The Mk/B53 was a high-yield bunker buster thermonuclear weapon developed by the United States during the Cold War. Deployed on Strategic Air Command bombers, the B53, with a yield of 9 megatons, was the most powerful weapon in the U. S. nuclear arsenal after the last B41 nuclear bombs were retired in 1976. The B53 was the basis of the W-53 warhead carried by the Titan II Missile, decommissioned in 1987. Although not in active service for many years before 2010, fifty B53s were retained during that time as part of the "hedge" portion of the Enduring Stockpile until its complete dismantling in 2011; the last B53 was disassembled on 25 October 2011, a year ahead of schedule. With its retirement, the largest bomb in service in the U. S. nuclear arsenal is the B83, with a maximum yield of 1.2 megatons. The B53 was replaced in the bunker-busting role by the B61 Mod 11. Development of the weapon began in 1955 by Los Alamos National Laboratory, based on the earlier Mk 21 and Mk 46 weapons. In March 1958 the Strategic Air Command issued a request for a new Class C bomb to replace the earlier Mk 41.
A revised version of the Mk 46 became the TX-53 in 1959. The development TX-53 warhead was never tested, although an experimental TX-46 predecessor design was detonated 28 June 1958 as Hardtack Oak, which detonated at a yield of 8.9 Megatons. The Mk 53 entered production in 1962 and was built through June 1965. About 340 bombs were built, it entered service aboard B-47 Stratojet, B-52G Stratofortress, B-58 Hustler bomber aircraft in the mid-1960s. From 1968 it was redesignated B53; some early versions of the bomb were dismantled beginning in 1967. About 50 bomb and 54 Titan warhead versions were in service through 1980. After the Titan II program ended, the remaining W-53s were retired in the late 1980s; the B53 was intended to be retired in the 1980s, but 50 units remained in the active stockpile until the deployment of the B61-11 in 1997. At that point the obsolete B53s were slated for immediate disassembly. In 2010 authorization was given to disassemble the 50 bombs at the Pantex plant in Texas.
The process of dismantling the last remaining B53 bomb in the stockpile was completed in 2011. The B53 was 12 feet 4 inches long with a diameter of 50 inches, it weighed 8,850 pounds, including the W53 warhead, the 800-to-900 lb parachute system and the honeycomb aluminum nose cone to enable the bomb to survive laydown delivery. It had five parachutes: one 5-foot pilot chute, one 16-foot extractor chute, three 48-foot main chutes. Chute deployment depends with the main chutes used only for laydown delivery. For free-fall delivery, the entire system was jettisoned; the W53 warhead of the B53 used oralloy instead of plutonium for fission, with a mix of lithium-6 deuteride fuel for fusion. The explosive lens comprised a mixture of RDX and TNT, not insensitive. Two variants were made: the B53-Y1, a "dirty" weapon using a U-238-encased secondary, the B53-Y2 "clean" version with a non-fissile secondary casing; the explosive yield for the Y1 version was declassified in 2014 and is known to be 9 Mt. It was intended as a bunker buster weapon, using a surface blast after laydown deployment to transmit a shock wave through the earth to collapse its target.
Attacks against the Soviet deep underground leadership shelters in the Chekhov/Sharapovo area south of Moscow envisaged multiple B53/W53 exploding at ground level. It has since been supplanted in such roles by the earth-penetrating B61 Mod 11, a bomb that penetrates the surface to deliver much more of its explosive energy into the ground, therefore needs a much smaller yield to produce the same effects; the B53 was intended to be retired in the 1980s, but 50 units remained in the active stockpile until the deployment of the B61-11 in 1997. At that point the obsolete B53s were slated for immediate disassembly; the last remaining B53 bomb began the disassembly processes on Tuesday, 25 October 2011 at the Energy Department’s Pantex Plant. An April 2014 GAO report notes that the National Nuclear Security Administration is retaining canned sub-assemblies "associated with a certain warhead indicated as excess in the 2012 Production and Planning Directive are being retained in an indeterminate state pending a senior-level government evaluation of their use in planetary defense against earthbound asteroids."
