National Liberal Party (Romania)
The National Liberal Party is a conservative-liberal political party in Romania. Refounded in 1990, it claims the legacy of the major political party of the same name, active between 1875 and the late 1940s. Based on this legacy, it presents itself as the first formally constituted political party in the country and the oldest party from the family of European liberal parties; until 2014, the PNL was a member of the Alliance of Democrats for Europe. The party statutes adopted in June 2014 dropped any reference to international affiliation most of its MEPs joined the European People's Party group in the European Parliament. On 12 September 2014, it was admitted as a full member of the European People's Party, subsequently merged with the Democratic Liberal Party; the party was a member of the Liberal International before switching to Centrist Democrat International. It is the second-largest party in the Romanian Parliament, with 68 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 25 in the Senate, behind the governing Social Democratic Party.
The National Liberal Party of Romania was re-founded in January, 1990, a few days after the end of the 1989 Romanian revolution. At that time, the party revolved around two political leaders such as Radu Câmpeanu and Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, both former youth liberal leaders during the interwar period and after World War II. At the 1990 general elections, the PNL became the third largest party in Romania and its leader, Radu Câmpeanu, finished second in the same year's presidential elections, with 10.6% of the cast votes, behind Ion Iliescu. Shortly afterwards, most notably alongside the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party, but to a lesser extent with other smaller center-right parties and NGOs, the PNL managed to form the Romanian Democratic Convention in an effort to ensemble a stronger collective opposition and alternative governing body to ruling National Salvation Front. However, prior to the 1992 general elections, Câmpeanu decided to withdraw the party from the CDR electoral alliance and instead compete as a stand-alone political force.
This proved to be a strategic error, as the party did not manage to surpass the needed electoral threshold for parliamentary presence and as such was forced to enter extra-parliamentary opposition for the period 1992–1996. This resulted in several splinter factions leaving the main party, with some PNL groups opting to remain within the CDR while others still supporting Câmpeanu's side. After a change of leadership that saw Ionescu-Quintus as the new party leader elected in 1995, the PNL contested the 1996 general election as part of the CDR; the 1996 general elections represented the first peaceful transition of power in post-1989 Romania, with the PNL, PNȚ-CD, Democratic Party, the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania forming a grand coalition that pushed the PDSR in opposition for the period 1996–2000. The presidency was won by the CDR's common candidate, more Emil Constantinescu, who received support on behalf of all of the alliance's constituent parties. Between 1996 and 2000, because of the lack of political coherence within the parties of the governing CDR coalition and the multiple changes of cabinets that followed, the PNL decided once more to withdraw from the alliance just before the 2000 general elections and to compete alone instead.
This time, the party managed to gain parliamentary presence but failed to form another centre-right government, finishing fourth in the legislative elections and third in the presidential election. Therefore, during the mid 2000s, the PNL joined forces with the PD in order to form the Justice and Truth Alliance so as to compete in the 2004 general election as an alternative to the ruling PSD government; the alliance managed to finish second by popular vote in the Parliament, subsequently form a centre-right cabinet, win the presidency during the same year. Until April 2007, the PNL was the largest member of the governing Justice and Truth Alliance, which enjoyed a parliamentary majority due to an alliance between the PNL, PD, the Conservative Party and the UDMR. In April 2007 PNL prime minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, the party leader, formed a minority government with the UDMR and the remainder PD ministers were reshuffled; this cause internal opposition within the party and led to a splinter group, the Liberal Democratic Party merging with the PD to form the Democratic Liberal Party.
After the 2008 legislative election the party placed third and entered official opposition, winning 19.74% seats in the Parliament, while the new grand coalition, formed by their former enlarged ally the democrat liberals and the Social Democratic Party, had 70%. At the 2009 presidential election the National Liberal Party's newly elected leader, Crin Antonescu, finished third in the first round and the party still found itself in parliamentary opposition for the three next years to come. On 5 February 2011, the PNL formed the Social Liberal Union political alliance with the PSD, the National Union for the Progress of Romania, the Conservative Party; the PNL subsequently exited the USL on 25 February 2014, disbanding the alliance and returning to opposition. On 26 May 2014, following the 2014 European elections PNL party president Crin Antonescu announced he was seeking membership within the European People's Party. At the beginning of the 8th European Parliament, 5 of the PNL MEPs sat with the EPP Group, 1 with the ALDE Group, who becam
Caraș-Severin is a county of Romania on the border with Serbia. The majority of its territory lies within the historical region of Banat, with a few northeastern villages considered part of Transylvania; the county seat is Reșița. The Caraș-Severin county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisza Euroregion. In Serbian and Croatian, it is known as Karaš Severin/Караш Северин or Karaš-Severinska županija, in Hungarian as Krassó-Szörény megye, in German as Kreis Karasch-Severin, in Bulgarian as Караш-Северин; the county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mureș-Tisza euroregion. In 2011, it had a population of 274,277 and a population density of 33.63/km2. The majority of the population are Romanians. There are Roma, Germans - Banat Swabians, Serbs and Ukrainians. With 8,514 km2, it is the third largest county in Romania, after Suceava counties, it is the county through which the Danube River enters Romania. The mountains make up 67% of the county's surface, including the Southern Carpathians range, with Banat Mountains, Țarcu-Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains and elevations between 600 and 2100 meters.
Transition hills between mountains and the Banat Plain lie in the western side of the county. The Danube enters Romania in the vicinity of Baziaș. Timiș, Caraș and Nera cross the county, some of them through spectacular valleys and gorges. Hunedoara County and Gorj County to the east. Timiș County to the north. Mehedinți County to the southeast. Serbia to the southwest: Vojvodina Autonomous Province to the west – South Banat okrug. Bor District and Braničevo District to the south. In 1718 the county was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, part of the province of Banat. In 1771 the county seat, Reschitz became a modern industrial center under Austrian rule; the area received considerable attention due to its mining industry. In 1855, the entire Banat area, with its supplies of mineral deposits and timber, was transferred from the Austrian Treasury to a joint Austrian-French mining and railroad company named StEG. StEG built the Oravița-Baziaș line, Romania's oldest railroad track. After World War I, StEG, Banat and most Austro-Hungarian property were taken over by a company named UDR.
During the last years of World War II, when Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany, a partisan group, led by Ștefan Plavăț, was active in the mountainous area of the county. The arrival of the communist regime in Romania after World War II and that regime's campaign of nationalization of the mining industry brought tremendous social upheaval in the area. Archaeological findings show. There is a County Museum of History in Reșița, displaying archeological artifacts, and, in the town of Ocna de Fier, the Constantin Gruiescu Mineralogical Collection; the county hosts the regional lilac festivals in the Spring. Sites worth visiting: Cheile Nerei – Beușinta National Park. President of the County Council – Florin Silviu Hurduzeu Vice-president of the County Council - Ionut PopoviciThe Caraș-Severin County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: Caraș-Severin County has 2 municipalities, 6 towns and 69 communes Municipalities Caransebeș Reșița – capital city.
The county was located in the southwestern part of Greater Romania, in the south and east region of the Banat. The county seat was Lugoj, its territory consisted of the current territory of the county, but parts of the current counties of Timiș, Mehedinți. It bordered on the west with Timiș-Torontal County and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, to the south with Yugoslavia, to the east with the counties Mehedinți and Hunedoara, to the north by Arad County; the county had a total area over 11,000 square kilometres, making it the largest county geographically of interwar Romania. Its territory corresponded to the former Hungarian division of Krassó-Szörény County; the county existed for seven years, being divided in 1926 into Severin County. The county was divided administratively into fourteen districts. There were five urban municipalities: Caransebeș, Reșița, Oravița and Orșova. According to the census data of 1920, the total population of the county was 424,254 inhabitants; the population density was 38 inhabitants/km2
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe, divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania. The region of Banat is populated by ethnic Romanians, Hungarians, Krashovani, Slovaks, Czechs, Jews and other ethnicities. During the Middle Ages, the term "banate" was designating a frontier province led by a military governor, called ban; such provinces existed in South Slavic and Romanian lands. In South Slavic and other regional languages, terms for "banate" were: Serbian - бановина / banovina, Hungarian - bánság, Romanian - banat and Latin - banatus. At the time of the medieval Hungarian kingdom, the territory of modern-day Banat appeared in written sources as "Temesköz"; the Hungarian name referred to the lowland areas between the Mureş, Tisza and Danube Rivers. Its Ottoman name was "Eyalet of Temeşvar". During the Turkish occupation, the territory of Temesköz was called "Rascia". In the early modern period, there were two banates that or included the territory of what is referred to in the current era as Banat: the Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș in 16th and 17th century and the Banat of Temeswar or Banat of Temes in 18th and 19th centuries.
The word "Banat" without any other qualification refers to the historical Banat of Temeswar, which acquired this title after the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz. The name was used from 1941 to 1944, during Axis occupation, for the short-lived political entity, which covered only today's Serbian part of the historical Banat; the name Banat is similar in different languages of the region. Some of these languages would have other terms, from their own frame of reference, to describe this historical and geographic region; the Banat is defined as the part of the Pannonian Basin bordered by the River Danube to the south, the River Tisa to the west, the River Mureș to the north, the Southern Carpathian Mountains to the east. Its historical capital was Timișoara, now in Timiș County in Romania; the territory of the Banat is presently part of the Romanian counties Timiș, Caraș-Severin and Mehedinți. The Romanian Banat is mountainous in the south and southeast, while in the north and south-west it is flat and in some places marshy.
