Civic Center/Grand Park station
Civic Center/Grand Park Civic Center, is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located on Hill Street between 1st and Temple Streets in the Civic Center area of Downtown Los Angeles; the station is named Civic Center/Grand Park/Tom Bradley after former Los Angeles mayor Tom Bradley, who had a pivotal role in turning the subway into reality. This station is served by the Purple Line, it is served by the Metro Silver Line at street level. Red and Purple Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Silver Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 1:00 AM daily; the station features a colorful art installation titled I Dreamed I Could Fly, which has six fiberglass persons in flight, intended to be representative of the human spiritual voyage. The installation was designed by Jonathan Borofsky. Ahmanson Theatre/Mark Taper Forum Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Los Angeles City Hall Grand Park Walt Disney Concert Hall The Broad Little Tokyo Museum of Contemporary Art DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Los Angeles Downtown Metro servicesMetro Local: 2, 4, 10, 14, 28, 30, 37, 40, 45, 48, 68, 70, 71, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 302* & 378* Metro Express: 442*, 487 & 489* Metro Rapid: 728, 733, 745, 770 & 794Other local and commuter servicesAntelope Valley Transit Authority: 785* City of Santa Clarita Transit: 799* Foothill Transit: Silver Streak, 493*, 495*, 497*, 498*, 499*, 699* LADOT Commuter Express: 409*, 419*, 422*, 423*, 431*, 437*, 438*, 448* & 534* LADOT DASH: A, B, D Montebello Transit: 90* Santa Monica Transit: Rapid 10 Torrance Transit: 4*Note: * indicates commuter service that operates only during weekday rush hours.
On the popular television series Alias, the CIA black ops unit Authorized Personnel Only is located behind a maintenance door at Civic Station. Station connections overview
Downtown Long Beach station
Downtown Long Beach is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located on 1st Street between Pine Avenue and Pacific Avenue in Downtown Long Beach in southwestern California; this station is the southern terminus of the Blue Line route and only offers northbound service, as it is located in a loop. The light rail station is a key part of the Long Beach Transit Mall, which extends along 1st Street between Pacific Avenue and Long Beach Boulevard; as the city's major transit center, this section of 1st Street is closed to private vehicles and only trains and transit vehicles are allowed. From 1990 to July 2013, the station was known as Transit Mall Station. In 2010, a $7 million project was undertaken by Long Beach Transit to upgrade the transit mall. New bus shelters were constructed, with new artwork; the project was completed in spring 2011. During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the station will serve spectators traveling to and from Olympic venues located in Long Beach.
Blue Line service hours are from 04:45 until 01:00 weekdays and 04:45 until 02:00 on weekends. Metro Local: 60, 232 Long Beach Transit: 1, 21, 22, 46, 51, 52, 61, 71, 81, 91, 92, 93, 94, 111, 112, 121, 151, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 191, 192, Passport LADOT Commuter Express: 142 Torrance Transit: 3, Rapid 3 Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach: 1b FlyAway to LAX Flixbus Aquarium of the Pacific Rainbow Harbor and Shoreline Village The Pike Entertainment Complex Pine Avenue Entertainment District Long Beach Performing Arts Center Media related to Transit Mall at Wikimedia Commons Long Beach Transit Mall info
This article reflects practice in jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the right. If not otherwise specified, "right" and "left" can be reversed to reflect jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the left. An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads cross. Intersections may be classified by number of road segments, traffic lane design. One way to classify intersections is by the number of road segments. A three-way intersection is a junction between three road segments: a T junction when two arms form one road, or a Y junction – the latter known as a fork if approached from the stem of the Y. A four-way intersection, or crossroads involves a crossing over of two streets or roads. In areas where there are blocks and in some other cases, the crossing streets or roads are perpendicular to each other. However, two roads may cross at a different angle. In a few cases, the junction of two road segments may be offset from each when reaching an intersection though both ends may be considered the same street.
Five-way intersections are less common but still exist in urban areas with non-rectangular blocks. An example of this is the intersection. Six-way intersections involve a crossing of three streets at one junction. Seven or more approaches to a single intersection, such as at Seven Dials, are rare. Another way of classifying intersections is by traffic control technology: Uncontrolled intersections, without signs or signals. Priority rules may vary by country: on a 4-way intersection traffic from the right has priority. For traffic coming from the same or opposite direction, that which goes straight has priority over that which turns off. Yield-controlled intersections may not have specific "YIELD" signs. Stop-controlled intersections have one or more "STOP" signs. Two-way stops are common, while some countries employ four-way stops. Signal-controlled intersections depend on traffic signals electric, which indicate which traffic is allowed to proceed at any particular time. A traffic circle is a type of intersection.
