The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
The Austin Allegro is a small family car, manufactured by the Austin-Morris division of British Leyland from 1973 until 1982. The same vehicle was built in Italy by Innocenti between 1974 and 1975 and sold as the Innocenti Regent. In total, 642,350 Austin Allegros were produced during its ten-year production life, most of which were sold on the home market; the Allegro announced in May 1973 was designed as the replacement for the Austin 1100 and 1300 models, which were designed by Sir Alec Issigonis. As with the Morris Marina, the car can be seen with hindsight as symptomatic of the enormous difficulties facing British Leyland during that period; the key factor that British Leyland can now be seen to have missed is that a much more useful and popular form of car, the hatchback, was emerging in Europe, with designs such as the Autobianchi A112, Renault 16, Volkswagen Golf. This configuration would go on to dominate the market for small family cars in the space of a few years. British Leyland stuck to the more traditional and less versatile booted design when they launched the Allegro.
This was because of internal company politics: it had been decided that the Austin Maxi should have a hatchback as its unique selling point, that no other car in the company's line-up was allowed one. This decision hamstrung both the Allegro and the Princess, both designs suited to a hatchback yet not given one; the Allegro used front-wheel drive, using the familiar A-Series engine with a sump-mounted transmission. The higher-specification models used the SOHC E-Series engine, in 1750 cc displacements; the two-box saloon bodyshell was suspended using the new Hydragas system. Stylistically, it went against the sharp-edged styling cues that were becoming fashionable, featured rounded panel work; the original styling proposal, by Harris Mann, had the same sleek, wedge-like shape of the Princess, but because British Leyland management, keen to control costs, wanted to install the existing E-Series engine and bulky heating system from the Marina, it became impossible to incorporate the low bonnet line as envisaged: the bodyshell began to look more and more bloated and tubby.
This was acceptable to BL, which according to Jeff Daniels' book British Leyland, The Truth About The Cars, published in 1980, wanted to follow the Citroën approach of combining advanced technology with styling that eschewed mainstream trends in order to create long-lasting "timeless" models. Its unfashionable shape was thus not a problem to them; the final car bore little resemblance to Mann's original concept, conceived as an 1100/1300 re-skin. This, as well as British Leyland's faith in it as a model that would help turn the company around, led to it earning the early nickname of the "flying pig". Models that were finished in the fashionable brown colour were given an ruder nickname. With the Allegro, the makers avoided the full extent of badge engineering that had defined the marketing of its predecessor, sold as an Austin although it was sold under all of the brands which BMC/BL owned, but they introduced in September 1974 an upmarket Allegro, branded as the Vanden Plas 1500/automatic.
This featured a prominent grille at the front and an interior enhanced by a range of modifications designed to attract traditionally inclined customers, including: special seats upholstered in real leather, with reclining backrests. In 1974, a time when the UK starting price for the Austin Allegro was given as £1159, BLMC were quoting, at launch, a list price of £1951 for the Vanden Plas 1500; the Allegro name was not used on this version. Early Allegro models featured a "quartic" steering wheel, rectangular with rounded sides; this was touted as allowing extra room between the driver's legs. The quartic wheel did not take off, was dropped in 1974 when the SS model was replaced by the HL; the VP 1500 was never introduced despite it being featured in the owner's manual. Despite this feature only having appeared on certain models for a limited time, the Allegro has always been associated with the criticism that it "had a square steering wheel", it could now be seen as being ahead of its time as today many cars have squared off lower section steering wheels and some Formula 1 cars have square steering wheels.
Some other BL cars from this period were fitted with a semi Quartic steering wheel, such as the Rover SD1. In April 1975 a 3-door estate car version was added to the range. Allegros were now coming off the production line with the same conventional steering wheel as the Morris Marina, although the company waited till early June 1975 to announce, rather the demise of the Allegro's quartic steering wheel to give time for older cars to emerge from the sales and distribution network. Similar to the 2-door saloon, the Allegro estate had a coachline and featured a rear wash-wipe; the spare wheel was housed under the rear load floor area. It was only in production for about 100 days before the arrival of the Series 2 model, making Series I Allegro estate rarer than most other models in the range. There was a similar situation in New Zealand, where the New Zealand Motor Corporation, which at the time had CKD kit assembly plants in Newmarket and Panmure and Petone, began Allegro assembly in 1975 – with the circular steering wheel.
