Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Peder Anker was a prominent Norwegian landowner and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Norway from 1814 until 1822. Peder Anker was a member of a Danish-Norwegian noble family, he was born in the son of the wealthy merchant Christian Ancher. He had three brothers Iver and Jess. Following education in Christiania and a year as student at the University of Copenhagen, Peder Anker and his brothers spent five years traveling with private tutors in Great Britain, France and Italy, they were pupils of the noted Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné at Uppsala University in 1764. He was granted Danish nobility in 1778 and was awarded the title of General War Commissioner in 1788. Peder Anker bought Bogstad Manor with additional forest land and extended the existing house to make a splendid mansion. Bogstad had for about 100 years belonged to members of his grandmother's family, he acquired iron mines and foundries, notably Bærums Verk and Hakadal Verk. The Vækerø manor near Oslo was established as a port for the export of lumber.
Anker rose to become one of Norway's richest individuals. Peder Anker was a delegate to the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll in 1814, representing Akershus Amt, he distinguished himself as a "unionist". On 18 November 1814 he was appointed Prime Minister of Norway to Stockholm after the Union between Sweden and Norway was established, remained in this office until 30 June 1822. Peder Anker was decorated with the Royal Order of the Seraphim and the Order of Charles XIII, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Dannebrog in 1812. In 1815, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Several roads in Norway have been named in honor of Peder Anker including Peder Ankers vei in Jar, Peder Anker gate in Halden, Peder Ankers Plass in Oslo. Frydenlund, Bård Stormannen Peder Anker: en biografi ISBN 978-82-03-21084-6 Government Administration Services Peder Anker Holmøyvik, Eirik Maktfordeling og 1814 ISBN 978-82-450-1276-7 Peder Anker at Find a Grave
Rykkinn is a commuter town in the north-west of Bærum, Akershus county, Norway with about 10,000-15,000 inhabitants. It is located between the area of Skui and Vøyenenga. Rykkinn consists of apartment blocks and smaller houses. Most of Rykkinn's buildings and infrastructure were built in the early 1970s due to the growing demands for housing near Oslo; the mix of houses and apartments can therefore be seen as a part of the social democratic ideology that influenced Norwegian society at that time: People of different classes were to live peacefully side by side in the new suburb. For this reason Rykkinn has had a development more akin to Oslo's eastern bourough, quite different from much of the otherwise affluent municipality. Rykkinn has a shopping mall, which used to contain Norway's highest educational facility for commercial trading - Kjøpmannsinstituttet. Rykkinn is home to the Norwegian national basketball venue, they have a basketball team in the Top series of Norwegian basketball called 3B/Bærums Verk.
Harald Eia, a Norwegian comedian who has included references to Rykkinn in his performances, Nikolaj Frobenius, an author and screenwriter, were born here
Bogstad Manor is a historic Manor House and former estate located in the borough of Vestre Aker in Oslo, Norway. It is situated in the northwestern part of Oslo. Bogstad has its origin in a farm, located near Bogstadvannet, a lake in the valley of Sørkedalen; the farm was owned by several notable people. It went from merchant and councilman Peder Nielsen Leuch and his family to Norwegian Prime Minister Peder Anker to his son-in-law Governor of Norway Herman Wedel Jarlsberg via his marriage to Karen Anker, the only child of Peder Anker; the property included forested acreage. Timber trader and landowner Morten Leuch was the owner of Bogstad estate from 1756. Bernt Anker acquired the estate through marriage. Peder Anker utilized the slope from the main house down to Bogstadvannet for development with curved paths and artificial creeks; the landscape was further developed from 1780. The estate was developed with a larger manor house in 1785; the last private owners were Westye Parr Egeberg. The property has been owned by Oslo municipality since 1954.
The manor house is owned by Bogstad Foundation and operated as a museum in cooperation with the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History. The manor house dating from between 1760-1780 was built in the style of Classicist architecture and is a typical example of building styles for the period. Bogstad Manor has been furnished with paintings, chandeliers and other furnishings from the period 1750-1850. Guided tours of the museum are available during summer months. Bogstad has become the name of a neighborhood of northwest Oslo which includes the area of Bogstad Manor and Bogstad Golf Course operated by the Oslo Golf Club. Hauge, Nini Egeberg Bogstad, 1773-1995 Roede, Lars To gårder – to brødre. Mye om Frogner og litt om Bogstad ISBN 978-82-92865-03-3 Hopstock, Carsten Bogstad - et storgods gjennom 300 år ISBN 82-7683-166-4 Bogstad Gård website Bogstad Gård Museum Bogstad Gård Digitalt Museum
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals pig iron, but others such as lead or copper. Blast refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel and flux are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward; the end products are molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom, waste gases exiting from the top of the furnace. The downward flow of the ore and flux in contact with an upflow of hot, carbon monoxide-rich combustion gases is a countercurrent exchange and chemical reaction process. In contrast, air furnaces are aspirated by the convection of hot gases in a chimney flue. According to this broad definition, bloomeries for iron, blowing houses for tin, smelt mills for lead would be classified as blast furnaces.
However, the term has been limited to those used for smelting iron ore to produce pig iron, an intermediate material used in the production of commercial iron and steel, the shaft furnaces used in combination with sinter plants in base metals smelting. Cast iron has been found in China dating to the 5th century BC, but the earliest extant blast furnaces in China date to the 1st century AD and in the West from the High Middle Ages, they spread from the region around Namur in Wallonia in the late 15th century, being introduced to England in 1491. The fuel used in these was invariably charcoal; the successful substitution of coke for charcoal is attributed to English inventor Abraham Darby in 1709. The efficiency of the process was further enhanced by the practice of preheating the combustion air, patented by Scottish inventor James Beaumont Neilson in 1828. Archaeological evidence shows that bloomeries appeared in China around 800 BC, it was thought that the Chinese started casting iron right from the beginning, but this theory has since been debunked by the discovery of'more than ten' iron digging implements found in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qin, whose tomb is located in Fengxiang County, Shaanxi.
There is however no evidence of the bloomery in China after the appearance of the blast furnace and cast iron. In China blast furnaces produced cast iron, either converted into finished implements in a cupola furnace, or turned into wrought iron in a fining hearth. Although cast iron farm tools and weapons were widespread in China by the 5th century BC, employing workforces of over 200 men in iron smelters from the 3rd century onward, the earliest extant blast furnaces were built date to the Han Dynasty in the 1st century AD; these early furnaces used phosphorus-containing minerals as a flux. Chinese blast furnaces ranged from around two to ten meters depending on the region; the largest ones were found in modern Sichuan and Guangdong, while the'dwarf" blast furnaces were found in Dabieshan. In construction, they are both around the same level of technological sophistication The effectiveness of the Chinese blast furnace was enhanced during this period by the engineer Du Shi, who applied the power of waterwheels to piston-bellows in forging cast iron.
Donald Wagner suggests that early blast furnace and cast iron production evolved from furnaces used to melt bronze. Though, iron was essential to military success by the time the State of Qin had unified China. Usage of the blast and cupola furnace remained widespread during Tang Dynasties. By the 11th century, the Song Dynasty Chinese iron industry made a switch of resources from charcoal to coke in casting iron and steel, sparing thousands of acres of woodland from felling; this may have happened as early as the 4th century AD. The primary advantage of the early blast furnace was in large scale production and making iron implements more available to peasants. Cast iron is more brittle than wrought iron or steel, which required additional fining and cementation or co-fusion to produce, but for menial activities such as farming it sufficed. By using the blast furnace, it was possible to produce larger quantities of tools such as ploughshares more efficiently than the bloomery. In areas where quality was important, such as warfare, wrought iron and steel were preferred.
Nearly all Han period weapons are made of wrought iron or steel, with the exception of axe-heads, of which many are made of cast iron. Blast furnaces were later used to produce gunpowder weapons such as cast iron bomb shells and cast iron cannons during the Song dynasty; the simplest forge, known as the Corsican, was used prior to the advent of Christianity. Examples of improved bloomeries are the Stückofen or the Catalan forge, which remained until the beginning of the 19th century; the Catalan forge was invented in Catalonia, during the 8th century. Instead of using natural draught, air was pumped in by a trompe, resulting in better quality iron and an increased capacity; this pumping of airstream in with bellows is known as cold blast, it increases the fuel efficiency of the bloomery and improves yield. The Catalan forges can be built bigger than natural draught bloomeries; the oldest known blast furnaces in the West were built in Dürstel in Switzerland, the Märkische Sauerland in Germany, at Lapphyttan in Sweden, where the complex was active between 1205 and 1300.
At Noraskog in the Swedish parish of Järnboås, there have been fou
Gjønnes is a district in eastern Bærum, Norway. Gjønnes is the district southwest of Presterud and Bekkestua, south and east of Haslum, north of Ekeberg and Ballerud. Geographically, the most significant feature of Gjønnes was the Nadderud Watershed, with several small creeks from northern Bærum confluencing south of Gjønnes farm before continuing southwest towards Øverlandselva. Most of the creek system is now led underground through a pipe system. Much of the riverbed southwest of Gjønnes is used as a pedestrian road. A grinding mill was operated at Gjønnes; the name stems from the local farm, whose name has been recorded as Gieffnes and Gionæs. The farm has been owned by the Haslum family since 1883. In 1826 the farm was registered with 210 decares of crop, four horses, sixteen cattle and sixteen sheep. In 1939 it had 296 decares of four horses, forty cattle, six swine and 25 chicken. Gjønnes farm had a limestone oven; the former croft Kleiva was separated from Gjønnes in 1820. In 1939 Kleiva had 19 decares of one horse, six cattle and 20 swine.
Farming decreased and the periphery of the farmland was soon built up with housing. This development was spurred by the creation of the Kolsås Line light rail; the farm still exists, but in 2009 politicians agreed to allow housebuilding on much of the remaining soil. The upper secondary school Nadderud was raised at southern Nadderud, not far from Gjønnes farm, in 1958. Politicians agreed to building the school in 1957, it had 326 students in its first year; the school building being temporary, it was only intended to exist for five years, but the number of students rose and it was necessary to proliferate the school's lifespan. The school was discontinued in 2004, being replaced by a new school between Gjønnes and Haslum. In conjunction with the new school, a new multi-sports hall called Gjønneshallen was completed in 2005, it was the largest sports complex in Bærum at the time. It has one section for team handball, another section with a small artificial turf football field, a strip with athletics rubber and a climbing wall.
It has rooms for weight training and the like. On the other side of the school is found the headquarters of Haslum's sports team Haslum IL. Before 1973, Stabæk IF operated a small ski jumping hill named Gjønnesbakken, it was located on the small hill Gjønnesåsen northwest of the farm. Since 1924 Gjønnes is served by the Oslo Metro station Gjønnes; the district is served by lines 42, 142, 732 and 735 of Ruter's bus network. Norwegian National Road 160 passes through the area, with the Bekkestua Tunnel having its western exit right by the Metro station
Stabekk is a suburban centre in the municipality of Bærum, west of Oslo. It is predominantly a residential area, with many residents commuting to Oslo; as of 2005 the population was 6,261. Bærum has the highest income per capita and the highest proportion of university-educated individuals in Norway, it is one of Norway's priciest and most fashionable residential areas, leading residents to be stereotyped as snobs in Norwegian popular culture. The area has some of the most conservative populace in Norway Stabekk has a commercial district divided into Øvre Stabekk and Nedre Stabekk, separated by a hill. There are a number of retail shops in both these sections as well as a commuter railroad station served by Drammenbanen. Stabekk has a bandy field, a primary school, an upper-secondary school, a cinema, a tennis club; the campus of the Norwegian Teachers College for Home Economics is on the architectural registry. The football team Stabæk I. F. originates from Stabekk, the name Stabæk being an archaic spelling, but the team has since relocated to Bekkestua.
The bandy team of Stabæk I. F. is among the best in Norway. Stabekk Håndball is playing in the top-division in Norwegian Handball - Grundigligaen. Notable people that were born or lived in Stabekk include: Jo Benkow, former president of the Norwegian parliament and Høyre leader Christian C. A. Lange, historian