The climate, except in the marshy parts, is healthy. Wheat, oats, maize, flax and tobacco are grown in large quantities, the products of the vineyards are of a good quality. Game is plentiful and the rivers swarm with fish; the mineral wealth is great, including copper, lead, zinc and coal. Amongst its numerous mineral springs, the most important are those of Mehadia, with sulphurous waters, which were known in the Roman period as the Termae Herculis; the present "Banat Region" of Romania includes some areas that are mountainous and were not part of the historical Banat or of the Pannonian plain. In Serbia, the Banat is plains. Wheat, oats, maize and sunflower are grown, mineral wealth consists of oil and natural gas. A popular tourist destination in the Banat is Deliblatska Peščara. There are several ethnic minorities in the region, including Hungarians, Slovaks, Macedonians, Roma people, others; the first known inhabitants of present-day Banat were the Neolithic populations. In the 4th century BC, Celtic tribes settled in this area.
Various Hallstatt and La Tène objects were found in this area. The most important tribes were the Taurisci; the Scordisci, who formed a powerful state minted their own coins, imitating the Macedonian tetradrachm. The Scordisci subdued as all the other tribes in the region to the getic ruler Burebista, therefore their region was part of the Dacian kingdom under Burebista in the first century BC, but the balance of power in the area changed during the campaigns of Augustus. At the beginning of the 2nd century A. D. Trajan led two wars against the Dacians: the campaigns of 101-102, 105-106; the territory of Banat fell under Roman rule. It became the other parts of the Empire. Roman rule had a significant impact: castra and guard stations were established and roads and public buildings built; the public bath establishments of Ad Aquas Herculis, modern-day Băile Herculane were established. Some of the important Roman settlements in Banat were: Arcidava, Centum Putea, Tibiscum, Agnaviae, Ad Pannonios and Dierna.
In 273 A. D. Emperor Aurelian withdrew the Roman Army from Dacia; the area fell into the hands of foederati such as the Sarmatians and the Goths, who took control of other parts of Dacia. The Goths were forced out by the Huns, who organized their ruling center in the Pannonian Basin (the
The Cerna is a river in Romania, a left tributary of the river Danube. The Cerna has its source on the south-east side of the Godeanu Mountains and flows into the Danube near the town Orșova; the upper reach of the river is sometimes called Cernișoara. With a basin of 1433 square km and a length of 84 km, it carves an erosive tectonic valley with numerous gorges, quite deep sometimes. There is a man-made lake on it, just before it crosses the Băile Herculane spa, to perpetuate the old toponimic od Dierna; the upper course of the Cerna is part of the Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park. The Cerna flows through the villages and towns Cerna-Sat, Țațu, Băile Herculane, Pecinișca, Bârza, Topleț, Coramnic and Orșova; the following rivers are tributaries of the River Cerna: Left: Șturu, Turcineasa, Râmnuța, Arsasca, Tăsna, Ogașu lui Roșeț, Jelărău, Valea Mare Right: Măneasa, Scurtu, Cărbunele, Valea lui Iovan, Naiba, Craiova, Topenița, Prisăcina, Iardașița, Sacherștița Administrația Națională Apelor Române – Cadastrul Apelor – Bucharest Directiva Cadru 2000/60 a Uniunii Europene în Domeniul Apei – Județul Gorj Județul Gorj – Planul Județean de Apărare împotriva Inundațiilor Trasee turistice – județul Caraș Trasee turistice – județul Gorj Trasee turistice – județul Mehedinți Harta Județului Caraș-Severin
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 99% of human technological prehistory. It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene c. 11,650 cal BP. The Paleolithic is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals; the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use including leather and vegetable fibers. About 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record; the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
Archaeologists classify artifacts of the last 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, drilling and piercing tools. Humankind evolved from early members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis, who used simple stone tools—into anatomically modern humans as well as behaviorally modern humans by the Upper Paleolithic. During the end of the Paleolithic the Middle or Upper Paleolithic, humans began to produce the earliest works of art and began to engage in religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual; the climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. By c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia.
By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe. By c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia and expanded throughout the Americas; the term "Palaeolithic" was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek: παλαιός, palaios, "old"; the Paleolithic coincides exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, which lasted from 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago. This epoch experienced important climatic changes that affected human societies. During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, bringing a nearly complete end to South America's distinctive marsupial fauna; the formation of the isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, because warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off, the cold Arctic and Antarctic waters lowered temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean.
Most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africa's collision with Asia created the Mediterranean, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean. During the Pleistocene, the modern continents were at their present positions. Climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, seasonal, similar to modern climates. Ice sheets grew on Antarctica; the formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean beds. Mid-latitude glaciation began before the end of the epoch; the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas. The Pleistocene climate was characterized by repeated glacial cycles during which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places.
Four major glacial events have been identified, as well as many minor intervening events. A major event is a general glacial excursion, termed a "glacial". Glacials are separated by "interglacials". During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor retreats; the minor excursion is a "stadial". Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500–3,000 m deep, resulting in temporary sea level drops of 100 m or more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions; the effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the preceding Pliocene; the Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Tasmania; the now decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Ruwenzori Range in east and central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one.