Only a few hundred'Mark Ones' – amon
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the direction of travel. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration. Most rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine configuration, where the engine's crankshaft axis is parallel with the direction of travel, except for some rear-mid engine vehicles, which use a transverse engine and transaxle mounted in the rear instead of the front. Despite being used in light vehicles, it is not restricted to light vehicles and has been used on armored vehicles to save interior space; the Critchley light car, made by the Daimler Motor Company in 1899, had a transverse engine with belt drive to the rear axle. A 1911 front-wheel drive car had a transverse engine with a clutch at each end, driving the front wheels directly; the first successful transverse-engine cars were the two-cylinder DKW "Front" series of cars, which first appeared in 1931. During WWII transverse engines were developed for armored vehicles, with the Soviet T-44 and T-54/T-55 being equipped with transverse engines to save space in the hull.
The T-54/55 became the most produced tank in history. After the Second World War, SAAB used the configuration in their first model, the Saab 92, in 1947; the arrangement was used for Borgward's Goliath and Hansa brand cars and in a few other German cars. However, it was with Alec Issigonis's Mini, introduced by the British Motor Corporation in 1959, that the design gained acclaim. Issigonis incorporated the car's gearbox into the engine's sump, producing a drivetrain unit narrow enough to install transversely in a car only four feet wide. While previous DKW and Saab cars used small two-stroke air-cooled engines with poor refinement and performance the gearbox-in-sump arrangement meant that an 848cc four-cylinder water-cooled engine could be fitted to the Mini, providing strong performance for a car of its size. Coupled to the much greater interior space afforded by the layout this made the Mini a genuine alternative to the conventional small family car; this design reached its ultimate extent starting with Dante Giacosa's elaboration of it for Fiat.
He connected the engine to its gearbox by a shaft and set the differential off-center so that it could be connected to the gearbox more easily. The axleshafts from the differential to the wheels therefore differed in length, which would have made the car's steering asymmetrical were it not for their torsional stiffness being made the same. Giacosa's lay-out was first used in the Autobianchi Primula in 1964 and in the wide-selling Fiat 128. With the gearbox mounted separately to the engine these cars were by neccesity larger than the Mini but this proved to be no disadvantage; the Giacosa lay-out provided superior refinement, easier repair and was better-suited to adopting five-speed transmissions than the original Issigonis in-sump design. Now most small and small/medium-sized cars built throughout the world use this arrangement; the Lamborghini Miura used a transverse, mid-mounted 4.0 litre V12, a configuration, unheard of in 1965, although now more common The Land Rover LR2 Freelander, along with all Volvo models from 1998 on, employ a transversely-mounted engine in order to increase passenger space inside the vehicle.
This has allowed for improved safety in a frontal impact, due to more front to back engine compartment space being created. The result is a larger front crumple zone. Transverse engines have been used in buses. In the United States they were offered in the early 1930s by Twin Coach and used with limited success in Dwight Austin's Pickwick Nite-Coach. Transverse bus engines first appeared in the Yellow Coach 719, using Dwight Austin's V-drive, they were used in the British Leyland Atlantean and in many transit buses and nearly all modern double decker buses. They have been used by Scania, MAN, Volvo and Renault's bus divisions. Engines may be placed in two main positions within the motor car: Front-engine transversely-mounted / Front-wheel drive Rear mid-engine transversely-mounted / Rear-wheel drive Space allowed for engines within the front wheel wells is limited to the following: Single cylinder Inline-two Inline-three Inline-four Inline-five V4 V6 The description of the orientation of V-twin and flat-twin motorcycle engines sometimes differs from the convention as stated above.
