Jessica Tandy was an English-American stage and film actress best known for her Academy Award winning performance in the film Driving Miss Daisy. Tandy appeared in over 100 stage productions and had more than 60 roles in film and TV. Born in London to Jessie Helen Horspool and commercial traveller Harry Tandy, she was only 18 when she made her professional debut on the London stage in 1927. During the 1930s, she appeared in a large number of plays in London's West End, playing roles such as Ophelia and Katherine. During this period, she worked in a number of British films. Following the end of her marriage to the British actor Jack Hawkins, she moved to New York in 1940, where she met Canadian actor Hume Cronyn, he became her second husband and frequent partner on screen. She received the Tony Award for best performance by a Leading Actress in A Play for her performance as Blanche DuBois in the original Broadway production of A Streetcar Named Desire in 1948. Tandy shared the prize with Judith Anderson in a three-way tie for the award.
Over the following three decades, her career continued sporadically and included a supporting role in Alfred Hitchcock's horror film, The Birds, a Tony Award-winning performance in The Gin Game. Along with Cronyn, she was a member of the original acting company of the Guthrie Theater. In the mid-1980s she had a career revival, she appeared with Cronyn in the Broadway production of Foxfire in 1983 and its television adaptation four years winning both a Tony Award and an Emmy Award for her portrayal of Annie Nations. During these years, she appeared in films such as Cocoon with Cronyn, she became the oldest actress to receive the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Driving Miss Daisy, for which she won a BAFTA and a Golden Globe, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Fried Green Tomatoes. At the height of her success, she was named as one of People's "50 Most Beautiful People", she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1990, continued working until shortly before her death.
The youngest of three siblings, Tandy was born in Geldeston Road in London. Her father, Harry Tandy, was a travelling salesman for a rope manufacturer, her mother, Jessie Helen Horspool, was from a large fenland family in Wisbech and the head of a school for mentally handicapped children. Her father died when Tandy was 12, her mother subsequently taught evening courses to earn an income, her brother Edward was a prisoner of war of the Japanese in the Far East. Tandy was educated at Dame Alice Owen's School in Islington. Tandy began her career at the age of 18 in London, establishing herself with performances opposite such actors as Laurence Olivier and John Gielgud, she entered films in Britain, but after her marriage to Jack Hawkins failed, she moved to the United States hoping to find better roles. During her time as a leading actress on the stage in London she had to fight for roles over her two rivals, Peggy Ashcroft and Celia Johnson. In 1942, she married Hume Cronyn and over the following years played supporting roles in several Hollywood films.
Tandy became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1952. Like so many stage actors, Tandy had a hand in radio, as well. Among other programs, she was a regular on Mandrake the Magician, with husband Hume Cronyn in The Marriage which ran on radio from 1953–54, segued onto television, she made her American film debut in The Seventh Cross. The Hollywood studio system did not know. Failing to gain leading roles, she was relegated to supporting appearances in The Valley of Decision, The Green Years, Dragonwyck starring Gene Tierney and Vincent Price and Forever Amber. Over the next three decades, her film career continued sporadically while she found better roles on the stage, her roles during this time included The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel opposite James Mason, The Light in the Forest, a role as a domineering mother in Alfred Hitchcock's film, The Birds. On Broadway, she won a Tony Award for her performance as Blanche Dubois in the original Broadway production of A Streetcar Named Desire in 1948.
After this, she concentrated on the stage. In 1977, she earned her second Tony Award, for her performance in The Gin Game and her third Tony in 1982 for her performance, again with Cronyn, in Foxfire; the beginning of the 1980s saw a resurgence in her film career, with character roles in The World According to Garp, Best Friends, Still of the Night and The Bostonians. She and Cronyn were now working together more on stage and television, including the films Cocoon, *batteries not included and Cocoon: The Return and the Emmy Award winning television film Foxfire. However, it was her colourful performance in Driving Miss Daisy, as an aging, stubborn Southern-Jewish matron, that earned her an Oscar, she received a Best Supporting Actress nomination for her work in the grassroots hit Fried Green Tomatoes, co-starred in The Story Lady, Used People, television film To Dance with the White Dog, Nobody's Fool, Camilla. Camilla proved to be her last perf
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
The Sacramento Kings are an American professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California. The Kings compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the Western Conference's Pacific Division; the Kings are the only team in the major professional North American sports leagues located in Sacramento. The team plays its home games at the Golden 1 Center; the Kings are one of the oldest continuously operating professional basketball franchises in the nation. They originated in Rochester, New York, as the Rochester Seagrams in 1923 and joined the National Basketball League in 1945 as the Rochester Royals, they jumped to the Basketball Association of America, forerunner of the NBA, in 1948. As the Royals, the team was successful on the court, winning the NBA championship in 1951; the team, found it difficult to turn a profit in the comparatively small market of Rochester and relocated to Cincinnati in 1957, becoming the Cincinnati Royals. In 1972 the team relocated to Kansas City and was renamed the Kansas City-Omaha Kings because it split its home games between Kansas City and Omaha, Nebraska.