Types of traffic circles include roundabouts,'mini-roundabouts','rotaries', "STOP"-controlled circles, signal-controlled circles. Some people consider roundabouts to be a distinct type of intersection from traffic circles. A box junction can be added to an intersection prohibiting entry to the intersection unless the exit is clear; some intersections employ indirect left turns to reduce delays. The Michigan left combines a U-turn. Jughandle lefts diverge to the right curve to the left, converting a left turn to a crossing maneuver, similar to throughabouts; these techniques are used in conjunction with signal-controlled intersections, although they may be used at stop-controlled intersections. Other designs include advanced stop lines, parallel-flow and continuous-flow intersections, hook turns, seagull intersections, slip lanes, staggered junctions, Texas Ts, Texas U-turns and turnarounds. A roundabout and its variants like turbo roundabouts and distributing circles like traffic circles and right-in/right-out intersections.
At intersections, turns are allowed, but are regulated to avoid interference with other traffic. Certain turns may be not allowed or may be limited by regulatory signs or signals those that cross oncoming traffic. Alternative designs attempt to reduce or eliminate such potential conflicts. At intersections with large proportions of turning traffic, turn lanes may be provided. For example, in the intersection shown in the diagram, left turn lanes are present in the right-left street. Turn lanes allow vehicles to exit a road without crossing traffic. Absence of a turn lane does not indicate a prohibition of turns in that direction. Instead, traffic control signs are used to prohibit specific turns. Turn lanes improve safety. Turn lanes can have a dramatic effect on the safety of a junction. In rural areas, crash frequency can be reduced by up to 48% if left turn lanes are provided on both main-road approaches at stop-controlled intersections. At signalized intersections, crashes can be reduced by 33%.
Results are lower in urban areas. Turn lanes are marked with an arrow bending into the direction of the turn, to be made from that lane. Multi-headed arrows indicate that vehicle drivers may travel in any one of the directions pointed to by an arrow. Traffic signals facing vehicles in turn lanes have arrow-shaped indications. Green arrows indicate protected turn phases. Red arrows may be displayed to prohibit turns in that direction. Red arrows may be displayed along with a circular green indication to show that turns in the direction of the arrow are prohibited, but other movements are allowed. In some jurisdictions, a red
1994 Northridge earthquake
The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a magnitude of 6.7, blind thrust earthquake that occurred on January 17 at 4:30:55 a.m. PST in the San Fernando Valley region of the County of Los Angeles, its epicenter was in a neighborhood in the north-central Valley. The quake had a duration of 10–20 seconds, its peak ground acceleration of 1.8g was the highest instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America. Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, about 220 miles from the epicenter; the peak ground velocity at the Rinaldi Receiving Station was 183 cm/s, the fastest recorded. Two 6.0 Mw aftershocks followed, the first about one minute after the initial event and the second 11 hours the strongest of several thousand aftershocks in all. The death toll was 57, with more than 8,700 injured. In addition, property damage was estimated to be $13–50 billion, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U. S. history. The earthquake struck in the San Fernando Valley about 20 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles.
Although given the name "Northridge", where the quake was believed to have been centered and substantial damage occurred, the actual epicenter was pinpointed in the neighboring community of Reseda within several days. The National Geophysical Data Center placed the hypocenter's geographical coordinates at 34°12′47″N 118°32′13″W and at a depth of 11.4 miles. It occurred on a undiscovered fault, now named the Northridge blind thrust fault. Several other faults experienced minor rupture during the main shock and other ruptures occurred during large aftershocks, or triggered events. Damage occurred up to 85 miles away, with the most damage in the west San Fernando Valley, the cities of Santa Monica, Simi Valley and Santa Clarita; the exact number of fatalities is unknown, with sources estimating it at 60 or "over 60", to 72, where most estimates fall around 60. The "official" death toll was placed at 57; some counts factor in related events such as a man's suicide inspired by the loss of his business in the disaster.
More than 8,700 were injured including 1,600. The Northridge Meadows apartment complex was one of the well-known affected areas in which sixteen people were killed as a result of the building's collapse; the Northridge Fashion Center and California State University, Northridge sustained heavy damage—most notably the collapse of parking structures. The earthquake gained worldwide attention because of damage to the vast freeway network, which serves millions of commuters everyday; the most notable was to the Santa Monica Freeway, Interstate 10, known as the busiest freeway in the United States, congesting nearby surface roads for three months while the freeway was repaired. Farther north, the Newhall Pass interchange of Interstate 5 and State Route 14 collapsed as it had 23 years earlier in the 1971 Sylmar earthquake though it had been rebuilt with minor improvements to the structural components. One life was lost in the Newhall Pass interchange collapse: LAPD motorcycle officer Clarence Wayne Dean fell 40 feet from the damaged connector from southbound 14 to southbound I-5 along with his motorcycle.
