The BCS National Championship Game, or BCS National Championship, was a postseason college football bowl game, used to determine a national champion of the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, first played in the 1998 college football season as one of four designated bowl games, beginning in the 2006 season as a standalone event rotated among the host sites of the aforementioned bowls. The game was organized by a group known as the Bowl Championship Series, consisting of the Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl, Orange Bowl, which sought to match the two highest-ranked teams in a championship game to determine the best team in the country at the end of the season; the participating teams were determined by averaging the results of the final weekly Coaches' Poll, the Harris Poll of media, former players and coaches, the average of six computer rankings. The Coaches' Poll was contractually required to name the winner of the game as its No. 1 team on the final postseason ranking. The methodologies of the BCS system and its selections proved to be controversial.
Although in most years the winner of the BCS National Championship would be designated as the national champion by other organizations and polls, the 2003 season was a major exception, as the BCS rankings chose the AP's No. 3-ranked team, the University of Oklahoma, over the No. 1-ranked team in that poll, the University of Southern California, to participate in the national title game despite Oklahoma's loss to Kansas State University in the 2003 Big 12 Championship Game. That was the only season during the BCS era when the national championship was split, with Louisiana State University winning the BCS national championship and the University of Southern California winning the AP national championship, plus the football writers' national championship; the BCS National Championship Game was played for the final time in 2014 after the same organizing group established a new system, the College Football Playoff, a four-team single elimination tournament, as the successor to the BCS. The first BCS Championship Game was played at the conclusion of the 1998 college football season in accordance with an agreement by the Big Ten Conference, the Pac-10 Conference, the Rose Bowl Game to join the "Bowl Alliance" system.
The expanded format was called the Bowl Championship Series. The Bowl Alliance and its predecessor, the Bowl Coalition, featured championship games in the 1992–1997 seasons. However, these could not always ensure a matchup between the top two ranked teams because of the lack of participation by the Big Ten and Pac-10; the BCS National Championship Game was rotated among the four participating bowl games: the Fiesta Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Rose Bowl. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game was added as a separate contest, played after New Year's Day; the game rotated its location among the Fiesta, Sugar and Rose venues. For Bowl Coalition championship game results from 1992–1994, see: Bowl Coalition For Bowl Alliance championship game results from 1995–1997, see: Bowl Alliance† USC vacated its win in the 2005 Orange Bowl. † USC vacated its win in the 2005 Orange Bowl. Note: Conference affiliations are contemporaneous with the game, which may differ from the current alignment.
* The American Athletic Conference was known as the Big East during the 1991–2012 seasons. Because of a split between the non-FBS schools and FBS schools, the conference adopted its present name for the 2013 season. ** Alabama defeated fellow SEC member LSU in the 2012 BCS Championship Game, resulting in both a win and loss for the conference. † USC vacated its win in the 2005 Orange Bowl. Critics of the BCS National Championship argued against the internal validity of a so-called national championship being awarded to the winner of a single postseason game. Critics lamented that the participants were selected based upon polls, computer rankings and human biases, not by on-field competition, as in other major sports and all other levels of college football, which employed tournament-format championships; the BCS system led to controversies in which multiple teams finished the season with identical records, voters distinguished the worthiness of their participation in the BCS National Championship with no set of formal criteria or standards.
The end of the 2010 season was one of the best examples of this. Without any objective criteria for evaluation of the teams, the BCS forced voters to impose their own standards and tiebreakers. Critics noted that the system inherently fostered selection bias, therefore lacked both internal validity and external validity. Controversies surrounding teams' inclusion in the BCS National Championship Game were numerous. In 2001, ranked second in the AP poll, was bypassed in favor of Nebraska despite Nebraska's 62-36 blowout to Colorado in its final regular season game. In 2003, USC was not included in the championship game, but beat Michigan in the Rose Bowl and ended up No. 1 in the final AP poll. The following season, undefeated Auburn, Boise State, Utah teams were left out of the national title game. In 2008, the University of Utah was excluded from the BCS championship for a second time despite being the only undefeated FBS team and finished second in the final AP poll behind Florida. In 2009, five schools finished the regular season undefeated: Alabama, Cincinnati, TCU, Boise State.
In 2010, three teams, Auburn, TCU, all finished the year with undefeated rec
Greenbank Park is a public park in Liverpool, with the middle of the park dominated by a large pond. It is situated in the suburb of Mossley Hill in the south of the city, close to Penny Lane and Sefton Park; the area was the former home of philanthropists through two centuries. The family acquired nearby Greenbank House in 1788 as a holiday house and remained there until 1940, it became their permanent residence and a venue for many distinguished visitors to Liverpool who "had some special opinion to propagate or philanthropic scheme to advance". In 1897 Liverpool Corporation entered into an agreement with the Rathbone family to purchase the piece of land, part of, now Greenbank Park for the sum of £13,000; the agreement required the corporation to maintain this land as open space or recreation ground for the general public, "but they shall be at liberty to let off the whole or any part of the said land to cricket or other clubs, to use the lake for boating, skating or other purposes". In case the corporation was to develop the land, they were charged with maintaining a roadway or pathway to allow public access to the lake and to prevent as far as possible the destruction of trees.
