounded at Nijō and killed. Despite not killing Nobunaga Mitsuhide claimed responsibility for his death. Mitsuhide's betrayal of the Oda shocked the capital, he was forced to move to secure his position.
Mitsuhide looted Azuchi castle to maintain their loyalty. Mitsuhide attempted to make gestures of friendship to a panicked Imperial Court. Hosokawa Fujitaka, to whom he was related through marriage cut ties with him. Tsutsui Junkei half-heartedly supported Hideyoshi. Mitsuhide had counted on Toyotomi Hideyoshi being occupied fighting with the Mori, unable to respond to Mitsuhide's coup d'état. However, having learned of the assassination of his lord, Hideyoshi signed a peace treaty with the Mori, alongside Tokugawa Ieyasu rushed to be the first to avenge Nobunaga and take his place. Hideyoshi force-marched his army to Settsu in four days, caught Mitsuhide off guard. Mitsuhide had been unable to garner support for his cause, his army had dwindled down to 10,000 men. Hideyoshi, had won over former Oda retainers, including Niwa Nagahide and Takayama Ukon, had a strength of 20,000 men; the two forces met at the Battle of Yamazaki. Mitsuhide took up a position south of Shōryūji Castle, securing his right flank by the Yodo river, his left at the foot of the 270-metre Tennozan.
Hideyoshi seized the advantage by securing the heights of Tennōzan. Mitsuhide's forces made a failed attempt to force Hideyoshi from Tennōzan. Hideyoshi's general, Ikeda Nobuteru moved to reinforce Hideyoshi's right flank, which soon crossed Enmyōji-gawa and turned the Akechi flank. Hideyoshi's forces marched against the Akechi front. Mitsuhide's reign as shōgun lasted only 13 days, hence the reference "thirteen-day shogun", as he was killed fleeing the battle of Yamazaki by the bandit leader Nakamura Chōbei; the short reign of Mitsuhide is listed as the inspiration for the yojijukugo set phrase mikkatenka. He is still popular in present culture. A ceremonial activity was held on April.15.2018 in Kyoto. No one knows the specific reason that Mitsuhide betrayed Nobunaga, though there are several theories: Personal ambition - Mitsuhide had grown tired of waiting for promotion under Nobunaga or had grown tired of being under another's authority. A personal grudge
Ne Castle is a Muromachi period Motte-and-bailey-style Japanese castle located in what is now the city of Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of far northern Japan. It is protected by the central government as a National Historic Site, it was extensively reconstructed in 1994. Ne Castle consists of five motte-and-bailey enclosures on a L-shaped river terrace on the south bank of the Mabechi River 500 meters long by 300 meters wide; as was typical for the time, the fortifications consisted of wooden palisades and earthen ramparts, guarded by 20-meter wide dry moats. The area baileys, with varying elevations. There was no donjon in the central bailey, occupied large building in the Shōin style, based on evidence of foundation posts, as the residence of the ruling Nanbu clan. Other enclosures held the residences of important retainers, along with barracks and storerooms; some of the buildings were constructed as pit dwellings indicating the survival of this ancient building style into the Muromachi period.
One of the enclosures contained Tōzen-ji, which served as the Nanbu clan temple. Ne Castle was constructed in 1334, during the early Nanboku-chō period, by Nanbu Moroyuki, a retainer of Kitabatake Akiie, the kokushi of Mutsu Province and was intended to be a center for the imperial government administration in the area. Nanbu Motoyuki was under allegiance to the Southern Court; the two branches of the clan made peace with each other in 1393. In 1590, at the end the Sengoku period, Nanbu Nobunao of the Sannohe-Nanbu supported Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Siege of Odawara and was awarded formal rule of all seven districts of northern Mutsu Province, which were under the control of the Nanbu clan; the 18th generation castellan of Ne Castle, Nanbu Masayuki, became his retainer. The fortifications at Ne Castle were destroyed in 1592 by order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the clan headquarters was relocated to Sannohe Castle, although some local administrative functions remains at the site. In 1627, the 22nd generation castellan, Nanbu Naohide was relocated to Tōno in what is now Iwate Prefecture and Ne Castle was abandoned.
The nearby castle town of Hachinohe remained a local administrative center under another branch of the Nanbu clan from Sannohe. On December 13, 1941 the site of Ne Castle was proclaimed a National Historic Site. From 1983 to 1994, extensive archaeological investigations uncovered the foundations of the original structures and many artifacts from the Namboku-chō period. Ne Castle was listed as one of the 100 Fine Castles of Japan by the Japan Castle Foundation in 2006; the castle was reconstructed in 1994, with some emphasis on the inner citadel On the current site there are two gates, one for the lord and guests, the other a simpler gate for servants and workers. There are many reconstructed parts of the castle on site. Technically, Ne Castle was constructed before the main era of Japanese castle development, so while there are still gates and yagura watchtowers, there is no main keep. There is little stonework, the walls are just wooden posts palisades on the outside, simple slat wood walls in the central compound.
List of Historic Sites of Japan Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 144–145. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 112 pages. ISBN 4-7700-2954-3. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540-1640. Osprey Publishing. P. 64 pages. ISBN 1-84176-429-9. Zooming Japan:Bringing Japan Cloaser To You tourist site with photos Kotodama Japan Local Info Hachinohe City Museum site
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
Oda Nobunaga was a powerful daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period, gained control over most of Honshu. Nobunaga is regarded as one of three unifiers of Japan along with his retainers Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. During his life, Nobunaga was known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who by principle refused to cooperate or yield to his demands, his reign was noted for innovative military tactics, fostering free trade, encouraging the start of the Momoyama historical art period. He was killed; the goal of national unification and a return to the comparative political stability of the earlier Muromachi period was shared by the multitude of autonomous daimyōs during the Sengoku period. Oda Nobunaga was the first for. Nobunaga had gained control over most of Honshu before his death during the 1582 Honnō-ji incident, a coup attempt executed by Nobunaga's vassal, Akechi Mitsuhide. Nobunaga was betrayed by his own retainers.
The motivation behind Mitsuhide's betrayal was never revealed to anyone who survived the incident, has been a subject of debate and conjecture since the incident. Following the incident, Mitsuhide declared himself master over Nobunaga's domains, but was defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who regained control of and expanded the Oda holdings. Nobunaga's successful subjugation of much of Honshu enabled the successes of his allies Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu toward the goal of national unification by subjugating local daimyōs under a hereditary shogunate, accomplished in 1603 when Ieyasu was granted the title of shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei following the successful Sekigahara Campaign of 1600; the nature of the succession of power through the three daimyōs is reflected in a well-known Japanese idiom: "Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, in the end, Ieyasu sits down and eats it." All three were born within eight years of each other, started their careers as samurai and finished them as statesmen.
Nobunaga inherited his father's domain at the age of 17, gained control of Owari province through gekokujo. Hideyoshi started his career in Nobunaga's army as an ashigaru, but rose up through the ranks as a samurai. Ieyasu fought against Nobunaga, but joined his army. Oda Nobunaga was born on June 23, 1534, in the Owari domain, was given the childhood name of Kippōshi, he was the second son of a deputy shugo with land holdings in Owari Province. He is said to have been born in Nagoya Castle. Through his childhood and early teenage years, he was well known for his bizarre behavior and received the name of Owari no Ōutsuke, he was known to run around with other youths from the area, without any regard to his own rank in society. With the introduction of firearms into Japan, however, he became known for his fondness of tanegashima firearms. In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly. Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously during his funeral, throwing ceremonial incense at the altar. Hirate Masahide, a valuable mentor and retainer to Nobunaga, performed seppuku to startle Nobunaga into his obligations.
Although Nobunaga was Nobuhide's legitimate heir, some of the Oda clan were divided against him. Collecting about a thousand men, Nobunaga suppressed those members of his family who were hostile to his rule, including his younger brother, Oda Nobuyuki. In 1556, he destroyed a rival branch located in Kiyosu Castle. Although Nobuyuki and his supporters were still at large, Nobunaga took an army to Mino Province to aid Saitō Dōsan after Dōsan's son, Saitō Yoshitatsu, turned against him; the campaign failed, as Dōsan was killed in the Battle of Nagara-gawa, Yoshitatsu became the new master of Mino in 1556. In 1557, Nobunaga's brother, was defeated in the Siege of Suemori by Ikeda Nobuteru. In 1558, he protected Suzuki Shigeteru in the Siege of Terabe. By 1559, Nobunaga had eliminated all opposition within Owari Province. In 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto gathered an army of 25,000 men and started his march toward Kyoto, with the pretext of aiding the frail Ashikaga shogunate; the Matsudaira clan of Mikawa Province joined Yoshimoto's forces.
Against this, the Oda clan could rally an army of only 2,000 to 3,000. Some of Nobunaga's advisers suggested "to stand a siege at Kiyosu". Nobunaga refused, stating that "only a strong offensive policy could make up for the superior numbers of the enemy", calmly ordered a counterattack. Nobunaga's scouts reported that Yoshimoto was resting at the narrow gorge of Dengaku-hazama, ideal for a surprise attack, that the Imagawa army was celebrating their victories while Yoshimoto viewed the heads. Nobunaga set up a position some distance away. An array of flags and dummy troops made of straw and spare helmets gave the impression of a large host, while the real Oda army hurried round in a rapid march to get behind Yoshimoto's camp; the heat gave way to a terrific thunderstorm. As the Imagawa samurai sheltered from the rain Nobunaga deployed his troops, when the storm ceased they charged down upon the enemy in the gorge, so that Yoshimoto thought a brawl had broken out among his men, only realizing it was an attack when two samurais charged up.