In 1975, the Kings ceased playing home games in Omaha and became the Kansas City Kings. The team again failed to find success in its market and moved to Sacramento in 1985; the Royals defected to the NBL's rival, the Basketball Association of America, in 1948. In 1949, as a result of that year's absorption of the NBL by the BAA, the Royals became members of the newly formed NBA along with the Fort Wayne Pistons, Minneapolis Lakers, Indianapolis Jets. A year the BAA absorbed the remaining NBL teams to become the National Basketball Association; the move to the BAA took away Rochester's profitable exhibition schedule, placed it in the same Western Division that Minneapolis was in. Of the two best teams in pro basketball, only one of them could play in the league finals from 1949 to 1954. Minneapolis, with George Mikan, was always a little better at playoff time than the Royals. With their smallish arena and now-limited schedule, the Royals became less profitable as Harrison maintained a remarkably high standard for the team, which finished no lower than second in its division in both the NBL and BAA/NBA from 1945 to 1954.
Harrison knew that the NBA was outgrowing Rochester, spent most of the 1950s looking for a buyer for his team. The Royals won the NBA title in 1951 by defeating the New York Knicks 4–3, it is the only NBA championship in the franchise's history. The title, did not translate into profit for the Royals; the roster turned over except for Bobby Wanzer. Now a losing team filled with rookies, the Royals still did not turn a profit. Meanwhile, the NBA was putting pressure on Harrison to relocate his team to a larger city. With this in mind, the 1956–57 season was the Royals' last in Rochester; the Royals' stay in Rochester featured the services of nine future members of the Basketball Hall of Fame, one member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, a Hollywood Walk of Famer: Al Cervi, Bob Davies, Alex Hannum, Les Harrison, Red Holzman, Arnie Risen, Maurice Stokes, Jack Twyman, Bobby Wanzer, Otto Graham, Chuck Connors and Jack McMahon. In April 1957, the Harrison brothers moved the Royals to Cincinnati; this move followed a well-received regular season game played at Cincinnati Gardens on February 1, 1957.
The change of venue had been said to have been suggested by Jack Twyman and Dave Piontek, who were two of several roster players on the new Royals from that region. Cincinnati, which had a strong college basketball fan base and no NFL franchise to compete with, was deemed the best choice for the Harrisons; the Royals name continued to fit in Cincinnati known as the "Queen City". During the team's first NBA draft in Cincinnati, the team acquired Clyde Lovellette and guard George King, they teamed with the 1–2 punch of Maurice Stokes and Twyman to produce a budding contender in the team's first season in the Queen City. Injury to Marshall and the loss of star guard Si Green to military service dropped the team into a tie for second place in the NBA Western Division during the 1957–58 season's second half. In the season's finale, All-Pro star Maurice Stokes struck his head when he fell after pursuing a rebound, he shook off the effects of the fall as he had been unconscious. After Game One in the playoffs three days Stokes' head injury was aggravated by airplane cabin pressure during the flight back to Cincinnati for Game Two.
He suffered a seizure and was permanently hospitalized, a tragedy that shook the team. Stokes, a tremendous talent who could play center and guard, was 2nd in the NBA in rebounds and 3rd in assists, a double-feat only Wilt Chamberlain has matched for a full season. Without Stokes, the team nearly folded. Fellow All-Star Twyman rose to All-Pro level the next two seasons for Cincinnati as the team posted two 19-win seasons; the 1958–59 Cincinnati team featured five rookies, with Lovellette and other key players having left the team in the wake of Stokes' tragic injury. The Harrisons, under pressure to sell to a local group, sold to a local ownership headed by Thomas Woods; the fact that Stokes was dumped by the team and the new ownership infuriated many. Jack Twyman came to the aid of his teammate, legally adopted Stokes. Raising funds for Stokes' medical treatment, Twyman helped him until his death in April 1970; the 1973 feature film Maurie, which co-starred actors Bernie Casey and Bo Svenson, dramatized their story.