Motorcycles with a V-twin engine mounted with its crankshaft mounted in line with the frame, e.g. the AJS S3 V-twin, Indian 841, Victoria Bergmeister, Honda CX series and several Moto Guzzis since the 1960s, are said to have "transverse" engines, while motorcycles with a V-twin mounted with its crankshaft mounted perpendicular to the frame, e.g. most Ducatis since the 1970s and most Harley-Davidsons, are said to have "longitudinal" engines. This convention uses the longest horizontal dimension of the engine as its axis instead of the line of the crankshaft. Clarke, Massimo. Modern Motorcycle Technology: How Every Part of Your Motorcycle Works. Minneapolis, MN USA: MotorBooks International. P. 44. ISBN 978-0-7603-3819-3. Retrieved 2013-05-31. Moto Guzzi's transverse V-twins are unique among motorcycles, while Ducati, in keeping with the classical school, uses a longitudinal V, meaning the axis of rotation of the crankshaft is transverse to the frame. Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David.
Daimler Century: The ful
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was applied to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy; the heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy or mechanical energy.
The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus nearly two million years ago. Throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans. Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals, it was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now used as a fuel for barbecue cooking. Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China. With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept development of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769, coal came into more common use as a power source. Coal was used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for street lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the primary use of coal is to generate electricity, providing 40% of the world's electrical power supply in 2005.
Fossil fuels were adopted during the Industrial Revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources, such as water power. They have become a pivotal part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power; the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols. Chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion. Most of the chemical energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel, but in the weak double bond of molecular oxygen. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways. First, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence: primary and secondary. Thus, a general classification of chemical fuels is: Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating released through combustion.
Solid fuels include wood, peat, hexamine fuel tablets, pellets made from wood, wheat and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology uses solid fuel. Solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire. Coal was the fuel source which enabled the industrial revolution, from firing furnaces, to running steam engines. Wood was extensively used to run steam locomotives. Both peat and coal are still used in electricity generation today; the use of some solid fuels is restricted or prohibited in some urban areas, due to unsafe levels of toxic emissions. The use of other solid fuels as wood is decreasing as heating technology and the availability of good quality fuel improves. In some areas, smokeless coal is the only solid fuel used. In Ireland, peat briquettes are used as smokeless fuel, they are used to start a coal fire. Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy producing kinetic energy, it is the fumes of liquid fuels.
Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust. However, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel, jet fuel and bio-diesel which are all categorized as a liquid fuel. Emulsified fuels of oil-in-water such as orimulsion have been developed a way to make heavy oil fractions usable as liquid fuels. Many liquid fuels play a primary role in the economy; some common properties of liquid fuels are that they are easy to transport, that can be handled easily. They are easy to use for all engineering applications, home use. Fuels like kerosene are rationed in some countries, for example available in government subsidized shops in India for home use. Conventional diesel is similar to gasoline in that it is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking and small engines. Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can only exist as a liquid at low temperatures, which limits its direct use as a liquid fuel in most applications.
LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of which are compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions. It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas (CN
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
British Motor Corporation
The British Motor Corporation Limited was a UK-based vehicle manufacturer, formed in early 1952 to give effect to an agreed merger of the Morris and Austin businesses. BMC acquired the shares in the Austin Motor Company. Morris Motors, the holding company of the productive businesses of the Nuffield Organisation, owned MG, Wolseley; the agreed exchange of shares in Morris or Austin for shares in the new holding company, BMC, became effective in mid-April 1952. In September 1965, BMC took control of its major supplier of bodies, Pressed Steel, acquiring Jaguar's body supplier in the process. In September 1966, BMC merged with Jaguar Cars. In December 1966, BMC changed its name to British Motor Holdings Limited. BMH merged in May 1968 with Leyland Motor Corporation Limited, which made trucks and buses owned Standard-Triumph International Limited, BMH becoming the major part of British Leyland Motor Corporation. BMC was the largest British car company of its day, with 39% of British output, producing a wide range of cars under brand names including Austin, Morris, MG, Austin-Healey and Wolseley, as well as commercial vehicles and agricultural tractors.
The first chairman was Lord Nuffield, but he was replaced at the end of 1952 by Austin's Leonard Lord, who continued in that role until his 65th birthday in 1961, but handing over, in theory at least, the managing director responsibilities to his deputy George Harriman in 1956. BMC's headquarters were at the Austin Longbridge plant, near Birmingham and Austin was the dominant partner in the group because of the chairman; the use of Morris engine designs was dropped within three years and all new car designs were coded ADO from "Amalgamated Drawing Office". The Longbridge plant was up to date, having been modernised in 1951, compared favourably with Nuffield's 16 different and old-fashioned factories scattered over the Midlands. Austin's management systems, however cost control and marketing, were not as good as Nuffield's and as the market changed from a shortage of cars to competition, this was to tell; the biggest-selling car, the Mini, was famously analysed by Ford Motor Company, which concluded that BMC must have been losing £30 on every one sold.
The result was that although volumes held up well throughout the BMC era, market share fell as did profitability and hence investment in new models, triggering the 1966 merger with Jaguar Cars to form British Motor Holdings, the government-sponsored merger of BMH with Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. At the time of the mergers, a well established dealership network was in place for each of the marques. Among the car-buying British public was a tendency of loyalty to a particular marque and marques appealed to different market segments; this meant that marques competed against each other in some areas, though some marques had a larger range than others. The Riley and Wolseley models were selling in small numbers. Styling was getting distinctly old-fashioned and this caused Leonard Lord, in an unusual move for him, to call upon the services of an external stylist. In 1958, BMC hired Battista Farina to redesign its entire car line; this resulted in the creation of three "Farina" saloons, each of, badge-engineered to fit the various BMC car lines.
The compact Farina model bowed in 1958 with the Austin A40 Farina. This is considered by many to be the first mass-produced hatchback car: a small estate version was produced with a horizontally split tailgate, its size and configuration would today be considered that of a small hatchback. A Mark II A40 Farina appeared in 1961 and was produced through 1967; these small cars used the A-Series engine. The mid-sized Farinas were launched in 1958 with the Wolseley 15/60. Other members of the group included Austin A55 Cambridge Mk. II, MG Magnette Mk. III, Morris Oxford V. Later, the design was licensed in Argentina and produced as the Siam Di Tella 1500, Traveller station wagon and Argenta pick-up; the mid-size cars used the B-Series straight-4 engine. Most of these cars lasted until 1961, though the Di Tellas remained until 1966, they were replaced with a new Farina body style and most were renamed. These were MG Magnette Mk. IV, Morris Oxford VI, Riley 4/72, Wolseley 16/60 and in 1964 the Siam Magnette 1622 alongside the Siam Di Tella in Argentina.
These remained in production until 1968, with no rear-wheel drive replacement produced. Farina designed a large car. Launched in 1959 as the Austin A99 Westminster, Vanden Plas Princess 3-Litre, Wolseley 6/99, it used the large C-Series straight-6 engine; the large Farinas were updated in 1961 as the Austin A110 Westminster, Vanden Plas Princess 3-Litre Mk. II, Wolseley 6/110; these remained in production until 1968. Austin A125 Sheerline 1947–54 Austin A135 Princess 1947–56 Austin A40 Sports 1950–53 Austin A70 Hereford 1950–54 Austin A30 1951–56 Austin A90 Atlantic 1949–52 Austin A40 Devon 1947–52 MG TD 1949–53 MG Y-type 1947–53 Morris Minor 1948–71 Morris Oxford MO 1948–54 Morris Six MS 1948–53 Riley RM series 1945–55 Wolseley 4/50 1948–53 Wolseley 6/80 1948–54 Nuffield Oxford Taxi 1947–55 Most BMC projects followed the earlier Austin practice of describing vehicles with an'ADO' number. Hence, cars that had more than one marque name would have the same ADO number. Given the complex badge-engineering that BMC undertook, it is common amongst enthusiasts to use the ADO number when referring to vehicles which were a single design (for example, saying'The ADO15 entered production in 1959'- this encompasses the fact that when launched, the ADO15
A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h