One aimed a spear at him, which Yoshimoto
The Takeda clan was a Japanese clan active from the late Heian period until the late 16th century. The clan was based in Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture; the clan was known for their honorable actions under the rule of Takeda Shingen, one of the most famous rulers of the period. Four diamonds Four diamonds surrounded by a solid ring Two cranes bowing their heads together A centipede Hanabishi Fūrinkazan The Tai character Nobushige, Nobuyoshi, Harunobu, Katsuyori The Takeda were descendants of Emperor Seiwa and are a branch of the Minamoto clan, by Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, brother to the Chinjufu-shōgun Minamoto no Yoshiie. Minamoto no Yoshikiyo, son of Yoshimitsu, was the first to take the name of Takeda. In the 12th century, at the end of the Heian period, the Takeda family controlled Kai Province. Along with a number of other families, they aided their cousin Minamoto no Yoritomo against the Taira clan in the Genpei War; when Minamoto no Yoritomo was first defeated at Ishibashiyama, Takeda Nobuyoshi was applied for help and the Takeda sent an army of 25,000 men to support Yoritomo.
Takeda Nobumitsu, helped the Hōjō during the Jōkyū War and in reward received the governorship of Aki Province. Until the Sengoku period, the Takeda were shugo of Kai and Wakasa provinces. Prior to the Sengoku period, the Takeda helped to suppress the Rebellion of Uesugi Zenshū. Uesugi Zenshū was the kanrei chief advisor to Ashikaga Mochiuji, an enemy of the central Ashikaga shogunate and the Kantō kubō governor-general of the Kantō region. Mochiuji, lord of the Uesugi clan, made a reprisal against the Takeda clan in 1415; this reprisal began a rivalry between the Uesugi and Takeda clans which would last 150 years until the destruction of the Takeda clan at the end of the Sengoku period. While this rivalry existed, the Takeda and the Uesugi still had a huge amount of respect for one another. Takeda Harunobu succeeded his father Nobutora in 1540 and became shugo lord of Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture. In this period the Takeda began to expand from their base in Kai Province. In 1559, Harunobu changed his name to the better-known Takeda Shingen.
He faced the Hōjō clan a number of times, most of his expansion was to the north, where he fought his most famous battles against Uesugi Kenshin. This series of regional skirmishes is known as the Battles of Kawanakajima; the battles began in 1553, the best known and severest among them was fought on September 10, 1561. Shingen is famous for his tactical genius, innovations, though some historians have argued that his tactics were not impressive nor revolutionary. Shingen is most famous for his use of the cavalry charge at the Battle of Mikatagahara; the strength of Shingen's new tactic became so famous that the Takeda army came to be known as the kiba gundan, or'mounted army'. Up until the mid-16th century and Shingen's rise to power, mounted samurai were archers. There was a trend at this time towards larger infantry-based armies, including a large number of foot archers. In order to defeat these missile troops, Shingen transformed his samurai from archers to lancers. Shingen died in on May 1573, at age 53 from illness.
His son Takeda Katsuyori succeeded Shingen though the nominal head of the family was his grandson Takeda Nobukatsu, Katsuyori continued Shingen's aggressive expansion plan south and westward and was successful achieving the largest extent of Takeda rule, however he was defeated in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575 by Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu. After Nagashino, the Takeda clan fell into sharp decline as it had lost many of its most notable samurai during the battle. Katsuyori's position within the clan became precarious; the campaign saw most of the Takeda followers abandoning Katsuyori and the other Takeda family members to their fate. The clan was eliminated, although descendants of the Takeda clan would take prominent positions in the Tokugawa shogunate, established in 1603. Takeda is a common family name in modern Japan, though it is unlikely that everyone with the Takeda name is descended from this noble house. In fact, most of the real descendants of the Takeda had a different name when they created a cadet branch.
During the Tokugawa period, several daimyō families were direct descendants of the Takeda. In 1868, these daimyō families were: The Matsumae, descendants of Takeda Kuninobu, were daimyō of Matsumae, the only feudal fief of Hokkaidō; the Nanbu, descendants of Takeda Mitsuyuki, great-grandson of Takeda Yoshikiyo, established himself at Nambu and took that name. The Nambu were daimyō of Shichinohe and Hachinohe; the Yanagisawa, descendants of Takeda Nobuyoshi, were daimyō of Kurokawa and Mikkaichi. The Gotō, descendants of Takeda Nobuhiro, were daimyō of Gotō; the Ogasawara are a cadet branch of the Takeda, by Takeda Nagakiyo, great-grandson of Takeda Yoshikiyo, the first to take the name of Ogasawara. His descendants were shugo of Shinano and Hida Pro