Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist, author and social philosopher. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. Skinner considered free will an illusion and human action dependent on consequences of previous actions. If the consequences are bad, there is a high chance. Skinner called this the principle of reinforcement. To strengthen behavior, Skinner used operant conditioning, he considered the rate of response to be the most effective measure of response strength. To study operant conditioning, he invented the operant conditioning chamber known as the Skinner Box, to measure rate he invented the cumulative recorder. Using these tools, he and C. B. Ferster produced his most influential experimental work, which appeared in their book Schedules of Reinforcement. Skinner developed behavior analysis, the philosophy of that science he called radical behaviorism, founded a school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior.
He imagined the application of his ideas to the design of a human community in his utopian novel, Walden Two, his analysis of human behavior culminated in his work, Verbal Behavior. Skinner was a prolific author who published 180 articles. Contemporary academia considers Skinner a pioneer of modern behaviorism, along with John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov. A June 2002 survey listed Skinner as the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. Skinner was born in Pennsylvania, to Grace and William Skinner, his father was a lawyer. He became an atheist after a Christian teacher tried to assuage his fear of the hell that his grandmother described, his brother Edward, two and a half years younger, died at age sixteen of a cerebral hemorrhage. Skinner's closest friend as a young boy was Raphael Miller, whom he called Doc because his father was a doctor. Doc and Skinner became friends due to their parents’ religiousness and both had an interest in contraptions and gadgets, they had set up a telegraph line between their houses to send messages to each other, although they had to call each other on the telephone due to the confusing messages sent back and forth.
During one summer and Skinner started an elderberry business to gather berries and sell them door to door. They had found that out when they picked the ripe berries, the unripe ones came off the branches too, so they built a device, able to separate them; the device was a bent piece of metal to form a trough. They would pour water down the trough into a bucket, the ripe berries would sink into the bucket and the unripe ones would be pushed over the edge to be thrown away, he attended Hamilton College in New York with the intention of becoming a writer. He found himself at a social disadvantage at Hamilton College because of his intellectual attitude. While attending, he joined Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity. Hamilton was known for being a strong fraternity college. Skinner had thought that his fraternity brothers would be respectful and would not haze or mistreat the newcomers, instead helping out the other boys with courses or other activities. Contrary to his expectations, at Lambda Chi Alpha, freshmen were called “‘slimers’” who had to wear small green knit hats and greet everyone that they passed for punishment.
The year before Skinner entered Hamilton, there was a hazing accident that caused the death of a student. The freshman was asleep in his bed when he was pushed onto the floor, where he smashed his head, resulting in his death. Skinner had a similar incident where two freshmen captured him and tied him to a pole, where he should have stayed all night, but he had a razor blade in his shoe for emergency and managed to cut himself free, he wrote for the school paper, but, as an atheist, he was critical of the traditional mores of his college. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts in English literature in 1926, he attended Harvard University, where he would research and become a prestigious board member. While he was at Harvard, a fellow student, Fred Keller, convinced Skinner that he could make an experimental science from the study of behavior; this led Skinner to invent his prototype for the Skinner Box and to join Keller in the creation of other tools for small experiments. After graduation, he unsuccessfully tried to write a great novel while he lived with his parents, a period that he called the Dark Years.
He became disillusioned with his literary skills despite encouragement from the renowned poet Robert Frost, concluding that he had little world experience and no strong personal perspective from which to write. His encounter with John B. Watson's Behaviorism led him into graduate study in psychology and to the development of his own version of behaviorism. Skinner received a PhD from Harvard in 1931, remained there as a researcher until 1936, he taught at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis and at Indiana University, where he was chair of the psychology department from 1946–1947, before returning to Harvard as a tenured professor in 1948. He remained at Harvard for the rest of his life. In 1973, Skinner was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto II. In 1936, Skinner married Yvonne Blue; the couple had two daughters and Deborah. Yvonne Skinner died in 1997, is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery, Massachusetts. Skinner's public exposure had increased in the 1970s, he remained active after his retirement in 1974, until his death.
Taylor Curtis Lewan is an American football offensive tackle for the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Titans in the first round of the 2014 NFL Draft, he played college football at Michigan. A three-time Pro Bowl selection, Lewan is sometimes referred to by Titans fans as the "Father of Nashville", or "Dad". Lewan was born in Loomis, California on July 22, 1991 to Kelly Riley. Dave was an offensive lineman at the University of Michigan. Prior to playing there, Dave Lewan played high school football for Oakridge Secondary School in London, Canada, when his father's job took him to London from Minnesota. Taylor Lewan played his first three years of high school football for Cactus Shadows in Cave Creek, Arizona, he was a defensive end before transferring to Chaparral High School for his senior season, where he became an offensive lineman. Lewan was rated as a four-star prospect by Scout.com. He was selected as the fifth-best player in the state of Arizona and the 194th player nationally by Rivals.com.