In its FY2015 budget request, the NNSA noted that the B53 component disassembly was "delayed", leading some observers to conclude they might be the warhead CSAs being retained for potential planetary defense purposes. The W-53 nuclear warhead of the Titan II ICBM used the same physics package as the B53, without the air drop-specific components like the parachute system and crushable structures in the nose and sides needed for lay-down delivery, reducing its mass to about 6,200 lb; the 8,140-pound Mark-6 re-entry vehicle containing the W53 warhead was about 123 inches long, 7.5 feet in diameter and was mounted atop a spacer, 8.3 feet in diameter at the missile interface. With a yield of 9 megatons, it was the highest yield warhead deployed on a US missile. About 65 W53 warheads were constructed between December 1962 and December 1963. On 19 September 1980 a fuel leak caused a Titan II to explode within its silo in Arkansas, throwing the W53 warhead
The.41 Long Colt cartridge was created in 1877 for Colt's double-action "Thunderer" revolver. It was a lengthened version of the earlier centerfire.41 Short Colt, made to duplicate the dimensions of the earlier.41 Short rimfire. The front of the bullet was about 0.406 -- the same as the case. The barrel was about 0.404–0.406″ groove diameter. The bullet lubrication was outside the case. At 0.386–0.388″ OD, The base of the bullet was smaller in diameter to fit inside the case. This is known as a "heel-base" or heeled bullet; the only modern heeled bullet is the.22 rimfire. In the mid-1890s, Colt redesigned the cartridge, they reduced the entire diameter of the bullet to 0.386" OD and lengthened the brass case in order to put both the bullet and its lubrication inside the case. The overall length of both loaded cartridges was about the same; the barrel of the revolver was reduced to match the more popular.38-40 at 0.400–0.401″ groove diameter. This meant that the outside diameter of the new bullet was smaller than the barrel's bore, let alone its groove diameter.
A hollow-base bullet can be dropped down the bore by gravity alone. The newer soft lead bullet was made like Civil War Minié balls; the intent was for the base of the bullet to expand with the pressure of the burning gunpowder to grip the rifling. The original 41LC brass cases came in three primary lengths, although they vary quite a bit within a headstamp; the first ones were the shortest at about 0.932″ to 0.937” long. In balloon-head cases, they held about 20 gr of compressed black powder with a 200 gr flat-bottom, heel-base, blunt-nose bullet; the next cases were about 1.130” to 1.138” long with a 200 gr hollow-base, blunt-nose bullet and about 21 gr of BP. Although the brass case lengths were far different, both cartridges were about the same overall length when loaded; the last brass case length was 1.050” to 1.100” long and was created for hand loaders so that both heel-base and hollow-base bullets could be used interchangeably. The accuracy the.41 LC is adequate for. Elmer Keith wrote in his book "Sixguns" that the "41LC was a better fight-stopper than its paper ballistics would indicate" and it was "better for self-defense than any.38 Special load made".
Keith would go onto design the.41 Magnum influenced by the advantages of the.41 Long Colt. However.41 Long Colt cannot be fired out of a.41 Magnum. The.41 Long Colt worked well considering the mismatch of bullet and bore sizes, but by the beginning of World War I it was in serious decline and it fell from use by the beginning of World War II. The.41 long Colt was a moderately popular chambering in several Colt models. It was available in the Model 1877 Thunderer double action revolver, the series of New Army and New Navy revolvers of 1889, 1892 94,95,96, 1901 & 1903, the Single Action Army, the Bisley Model, the Army Special-Official Police. Today, the.41 Long Colt is considered obsolete. It is only produced sporadically for high prices by a handful of small manufacturers such as Ultramax, as the Thunderer is considered by collectors too valuable to shoot. 10 mm caliber Colt Model 1877.45 Colt.45 Schofield.41 Short.32 Long Colt.38 Short Colt.38 Long Colt.44 Colt.41 Magnum List of handgun cartridges
State Route 204 is a 9.620-mile highway that runs from U. S. Route 431 at Crystal Springs to SR 21 at Jacksonville, it is two lanes in its entirety. SR 204 travels through rural territory except in Jacksonville, it carries a 55 mph speed limit until entering Jacksonville. This highway is used by motorists who travel between Jacksonville and areas accessible by US 431, such as Gadsden. Beginning at US 431 at Crystal Springs, a small water recreation park, the road makes a wide left-hand curve and a sharp, 35 mph right-hand curve just east of its western terminus, it passes beneath a narrow, substandard railroad trestle after which an uphill curve takes the road past a former elementary school site. The road goes straight until turning right and passing a small church, it straightens again when going past a marshy wooded area on the right and turns left and uphill before passing a cemetery. Angel Grove Baptist Church can be seen on the right before making a left turn while going downhill. There is a Chevron station at the caution light before going uphill and across a high bridge over a deep valley.
After a slight right-hand turn, Pleasant Valley Road can be seen at the caution light. The road again passes West Point Baptist Church, it crosses its final bridge while turning left turns left again before a short straightaway leading past the Jacksonville Water Treatment Plant, where the speed limit drops to 45 mph. The road enters the Jacksonville city limits, where it becomes Nisbet Street and the speed limit drops to 35 mph as it travels across the campus of Jacksonville State University, passing Rudy Abbott Field, Pete Mathews Coliseum, two residence halls before ending at SR 21. Bennett Boulevard continues off of SR 204 across Pelham Road and passes the JSU softball field and JSU's nursing school. Just prior to its terminus at SR 21 the road crosses the Chief Ladiga Trail, an old railbed running northeast from Anniston to Piedmont and eastward into Georgia where it becomes the Silver Comet Trail before terminating near Smyrna; the entire route is in Calhoun County
The 2013–14 UEFA Champions League was the 59th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 22nd season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League. The 2014 UEFA Champions League Final was played between Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid at the Estádio da Luz in Lisbon, marking the fifth final to feature two teams from the same association and the first time in tournament history that both finalists were from the same city. Real Madrid, who eliminated the title holders, Bayern Munich, in the semi-finals, won in extra time, giving them a record-extending tenth title in the competition. Real equalized late in the second half through Sergio Ramos and pulled away during extra time to win 4–1. For the first time, the clubs who qualified for the group stage qualified for the newly formed 2013–14 UEFA Youth League, a competition available to players aged 19 or under. A total of 76 teams from 52 of the 54 UEFA member associations participated in the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League.
The association ranking based on the UEFA country coefficients was used to determine the number of participating teams for each association: Associations 1–3 each have four teams qualify. Associations 4 -- 6 each have three teams. Associations 7 -- 15 each have two teams. Associations 16–53 each have one team qualify; the winners of the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League were given an additional entry as title holders if they would not qualify for the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League through their domestic league. However, this additional entry was not necessary for this season since the title holders qualified for the tournament through their domestic league. For the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League, the associations were allocated places according to their 2012 UEFA country coefficients, which took into account their performance in European competitions from 2007–08 to 2011–12. Since the title holders qualified for the Champions League group stage through their domestic league, the group stage spot reserved for the title holders is vacated, the following changes to the default allocation system are made: The champions of association 13 are promoted from the third qualifying round to the group stage.
The champions of association 16 are promoted from the second qualifying round to the third qualifying round. The champions of associations 48 and 49 are promoted from the first qualifying round to the second qualifying round. League positions of the previous season shown in parentheses. Notes The schedule of the competition was as follows. In the qualifying rounds and the play-off round, teams were divided into seeded and unseeded teams based on their 2013 UEFA club coefficients, drawn into two-legged home-and-away ties. Teams from the same association could not be drawn against each other; the draws for the first and second qualifying rounds were held on 24 June 2013. The first legs were played on 2 July, the second legs were played on 9 July 2013; the first legs were played on 16 and 17 July, the second legs were played on 23 and 24 July 2013. Notes The third qualifying round was split into two separate sections: one for champions and one for non-champions; the losing teams in both sections entered the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League play-off round.
The play-off round was split into two separate sections: one for champions and one for non-champions. The losing teams in both sections entered the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League group stage; the draw for the play-off round was held on 9 August 2013. The first legs were played on 20 and 21 August, the second legs were played on 27 and 28 August 2013. On 14 August 2013, Metalist Kharkiv were disqualified from the 2013–14 UEFA club competitions because of previous match-fixing. UEFA decided to replace Metalist Kharkiv in the Champions League play-off round with PAOK, who were eliminated by Metalist Kharkiv in the third qualifying round. Red Bull Salzburg lodged a protest after being defeated by Fenerbahçe in the third qualifying round, but it was rejected by UEFA and the Court of Arbitration for Sport; the draw for the group stage was held in Monaco on 29 August 2013. The 32 teams were allocated into four pots based on their 2013 UEFA club coefficients, with the title holders, Bayern Munich, being placed in Pot 1 automatically.
They were drawn into eight groups of four, with the restriction that teams from the same association could not be drawn against each other. In each group, teams played against each other home-and-away in a round-robin format; the matchdays were 17–18 September, 1–2 October, 22–23 October, 5–6 November, 26–27 November, 10–11 December 2013. The group winners and runners-up advanced to the round of 16, while the third-placed teams entered the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League round of 32. A total of 18 national associations were represented in the group stage. Austria Wien made their debut appearance in the group stage. Teams that qualify for the group stage participate in the newly formed 2013–14 UEFA Youth League, a competition available to players aged 19 or under. See the detailed group stage page for ti
Diego Armando Chávez Ramos alias Dakar is a Peruvian footballer who plays for club Club Universitario de Deportes in the Copa Perú. His assertiveness in attack and security in defense earned him to be promoted to the first squad where he gained experience and became a regular in the starting eleven. In January 2012, Chávez was promoted to the Universitario first team by manager José Chemo del Solar for the start of the 2012 season, he made his Torneo Descentralizado debut on 19 February 2012 in the first round of the season away to Inti Gas Deportes. He played the entire match, but his side conceded a goal in the 93rd minute from Luis Coronado and lost the match 1–0, he returned to the starting eleven in Round 5 away to the Elías Aguirre Stadium against Juan Aurich, the match finished in a 1–0 win for the home team. Chávez signed for Deportivo Binacional on 16 December 2018 for the 2019 season. Universitario de Deportes Torneo Descentralizado: 2013 Diego Chávez at FootballDatabase.eu
The Euro Hockey Tour 2012–13 was the 17th season of Euro Hockey Tour. It started on 7 November 2012 and ended on 28 April 2013. A total of 24 games were played, with each team playing 12 games; the season consisted of the Karjala Tournament, the Channel One Cup, the Oddset Hockey Games, the Kajotbet Hockey Games. Russia won the tournament. GP: Games played. Five of the matches were played in Turku and one match in Prague, Czech Republic; the 2012 Channel One Cup was played between 13–16 December 2012. Five of the matches were played in the Moscow and one match in Helsinki, Finland; the tournament was won by Russia. The 2013 Oddset Hockey Games was played between 6–10 February 2013. Five of the matches were played in Malmö, one match in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Finland won the tournament; the 2013 Kajotbet Hockey Games was played between 25–28 April 2013. List shows the top skaters sorted by points goals. If the list exceeds 10 skaters because of a tie in points, all of the tied skaters are shown. GP = Games played.
TOI = Time On Ice. The tables show how many games they played, how many points they've scored, their penalties in minutes. POS = Position.