click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

BBC World Service

The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster and operated by the BBC. It is the world's largest of any kind, it broadcasts radio news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In 2015, The World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week. In November 2016, the BBC announced that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s; the World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Studios. The service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government; the World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign & Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.

There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The service broadcasts 24 hours a day; the current controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday. The BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme: Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good; this address was read out five times. On 3 January, 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched—in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942, the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.

Funding for these services—known administratively as the External Services of the BBC—came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.

Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011; the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced. This reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.

The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary; as part of the 16% budget cut, 650 jobs were eliminated. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was locat

N. Zahle's School

N. Zahle's School is a private school located on Nørre Voldgade in Copenhagen, Denmark. Named after its founder, Natalie Zahle, it now consists of two independently run primary schools and a Gymnasium. On 1 May 1851, Natalie Zahle launched a programme for the training of female private teachers, it developed into a proper School of education in 1861 after women had been given access to teach at Danish public schools in 1859. The gymnasium traces its history back to a programme, introduced in 1877; the primary school now known as N. Zahles Seminarieskole was founded in 1895 as a preparatory school for the teachers college; the schools were opened to boys in the 1950s. The teachers' college was disjoined from the institution in 2002 and is now part of University College of Copenhagen; the school's first home was a small apartment in the no longer existing street Hummergade. It moved to larger premises on Gammel Strand and to a new building on Nørre Voldgade in 1877; the school took over several of the neighbouring buildings.

Nørre Voldgade 7 was designed by Frederik Bøttger and completed in 1877. The adjoining building at No. 5 housed Østifternes Kreditforening and the insurance company Forsikringsselskabet National. This building was designed by Valdemar Ingemann and is from 1875; the building which houses N. Zahles Seminarieskole faces the square Israels Plads on the other side of the block; the building was expanded with an extra floor by Rørbæk & Møller Arkitekter in 2012. Notable alumni have included: Anna Hude Karen Ankersted Ingrid Jespersen Ellen Hørup Ellen Nielsen Marie Krogh Lis Jacobsen Additionally Queen Margrethe II as well as her sisters Princess Benedikte and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece all attended N. Zahle's School. Official website

Cercanías Málaga

Cercanías Málaga is a commuter rail service between central Málaga and towns in the province. The network consists with two lines and 24 stations in operation; the trains are run on broad Iberian gauge track. In 1908 the first line of the Ferrocarriles Suburbanos de Málaga opened; this line was extended to Ventas de Zafarraya, along with lines to Coín and Fuengirola. The lines closed in stages between 1960 and 1968. Part of the corridor to Fuengirola was rebuilt to 1668 mm Iberian gauge, with some sections placed underground including a re-routing of the line through Málaga Airport, branded as Cercanías Málaga, opened in 1975; the busiest stations on the network in 2018 were Málaga-Centro Alameda with 1,525,000 passengers, Fuengirola, Málaga María Zambrano, Arroyo de la Miel and Torremolinos. Line C-1 runs along the Costa del Sol. Services were half-hourly, but since 22 September 2011 the frequency has been increased to every 20 minutes. There are long-standing plans to extend this line to Estepona to the west, to Nerja in the east, but current stations are: Centro-Alameda connecting to Metro de Málaga María Zambrano connecting to Córdoba–Málaga high-speed rail line/Metro de Málaga Victoria Kent Guadalhorce Aeropuerto with eventual connection to Metro de Málaga San Julián Plaza Mayor Los Álamos La Colina Torremolinos Montemar-Alto El Pinillo Benalmádena-Arroyo de la Miel Torremuelle Carvajal Torreblanca Los Boliches Fuengirola Line C-2 runs inland from Málaga to Álora.

The stations are: Centro-Alameda María Zambrano Victoria Kent Los Prados Campanillas Cártama Aljaima Pizarra Álora An extension of the C-1 service from its current Fuengirola terminus to Marbella and Estepona is planned. In January 2018 three possible route alignments were determined, costing between €2 and €3.8 billion. Cercanías

Toshiko Akiyoshi Solo Live at the Kennedy Center

Toshiko Akiyoshi Solo Live at the Kennedy Center is a live solo album recorded by jazz pianist Toshiko Akiyoshi. It was released in 2000 by Nippon Crown Records. "Count Your Blessings Instead of Sheep" "I Got It Bad And That Ain't So Good" "Improvisation In Five" "Un Poco Loco" "Deep River" "Con Alma" "Village" "Repose" "Just One of Those Things" "Ten Ten" Nippon Crown CRCJ-9153 Toshiko Akiyoshi Solo Live at the Kennedy Center at Allmusic.com

Bedford HA

The Bedford HA was a car derived van introduced in 1963 by Bedford, based on the Vauxhall Viva family car. It was known as the Bedford Beagle in estate form and Bedford Roma in small campervan form; the Beagle was an sanctioned conversion based on the 8 cwt van, carried out by Martin Walter of Folkestone, Kent. The Beagle received a fold-down rear seat; the Bedford HA was popular with utility companies in the United Kingdom the Post Office, British Rail, electricity boards, British Telecom, British Gas. Many other firms such as British European Airways, DER rental, Meals on Wheels services had large fleets as well, it was the inspiration for Postman Pat's original van. It was available in 6 cwt and heavier duty 8 cwt models, with the chassis codes HAE and HAV respectively. Gross vehicle weights were 2,615 lb respectively; the 8 cwt had a heavier rear axle, bigger tyres, a sixth leaf in the rear springs. The 8 cwt was better equipped, offering a number of chromed trim parts and plusher interior fittings.