He was listed as the No. 3 most athletic offensive lineman and the fifth-most agile offensive lineman according to Rivals.com. He was the nation's No. 10 overall offensive line prospect. He was selected to participate in the Under Armour All-America Game. Lewan enrolled at the University of Michigan, where he majored in general studies, redshirted his freshman year. Although Lewan did not play in the 2010 season opener, he appeared in 11 games, including nine as a starter, during the 2010 season. In 2010, he took over the starting left tackle role from Mark Huyge in the fourth game versus Bowling Green. Michigan's offense displayed one of the top rushing attacks in the country, with quarterback Denard Robinson as the team's leading rusher behind protection by Lewan and fellow offensive linemen David Molk, Patrick Omameh, Steven Schilling, Perry Dorrestein. However, Lewan displayed a knack for ill-timed, drive-killing penalties for false starts and personal fouls; these were attributed to his youth and aggressive nature on the field.
In the first quarter of the Purdue game, Lewan returned it for 11 yards. After the 2010 season, Lewan was named by CollegeFootballNews.com to its Freshman All-America second team. As a redshirt sophomore, Lewan was a starting offensive tackle for the Wolverines. After failing to draw a penalty in Michigan's early games, Lewan was praised for becoming a more intelligent player, he was Michigan's starting left tackle in the first seven games of the season and was named to Phil Steele's Midseason All-Big Ten second team. Following the 2011 Big Ten Conference football season, he earned second team All-conference recognition, he was an honorable mention All-American selectee by the Pro Football Weekly. Prior to the 2012 season, Lewan was selected by the media as one of five Big Ten Offensive players to watch along with teammate Denard Robinson as voted by the media. Following the season, he was named the Big Ten Conference Offensive Lineman of the Year and named to the All-Big Ten first team by both the coaches and the media.
Lewan was a 2012 College Football All-America Team selection by the Associated Press, ESPN, Walter Camp Football Foundation, Lindy's Sports, Sports Illustrated, CBSSports.com, FoxSportsNext.com, Pro Football Weekly. CBSSports.com named Lewan along with punter Will Hagerup to their All-Big Ten team. After the 2013 season, Lewan was named Big Ten Conference Offensive Lineman of the Year for the second season in a row. Lewan was selected by the Tennessee Titans as the eleventh pick of the first round of the 2014 NFL Draft, he signed a four-year $11.48 million guaranteed contract and a signing bonus of $6.67 million. In his rookie year, Lewan played in 11 games starting six of them due to injuries, he was named to PFWA All-Rookie team. Coming into the 2015 season, Lewan was named the Titans starting left tackle, he allowed five sacks. On October 23, 2016, Lewan scored his first NFL touchdown on a 10-yard pass from Marcus Mariota in a 34-26 loss to the Indianapolis Colts. On November 13, 2016, Lewan was ejected during the first quarter in a 47-25 victory against the Green Bay Packers after pushing a referee during an altercation with defensive tackle Letroy Guion.
He was selected to his first Pro Bowl for the 2016 season. He was ranked 72nd by his fellow players on the NFL Top 100 Players of 2017. On April 25, 2017, the Titans picked up the fifth-year option on Lewan's rookie contract. On December 19, 2017, Lewan was named to his second Pro Bowl, he was ranked 78th by his fellow players on the NFL Top 100 Players of 2018. On July 27, 2018, Lewan signed five-year, $80 million contract extension with the Titans with $50 million guaranteed, making him the highest-paid offensive lineman in league history. During a 27-20 Week 1 loss to the Miami Dolphins, Lewan suffered a concussion after a blind side hit by Andre Branch. Lewan missed the rest of the next game against the Houston Texans, he returned from concussion protocol prior during Week 3 against the Jacksonville Jaguars. Branch was fined $10,026 for taunting following the hit. During a 13-12 Week 5 loss to the Buffalo Bills, Lewan left the game early due to a foot injury, he returned the next week against the Baltimore Ravens.
On December 18, 2018, Lewan was selected to his third consecutive Pro Bowl. The Titans missed the playoffs due to a 33-17 loss to the Indianapolis Colts in Week 17, finishing with a 9-7 record for the third consecutive year. Lewan finished the 2018 season starting 15 out of 16 games, he was
Jason Lee Arnberger is an Australian first-class cricketer who played for the Victorian Bushrangers and New South Wales Blues in Australian domestic cricket. He was a right-handed opening batsman. Arnberger's nickname is "Cheese". Arnberger started his career with NSW but in 1997-98 he moved to Victoria as the presence of Mark Taylor and Michael Slater at the top of the order had made it difficult for him to get a game. Aged 31, he suffered a back injury which nearly ended his career but he came back scoring 639 runs with three hundreds and repeated his good performance with 721 at 45.06 the following season as he went on to win the Player of the Year award. His highest First Class score came against New South Wales in Lismore, he finished his career in seventh place on Victoria's leading run getters with 5505 at 42.01. He is in the record books with a partnership of 353 with Matthew Elliott against Tasmania, he is only one of 3 Victorian batsman to have twice scored a hundred in each innings of a match.