The park boasts the dual distinction of having the first of the old English gardens in Liverpool's parks, the first boating lake. The walled garden is all. Now laid out as an old English garden, it contains a memorial tablet to the late Mr. Michael Kearney, the former Deputy Chairman of the Parks and Gardens Committee, who originated the idea of its design; this garden, once famous for its herbaceous borders, has been restored in a move to reflect its former glory. Greenbank Park has a children's playground, pitches, a fishing pond, as well as mature trees and a conservation area; the pond provides the focal point within the park. Visitors can watch nesting waterfowl and herons. There is a bridge at the northern end of the pond; the wet area towards this end is used as a conservation area and it has been proposed that following improvement works with local schools, this will become an outdoor classroom. Much of the area is open parkland with trees to the perimeter; the wall to the side of the children's playground is a colourful result of a local graffiti art project.
Liverpool City Council official page on Greenbank Park
The term chutney refers to a number of sauces native to the Indian subcontinent, forming an integral part of the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Chutneys may be realized in such forms as a tomato relish, a ground peanut garnish, or a dahi, spicy coconut, or mint dipping sauce. An offshoot that took root in Indian cuisine is a tart fruit such as sharp apples, rhubarb or damson pickle made milder by an equal weight of sugar. Vinegar was added to the recipe for English-style chutney that traditionally aims to give a long shelf life so that autumn fruit can be preserved for use throughout the year or else to be sold as a commercial product. Indian pickles use mustard oil as a pickling agent, but Anglo-Indian style chutney uses malt or cider vinegar which produces a milder product that in western cuisine is eaten with a hard cheese or with cold meats and fowl in cold pub lunches; the word "chutney" derives from Hindi चटनी / Urdu چٹنی caṭnī, deriving from चाटना / چاٹنا cāṭnā "to lick" or "to eat with appetite".
An origin has been claimed for Tamil சட்னி caṭṉi. In India, "chutney" refers to pickled preparations indiscriminately. Several Indian languages use the word for fresh preparations only. A different word achār applies to pickles that contain oil and are sweet. In India, chutneys can be either made alongside pickles that are matured in the sun for up to two weeks and kept up to a year or, more are freshly made from fresh ingredients that can be kept a couple of days or a week in the refrigerator. In Tamil Nadu, thogayal or thuvayal are preparations similar to chutney but with a pasty consistency. In Andhra Pradesh it is called roti pacchadi. In Telangana the same are called tokku. Medicinal plants that are believed to have a beneficial effect are sometimes made into chutneys, for example Pirandai Thuvayal or ridged gourd chutney. Ridged gourd can be bought in Chinese and Indian shops in large towns in the west and, when dried, becomes a bath sponge known as a luffa or loofah. Bitter gourd can serve as a base for a chutney, like a relish or, alternatively as a dried powder.
Chutneys that contrast in taste and colour can be served together—a favourite combination being a green mint and chili chutney with a contrasting sweet brown tamarind and date chutney. Chutneys may be ground with an ammikkal. Spices are added and ground in a particular order. Electric blenders or food processors can be used as labor-saving alternatives to stone grinding. American and European-style chutneys are fruit and sugar cooked down to a reduction, with added flavourings; these may include sugar, garlic, onion or ginger. Western-style chutneys originated from Anglo-Indians at the time of the British Raj recreated Indian chutneys using English orchard fruits—sour cooking apples and rhubarb, for example, they would contain dried fruit: raisins and sultanas. They were a way to use a glut of fall fruit and preserving techniques were similar to sweet fruit preserves using an equal weight of fruit and sugar, the vinegar and sugar acting as preservatives. South Indian chutney powders are made from roasted dried lentils to be sprinkled on dosas.
Peanut chutneys can be made wet or as a dry powder. Spices used in chutneys include fenugreek, coriander and asafoetida. Other prominent ingredients and combinations include cilantro, mint, Tamarind or Imli, coconut, prune, red chili, green chili, lime, coconut, dahi, green tomato, dhaniya pudina, ginger, red chili powder, tomato onion chutney, mint coconut chutney, apricot. Major Grey's Chutney is a type of spicy chutney popular in the United States; the recipe was created by a 19th-century British Army officer of the same name who lived in Colonial India. Its characteristic ingredients are mango, vinegar, lime juice, tamarind extract and spices. Several companies produce a Major Grey's Chutney, in India, the UK and the US. Similar in preparation and usage to a pickle, simple spiced chutneys can be dated to 500 BC. Originating in India, this method of preserving food was subsequently adopted by the Romans and British empires, who started exporting this to the colonies and North America; as greater imports of foreign and varied foods increased into northern Europe, chutney fell out of favor.
This combined with a greater ability to refrigerate fresh foods and an increasing amount of glasshouses meant chutney and pickle were relegated to military and colonial use. Chutney reappeared in India around the 1780s as a popular appetizer. Diego Álvarez Chanca brought back chili peppers from the Americas to Spain in 1493, he had sailed with Columbus. After discovering their medicinal properties, Chanca developed a chutney to administer them. In the early 17th century, the expanded presence British on the Indian subcontinent relied on preserved food stuffs such as lime pickles and marmalades. (Marmalades proved unpopular due to their sweetness. They were rare due