Because of the early morning darkness, he did not realize that the elevated roadway below him had collapsed, was unable to stop in time to miss the fall and died instantly. When the interchange was rebuilt again one year it was renamed the Clarence Wayne Dean Memorial Interchange in his honor. Additional damage occurred about 50 miles southeast in Anaheim as the scoreboard at Anaheim Stadium collapsed onto several hundred seats; the stadium was vacant at the time. Although several commercial buildings collapsed, loss of life was minimized because of the early morning hour of the quake, because it occurred on a federal holiday; because of known seismic activity in California, area building codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes. However, the damage caused revealed; because of these revelations, building codes were revised. Some structures were not red-tagged until months because damage was not evident; the quake produced unusually strong ground accelerations in the range of 1.0 g.
Damage was caused by fire and landslides. The Northridge earthquake was notable for hitting the same exact area as the Mw 6.6 San Fernando earthquake. Estimates of total damage range between $13 and $40 billion. Most casualties and damage occurred in multi-story wood frame buildings. In particular, buildings with an unstable first floor performed poorly. Numerous fires were caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas. Five days it was estimated that between 40,000 and 60,000 customers were still without public water service; as expected, unreinforced masonry buildings and houses on steep slopes suff
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at
The Desert Wind was an Amtrak long distance passenger train that ran from 1979 to 1997. It operated between Los Angeles and Ogden, Utah via Salt Lake City and Las Vegas, was truncated from Ogden to Salt Lake City in 1983. In the late 1960s, prior to the creation of Amtrak, the Union Pacific Railroad combined its West Coast streamliners from Chicago and Kansas City into a single massive train dubbed by critics the "City of Everywhere." This train included the Challenger, City of Denver, City of Kansas City, City of Los Angeles, City of Portland, City of San Francisco. The City of Los Angeles separated from this behemoth at Ogden, Utah to serve Los Angeles via Las Vegas. Of these, Amtrak retained portions of the City of Kansas City and City of San Francisco for its Chicago–San Francisco service, which it named the San Francisco Zephyr. Regular service to Las Vegas ended in the early morning hours of May 2, 1971, when the westbound City of Los Angeles made its last station stop on its final trip to its namesake city.
Throughout the 1970s, there were brief attempts to revive service to Las Vegas in the form of charters and excursions, plus one regularly-scheduled weekend-only train called the Las Vegas Limited, which ran for four months in 1976. Matters came to a head in 1979, as Amtrak faced significant political pressure to cut costs and reduce the size of its national network. Senator Howard Cannon pushed Amtrak hard to create a train which served Las Vegas, Amtrak considered replacing the Southwest Limited, its existing Chicago–Los Angeles train, with such a service. In the end, the Southwest Limited remained and Amtrak introduced the Desert Wind, which made its first run on October 28, 1979; the original Desert Wind was a day train with Amfleet equipment. The northbound train left Los Angeles mid-day and arrived in Ogden the following morning to connect with the eastbound San Francisco Zephyr; the southbound departed Ogden in the middle of the night after the arrival of the westbound San Francisco Zephyr from Chicago and arrived in Los Angeles in late afternoon.
The 811-mile journey took eighteen hours. Beginning in 1980, the Desert Wind exchanged a Chicago–Los Angeles through coach with the San Francisco Zephyr; the Desert Wind's eastern terminus moved to Salt Lake City after the re-named and re-routed California Zephyr began using the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad main line in 1983. The Desert Wind and the Pioneer would operate together with the California Zephyr from Chicago to Salt Lake City, where the trains separated; the Desert Wind was discontinued on May 12, 1997, a victim of Amtrak's reoccurring budget cuts that eliminated the Pioneer days earlier. Train service was replaced with a Los Angeles–Las Vegas Thruway Motorcoach service. At that time, rail service between Los Angeles and Las Vegas took 7 hours, 15 minutes. There are several private, competing plans to restore rail service from Los Angeles to Las Vegas, including the high-speed XpressWest, the more conventional X Train and Z-Train. A Los Angeles–Las Vegas route run by Amtrak nearly entered service in 2000.
A Talgo VII trainset was bought for the service in 1999. As of 2011, new routes were being considered, including routes using the same track as the original Desert Wind, routes using the Metrolink San Bernardino Line. Lack of funding and congestion through the Cajon Pass remained significant obstacles. More recent proposals using high speed rail have suggested routing through Victorville and connecting with California's high speed rail project in Palmdale, assuming the California project can secure funding for a connection from Bakersfield to Los Angeles; the route has some merit for Amtrak, as the July 2010 issue of Trains listed the route as one to be restored in conjunction with upgrading the equipment on the California Zephyr. Trainweb: Amtrak Desert Wind - Train #35 & 36
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed