SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in London, it is the world's oldest national broadcaster, the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 22,000 staff in total; the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport, its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.

Around a quarter of BBC's revenue comes from its commercial subsidiary BBC Studios, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. In 2009, the company was awarded the Queen's Award for Enterprise in recognition of its international achievements. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British life and culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast was made from the factory of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in Chelmsford in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.

By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufacturers, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. L. Stanton Jefferies was its first Director of Music; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain".

The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee; the Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufacturers' protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19:00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee.

By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise; the recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently.

The government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of

Spelaeornis

Spelaeornis, the typical wren-babblers, is a bird genus in the family Timaliidae. Among this group, the typical wren-babblers are quite related to the type species, the chestnut-capped babbler. One species, earlier placed in the genus, the spotted elachura has been removed to a genus of its own Elachura and placed in a separate family, it contains the following species: Rufous-throated wren-babbler, Spelaeornis caudatus Rusty-throated wren-babbler, Spelaeornis badeigularis Bar-winged wren-babbler, Spelaeornis troglodytoides Naga wren-babbler, Spelaeornis chocolatinus Grey-bellied wren-babbler, Spelaeornis reptatus - included in S. chocolatinus Chin Hills wren-babbler, Spelaeornis oatesi - included in S. chocolatinus Pale-throated wren-babbler, Spelaeornis kinneari - included in S. chocolatinus Tawny-breasted wren-babbler, Spelaeornis longicaudatus Collar, N. J. & Robson, C. 2007. Family Timaliidae pp. 70 – 291 in. A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees.

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Language policy in Ukraine

Language policy in Ukraine is based on its Constitution, international obligations, since 16 July 2019 the law "On provision of the functioning of the Ukrainian language as the State language". From 2012 until February 2018, the language policy of Ukraine was based on the law "On the principles of the State language policy"; the Ukrainian language is the State language of Ukraine. According to the article 10 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the State has to ensure the comprehensive development and functioning of the Ukrainian language in all spheres of social life throughout the entire territory of Ukraine. Other languages spoken in Ukraine are guaranteed constitutional protection. Russian is recognized as the language of a national minority. A 2012 law, called the law "On the principles of the State language policy" gave the status of regional language to Russian and other minority languages, it allowed the use of minority languages in courts and other government institutions in areas of Ukraine where the national minorities exceed 10% of the population.

The law was used in Ukraine's southern and eastern regions, where predominant or significant parts of the population speak Russian as their first language. Three minor settlements did the same for Hungarian and Romanian. Ukrainian remained the only official country-wide language. Introduction of the law was supported by the governing Party of regions and opposed by the opposition parties. According to its opponents the law undermined and supplanted the role of the Ukrainian language, violated Article 10 of the Ukrainian Constitution; the bill was adopted amid fistfights in the Ukrainian Parliament building on 3 July 2012, the opposition said that the procedure of adopting the law was not respected. The law came into force on 10 August 2012. Since various cities and regions of Ukraine declared Russian a regional language in their jurisdictions. Other cities and regions declared their opposition to this law. After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, on 23 February 2014, the Ukrainian Parliament voted to repeal the law.

This decision was vetoed by the acting President Oleksandr Turchynov, who instead ordered drafting of a new law to "accommodate the interests of both eastern and western Ukraine and of all ethnic groups and minorities." However, in October 2014 the Constitutional Court of Ukraine started reviewing the constitutionality of the law, on 28 February 2018 it ruled the law unconstitutional. In April 2019, the Ukrainian parliament voted a new law, "On provision of the functioning of the Ukrainian language as the State language". On 16 June 2019, the law entered into force. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the independence of Ukraine, the Russian language has dwindled, but remains one of the two most used languages for business, legal proceedings, science and many other spheres of everyday life. According to the 2001 census, 67.5% of the citizens of Ukraine regard Ukrainian as their native language, with Russian being considered the native language for another 29.6%. Various other languages constitute the remaining 2.9%.

During the Soviet era, both Russian and Ukrainian had official status as State languages of the Ukrainian SSR. Supporters of the bill argued. Opponents fear adoption of Russian as a minority language could spread challenging Ukrainian and causing splits between eastern and western Ukraine. In practice Russian is used in official establishments in Ukraine. According to the article #27 it is necessary to translate Ukrainian place names into other languages using only Ukrainian transcription. On 9 February 2013 the authors of the 2012 language law, Serhiy Kivalov and Vadym Kolesnichenko, were awarded the "Medal of Pushkin" by Russian President Vladimir Putin for "great contribution to the preservation and promotion of the Russian language and culture abroad". V. Kolesnichenko, one of the authors of the law, refers to its support from various higher education bodies, scientists and NGOs; some say that the bill contradicts the Constitution of Ukraine, violates the Budget Code, aims to annihilate the Ukrainian language.

It suffered a criticism in the conclusions of state authorities and their departments: the Main Scientific-Expert Bureau of the Ukrainian Parliament, the Parliamentary Committee on Culture and Spirituality, the Parliamentary Committee on Budget, Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Justice. The bill failed to obtain the support of the specialized institutions of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: the Linguistics Institute, the Institute of the Ukrainian Language, the Institute of political and ethno-national researches, the Shevchenko Institute of Literature, the Institute of State and Law, the Ukrainian linguistic-informational Fund, the Philology Institute of Kiev University, the Academy of Sciences of the High School of Ukraine. In December 2011 the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe issued its Opinion on the draft law. According to Ukrayinska Pravda, the Venice Commission did not notice in the draft law of Kolesnichenko any guarantees of the protection of the Ukrainian language and came to a decision that the bill is another "pre-election tool" for the Party of Regions.

V. Kolesnichenko, one of the authors of the law, claimed the 2011 analysis of the Venice Commission was "generally supportive"; the opponents noted that the analysis contained strong criticism about the failure to protect the role of Ukrainian as the State language. In its Opinion, the Venice Commission stated, amo