Shooting for the beleaguered team, Twyman was the second NBA player to average 30 points per game for an NBA season. Twyman and Stokes were late
Vancouver Art Gallery
The Vancouver Art Gallery is the fifth-largest art gallery in Canada, the largest in Western Canada. It is located at 750 Hornby Street in Vancouver, British Columbia, its permanent collection of about 11,000 artworks includes more than 200 major works by Emily Carr, the Group of Seven, Jeff Wall, Harry Callahan and Marc Chagall. The gallery has 41,400 square feet of exhibition space and more than 11,000 works in its collection, most notably its Emily Carr collection, it has amassed a significant collection of photographs. In addition to exhibitions of its own collection, the gallery hosts international touring exhibitions; the gallery features a variety of public programmes and lectures. The gallery has a gift shop, a café, a library; the Vancouver Art Gallery had its first home at 1145 West Georgia Street. In 1983 it moved to the former provincial courthouse, it was renovated at a cost of $20 million by architect Arthur Erickson, which completed his modern three city-block Robson Square complex.
The gallery connects to the rest of the complex via an underground passage below Robson Street to an outdoor plaza, the University of British Columbia's downtown satellite campus, government offices, the new Law Courts at the southern end. In March 2007, the 2010 Olympic countdown clock was placed in the front lawn of the VAG, it was open for free for the public to see. The clock has since been disassembled, with one half going to BC Place and the other to Whistler Village. In November 2007, the gallery announced plans to move to a new building at Larwill Park, a block occupied by a bus depot on the corner of Cambie and Georgia streets opposite the Queen Elizabeth Theatre; the new building would be about 30,000 square metres 10 times the current building size, would include more gallery space for the permanent collection now in storage, a larger exhibit space for visiting international works, more children's and community programming, an improved storage and display environment. Construction was planned to begin after the 2010 Olympics with a tentative opening date in 2013.
The projected cost was in the hundreds of millions of dollars, the gallery hoped to secure funding from provincial and federal governments, as well as private donors. In May 2008, a different site was chosen for the new gallery, on land occupied by the Plaza of Nations near BC Place; the new plans would double the gallery size to 320,000 square feet. In 2013, the decision was made to go back to the Cambie site. In April, 2014, Vancouver Art Gallery selected Herzog & de Meuron, from a group of five shortlisted firms, from across the globe following a series of in-depth interviews and site visits to significant projects designed by each firm; the finalists, announced in January 2014, represented five of 75 firms from 16 different countries, who submitted their credentials through an open request for qualifications process issued by the gallery. The new Vancouver Art Gallery building is Herzog & de Meuron’s first project in Canada, working in collaboration with Vancouver-based Perkins + Will as executive architect in the realization of the design.
In September 2015, the gallery unveiled its conceptual design for the new building in a public event held at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre. The project is expected to break ground in 2018; the VAG is located in the former main courthouse for Vancouver. The original 165,000-square-foot neoclassical building was designed by Francis Rattenbury after winning a design competition in 1905. Rattenbury designed the British Columbia Parliament Buildings and the Empress Hotel in Victoria; the design includes ionic columns, a central dome, formal porticos, ornate stonework. The building was constructed using marble imported from Alaska and Vermont; the new building was constructed in 1906 and replaced the previous courthouse located at Victory Square. At the time, the building contained 18 courtrooms. An annex designed by Thomas Hooper was added to the western side of the building in 1912; the Annex Building is the only part of the VAG, not converted to use as an art gallery. It was declared a heritage site and retains the original judges' benches and walls as they were when the building was a courthouse.
On the Georgia Street side of the building is the Centennial Fountain. This fountain was installed in 1966 to commemorate the centennial of the union of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia; the Centennial Fountain was removed in 2017 as part of the Georgia Street plaza renovations. The plaza opened to the public in late 2017; the building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1980. Both the main and annex portions of the building are municipally designated "A" heritage structures; the steps on both the Robson Street and Georgia Street sides of the building are popular gathering spots for protest rallies. The Georgia Street side is a popular place in the summertime for people to relax or socialize. A regular gathering spot for protests and demonstrations, the Vancouver Art Gallery's lawn and steps hosts gatherings several times a week; the Vancouver Art Gallery is the monthly meeting spot for Vancouver's Critical Mass, as well as flash mobs, the Zombie Walk, Pro-Marijuana rallies, numerous environmental demonstrations.
The Vancouver Art Gallery's collection of about 11,000 works grows by several hundred works every year. Established in 1931, it is a principle repository of works produced in this region, as well as related works by other Canadian and international artists; the gallery’s European historical collection includes Dutch paintings from the seventeenth century by Jan Anthoniszoon van Ravestyn, Jan Wynants (1
Louisiana State University
Louisiana State University is a public research university in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The university was founded in 1853 in what is now known as Pineville, under the name Louisiana State Seminary of Learning & Military Academy; the current LSU main campus was dedicated in 1926, consists of more than 250 buildings constructed in the style of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, occupies a 650-acre plateau on the banks of the Mississippi River. LSU is the flagship school of the state of Louisiana, as well the flagship institution of the Louisiana State University System, is the most comprehensive university in Louisiana. In 2017, the university enrolled over 25,000 undergraduate and over 5,000 graduate students in 14 schools and colleges. Several of LSU's graduate schools, such as the E. J. Ourso College of Business and the Paul M. Hebert Law Center, have received national recognition in their respective fields of study. Designated as a land-grant, sea-grant and space-grant institution, LSU is noted for its extensive research facilities, operating some 800 sponsored research projects funded by agencies such as the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
LSU's athletics department fields teams in 21 varsity sports, is a member of the NCAA and the SEC. The university is represented by Mike the Tiger. Louisiana State University Agricultural & Mechanical College had its origin in several land grants made by the United States government in 1806, 1811, 1827 for use as a seminary of learning, it was founded as a military academy and is still today steeped in military tradition, giving rise to the school's nickname "The Ole War Skule." In 1853, the Louisiana General Assembly established the Seminary of Learning of the State of Louisiana near Pineville in Rapides Parish in Central Louisiana. Modeled after Virginia Military Institute, the institution opened with five professors and nineteen cadets on January 2, 1860, with Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman as superintendent; the original location of the Old LSU Site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On January 26, 1861, after only a year at the helm, Sherman resigned his position because Louisiana became the sixth state to secede from the Union.
The school closed on June 1861, with the start of the American Civil War. During the course of the war, the university reopened in April 1863, but was closed once again with the invasion of the Red River Valley by the Union Army; the losses sustained by the institution during the Union occupation were heavy, after 1863 the seminary remained closed for the remainder of the Civil War. Following the surrender of the Confederates at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, General Sherman donated two cannons to the institution; these cannons had been captured from Confederate forces after the close of the war and had been used during the initial firing upon Fort Sumter in April 1861. The cannons are still displayed in front of LSU's Military Science/Aerospace Studies Building; the seminary reopened its doors on October 2, 1865, only to be burned October 15, 1869. On November 1, 1869, the institution resumed its exercises in Baton Rouge, where it has since remained. In 1870, the name of the institution was changed to Louisiana State University.
Louisiana State University Agricultural & Mechanical College was established by an act of the legislature, approved April 7, 1874, to carry out the United States Morrill Act of 1862, granting lands for this purpose. It temporarily opened in New Orleans, June 1, 1874, where it remained until it merged with Louisiana State University in 1877; this prompted the final name change for the university to the Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College. In 1905, LSU admitted Miss R. O. Davis, she was admitted into a program to pursue a master's degree. The following year, 1906, LSU admitted sixteen female students to its freshman class as part of an experimental program. Prior to this, LSU's student body was all-male. In 1907, LSU's first female graduate, Miss Martha McC. Read, was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree. After this two year experimental program, the university opened its doors to female applicants in 1908, thus coeducation was born at LSU. On April 30, 1926, the present LSU campus was formally dedicated, following the school's history at the federal garrison grounds where it had been located since 1886.
Prior to this, LSU utilized the quarters of the Institute for the Deaf and Blind. Land for the present campus was purchased in 1918, construction started in 1922, the move began in 1925; the campus was designed for 3000 students, but was cut back due to budget problems. After some years of enrollment fluctuation, student numbers began a steady increase, new programs were added and faculty expanded, a true state university emerged. In 1928, LSU was a small-time country school that generated little interest or attention in the state. Labeled a "third-rate" institution by the Association of State Universities, the school had only 1800 students, 168 faculty members, an annual operating budget of $800,000. In 1930, Huey Pierce Long, Jr. the governor, initiated a massive building program to expand the physical plant and add departments. By 1936, LSU had the finest facilities in the South, a top-notch faculty of 394 professors, a new
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
Roy Claxton Acuff was an American country music singer and promoter, freemason. Known as the "King of Country Music," Acuff is credited with moving the genre from its early string band and "hoedown" format to the singer-based format that helped make it internationally successful. In 1952, Hank Williams told Ralph Gleason, "He's the biggest singer this music knew. You booked you didn't worry about crowds. For drawing power in the South, it was Roy Acuff God."Acuff began his music career in the 1930s and gained regional fame as the singer and fiddler for his group, the Smoky Mountain Boys. He joined the Grand Ole Opry in 1938, although his popularity as a musician waned in the late 1940s, he remained one of the Opry's key figures and promoters for nearly four decades. In 1942, Acuff and Fred Rose founded Acuff-Rose Music, the first major Nashville-based country music publishing company, which signed such artists as Hank Williams, Roy Orbison, the Everly Brothers. In 1962, Acuff became the first living inductee into the Country Music Hall of Fame.
Acuff was born on September 15, 1903 in Maynardville, Tennessee, to Ida and Simon E. Neill Acuff, the third of their five children; the Acuffs were a prominent family in Union County. Roy's paternal grandfather, Coram Acuff, had been a Tennessee state senator, his maternal grandfather was a local physician. Roy's father was an accomplished fiddler and a Baptist preacher, his mother was proficient on the piano, during Roy's early years the Acuff house was a popular place for local gatherings. At such gatherings, Roy would amuse people by balancing farm tools on his chin, he learned to play the harmonica and jaw harp at an early age. In 1919, the Acuff family relocated to Fountain City, a few miles south of Maynardville. Roy attended Central High School, where he sang in the school chapel's choir and performed in "every play they had." His primary passion, was athletics. He was a three-sport standout at Central and, after graduating in 1925, was offered a scholarship to Carson-Newman University but turned it down.
He played with several small baseball clubs around Knoxville, worked at odd jobs, boxed. In 1929, Acuff tried out for the Knoxville Smokies, a minor-league baseball team affiliated with the New York Giants. A series of collapses in spring training following a sunstroke, ended his baseball career; the effects left him ill for several years, he suffered a nervous breakdown in 1930. "I couldn't stand any sunshine at all," he recalled. While recovering, Acuff began to hone his fiddle skills playing on the family's front porch after the sun went down, his father gave him several records of regionally renowned fiddlers, such as Fiddlin' John Carson and Gid Tanner, which were important influences on his early style. In 1932, Dr. Hauer's medicine show, which toured the southern Appalachian region, hired Acuff as one of its entertainers; the purpose of the entertainers was to draw a large crowd to whom Hauer could sell medicines for various ailments. While on the medicine show circuit, Acuff met the legendary Appalachian banjoist Clarence Ashley, from whom he learned "The House of the Rising Sun" and "Greenback Dollar", both of which Acuff recorded.
As the medicine show lacked microphones, Acuff learned to sing loud enough to be heard above the din, a skill that would help him stand out on early radio broadcasts. In 1934, Acuff left the medicine show circuit and began playing at local shows with various musicians in the Knoxville area, where he had become a celebrity and fixture in local newspaper columns; that year, the guitarist Jess Easterday and the Hawaiian guitarist Clell Summey joined Acuff to form the Tennessee Crackerjacks, which performed on the Knoxville radio stations WROL and WNOX. Within a year, the group had added the bassist Red Jones and changed its name to the Crazy Tennesseans after being introduced as such by a WROL announcer named Alan Stout. Fans remarked to Acuff how "clear" his voice was coming through over the radio, important in an era when singers were drowned out by string band cacophony; the popularity of Acuff's rendering of the song "The Great Speckled Bird" helped the group land a contract with ARC, for which they recorded several dozen tracks in 1936.
Needing to complete a 20-song commitment, the band recorded two ribald tunes—including "When Lulu's Gone"—but released them under a pseudonym, the Bang Boys. The group split from ARC in 1937 over a separate contract dispute. In 1938, the Crazy Tennesseans moved to Nashville to audition for the Grand Ole Opry. Although their first audition went poorly, the band's second audition impressed Opry founder George D. Hay and producer Harry Stone, they offered the group a contract that year. On Hay and Stone's suggestion, Acuff changed the group's name to the Smoky Mountain Boys, referring to the mountains near where he and his bandmates grew up. Shortly after the band joined the Opry, Clell Summey left the group and was replaced by the dobro player Beecher Kirby—best known by his stage name Bashful Brother Oswald—whom Acuff had met in a Knoxville bakery earlier that year. Acuff's powerful lead vocals and Kirby's dobro playing and high-pitched backing vocals gave the band its distinctive sound. By 1939, Jess Easterday had switched to bass to replace Red Jones, Acuff had added the guitarist Lonnie "Pap" Wilson and the banjoist Rachel Veach to fill out the band's lineup.
Within a year, Roy Acuff and the Smoky M