By 1971 the 6 cwt had been downgraded further yet, now only came with a driver's seat as standard. A fold-down rear seat was available as an option. By the late seventies, the denominations had been changed to HA 110 and HA 130 with payload ratings of 371 and 546 kg. In September 1964, for the 1965 model year, the Viva and HA Van received minor changes such as a quicker steering rack, new door trim, a modified choke control. In Australia, the Bedford HA was sold as the "Bedford Handi-Van" from 1964 until 1970; the early 1,057 cc version had a lower compression ratio than the Viva saloon, producing 47.8 hp gross, or 40.3 hp net, both at 5200 rpm. In 1967, the HA received the engine of the changed Viva; this 1,159 cc was the same as the earlier powerplant. It ran on the lowest rated fuel and was fitted with a 17 mm -bore carburettor for higher fuel mileage; the models powered by the 1256 cc engine offered 48 hp gross at 5400 rpm, or 39 hp net at 4600 rpm. By 1977 only net horsepower ratings were offered, with power up to 31.7 kW at 4800 rpm.

As for all three generations of HAs, the compression ratio remained 7.3 to 1. For the lighter duty HA 110 there was an'Economy' version, with a CD carburettor, a redesigned manifold, a different camshaft; this version offered up to 30 % lower fuel consumption. The HA soldiered on in production for twenty years, until 1983, where it was supplanted by the short lived Vauxhall Chevette based Bedford Chevanne, in turn replaced by the Bedford Astravan / Bedford Astramax. Despite the fact that the Vauxhall Viva upon which it was based had gone through two further model generations, the bodywork of the HA van stayed the same until its eventual discontinuation in 1983; the 1,159 cc engine arrived in 1967, followed by a 1,256 cc in 1972. A pickup was made by Martin Walter - who made the Beagle conversion - and by Walker Bodies of Watford. Made in small numbers only a handful of these survive today: they were sold to companies and private buyers directly through Vauxhall/Bedford dealerships. In the early 1970s there were a number of basic vehicles developed for the developing world.

Volkswagen, Citroën, many others including General Motors tried to create cheap and basic transport which could be manufactured locally with a minimal up-front investment. GM's effort was developed by General Motors Overseas Operations and was called the BTV, it was marketed under a variety of names depending on. The little truck has a simple body made up of flat surfaces placed atop a basic frame, while most mechanicals and what interior there was derived from the HA, it uses the HA's 1256 cc low compression engine, here with 37 hp, which together with some of the other more complex elements was sent from Vauxhall's Luton plant. The BTV was at one time or another manufactured in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Paraguay, the Philippines, in Surinam as the Moetete 1200/1300, it was available in Indonesia in 1977 and 1978, with different bodywork, as the Morina. While Vauxhalls were unusual in Indonesia, the Morina's engine had been used in the Holden Torana, popular as a taxi in Jakarta; the Morina was built by General Motors' local subsidiary P.

T. Garuda Diesel, power was claimed to be 58.5 hp SAE. "Morina" is a portmanteau for MObil Rakyat INdonesiA. The Ecuadorean Andino entered production in 1973 and continued until 1976; the Paraguayan Mitaí had its own bodywork which enveloped the front wheels, was only available in red, white, or blue - the colors of their flag. Production was planned for Singapore, Thailand and certain other countries; some sources state. General Motors built another basic vehicle in the 1970s, the South African Chevrolet Nomad. A Bedford HA was used in the filming of the Beiderbecke Trilogy, in se

Murray Cutter

Murray Cutter was a versatile Hollywood orchestrator, working for film composer Max Steiner, with over 150 credits spanning the mid-thirties to early 1960s. He remains unknown except for the much-loved original arrangement of Judy Garland's Over the Rainbow, which continues to be sampled by modern filmmakers. Similar to fellow arranger Alexander Courage, Cutter's name has tended to be overshadowed by the popularity of the composers with whom he was most associated. Cutter was unusual among orchestrators who tended to specialize, in that he was adept in all genres: musicals. An early assignment were the vocal arrangements for the 1937 film version of Rosalie, which ten years before had been orchestrated for Broadway by Steiner. At MGM Cutter worked for Mervyn LeRoy on The Wizard of Oz. Under the loose musical direction of Herbert Stothart he contributed the "metallic sound" for the Tin Woodman's If I Only Had a Heart. Cutter told Oz historian Aljean Harmetz for "Over the Rainbow" he made it sound as pretty as he could with lots of strings and a touch of woodwind.

After the war he collaborated most with Steiner during his golden period with Warner Brothers. Their work on A Summer Place netted them a US #1 hit for the insistent theme song. Joining ASCAP in 1946, Cutter wrote original music for the screen but received a credit, his last credit, along with Steiner, was for Disney's forgettable Those Calloways in 1965. No known Broadway credits are recorded for him. Murray Cutter on IMDb Murray Cutter at Find a Grave