The German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany to form the reunited nation of Germany, when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its Grundgesetz Article 23. The end of the unification process is referred to as German unity, celebrated on 3 October. Following German reunification, Berlin was once again designated as the capital of united Germany; the East German government started to falter in May 1989, when the removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria opened a hole in the Iron Curtain. It caused an exodus of thousands of East Germans fleeing to West Austria via Hungary; the Peaceful Revolution, a series of protests by East Germans, led to the GDR's first free elections on 18 March 1990, to the negotiations between the GDR and FRG that culminated in a Unification Treaty. Other negotiations between the GDR and FRG and the four occupying powers produced the so-called "Two Plus Four Treaty" granting full sovereignty to a unified German state, whose two parts were bound by a number of limitations stemming from their post-World War II status as occupied regions.
The 1945 Potsdam Agreement had specified that a full peace treaty concluding World War II, including the exact delimitation of Germany's postwar boundaries, required to be "accepted by the Government of Germany when a government adequate for the purpose is established." The Federal Republic had always maintained that no such government could be said to have been established until East and West Germany had been united within a free democratic state. The key question was whether a Germany that remained bounded to the east by the Oder–Neisse line could act as a "united Germany" in signing the peace treaty without qualification. Under the "Two Plus Four Treaty" both the Federal Republic and the Democratic Republic committed themselves and their unified continuation to the principle that their joint pre-1990 boundaries constituted the entire territory that could be claimed by a Government of Germany, hence that there were no further lands outside those boundaries that were parts of Germany as a whole.
The united Germany is not a successor state, but an enlarged continuation of the former West Germany. As such, the enlarged Federal Republic of Germany retained the West German seats in international organizations including the European Community and NATO, while relinquishing membership in the Warsaw Pact and other international organizations to which only East Germany belonged, it maintains the United Nations membership of the old West Germany. For political and diplomatic reasons, West German politicians avoided the term "reunification" during the run-up to what Germans refer to as die Wende; the official and most common term in German is "Deutsche Einheit". After 1990, the term "die Wende" became more common; the term refers to the events that led up to the actual reunification. When referring to the events surrounding reunification, however, it carries the cultural connotation of the time and the events in the GDR that brought about this "turnaround" in German history. However, anti-communist activists from Eastern Germany rejected the term Wende as it was introduced by SED's Secretary General Egon Krenz.
In 1945, the Third Reich ended in defeat and Germany was divided into four occupation zones, under the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, France. The capital city of Berlin was divided into four sectors. Between 1947 and 1949, the three zones of the western allies were merged, forming the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin, aligned with capitalist Europe; the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic with its capital in East Berlin, part of the communist Soviet Bloc. The FRG was a member of the western military alliance, NATO and the GDR was a member of the Warsaw Pact. Germans lived under such imposed divisions throughout the ensuing Cold War. Into the 1980s, the Soviet Union experienced a period of economic and political stagnation, correspondingly decreased intervention in Eastern Bloc politics. In 1987, US President Ronald Reagan gave a speech at the Brandenburg Gate, challenging Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down the wall" which divided Berlin.
The wall had stood as an icon for the political and economic division between East and West, a division that Churchill had referred to as the "Iron Curtain". Gorbachev announced in 1988 that the Soviet Union would abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine and allow the Eastern bloc nations to determine their own internal affairs. In early 1989, under a new era of Soviet policies of glasnost and taken further by Gorbachev, the Solidarity movement took hold in Poland. Further inspired by other images of brave defiance, a wave
The BMW 326 is a medium-sized sedan produced by BMW between 1936 and 1941, again under Soviet control, after 1945. The 326 was BMW's first four-door sedan, it had an innovative design and sold well despite its high price. It had an unusually involved afterlife. Designed by Fritz Fiedler, the 326 featured a box-section frame that could be adapted for derivative models. Innovative were the torsion bar rear suspension, inspired by the dead axle suspension of the Citroën Traction Avant, the hydraulic braking system, the first to be used on a BMW car. Styled by Peter Schimanowski, the 326 was offered as a four-door sedan and as a two- or four-door cabriolet; the 326 sedan was the first BMW available with four doors. The BMW 320, BMW 321, BMW 327, BMW 335 were based on the 326; the streamlined form of the body contrasted with previous upright BMWs: drag was reduced further by including a fixed cover over the spare wheel at the back. The 1971 cc straight 6 engine was a version of the 319’s power plant, with the bore increased from 65 mm to 66 mm, an unchanged stroke of 96 mm giving a displacement of 1,971 cc.
In the 326 application, it was fed by twin 26 mm Solex carburetors to produce a claimed maximum output of 50 PS at 3750 rpm. The top speed is 115 km/h; the four-speed gear box was supported by freewheeling on the bottom ratios and synchromesh on the top two. The 326 was introduced at the Berlin Motor Show in February 1936, the 326 was offered for sale from May of that year; the 326 was a success. By the time production was suspended in 1941, the Eisenach plant had produced 15,949 of them. East Germany In 1945, Eisenach was occupied by US forces. However, the wartime allies had agreed that Thuringia would fall within the Soviet occupation zone; the plant that BMW had acquired in 1929 was not destroyed, it was possible for returning survivors to assemble sixteen postwar 326s. A modernised version, badged as the BMW 340, emerged around 1948. Despite the nomenclature, it was clear that BMW’s Eisenach plant was no longer under the control of BMW: BMW 340s, still based on the prewar 326, were badged as EMW 340s following a protracted dispute concerning title to the BMW name.
It was a tribute to the 326's perceived excellence, together with the skills of the workers who had struggled to revive it, that the Eisenach plant was permitted to produce the BMW design till 1955, long after the Auto Union assembly facilities at nearby Zwickau had been dismantled and removed to Russia as part of the war reparations package. United Kingdom The Russians were not alone in being impressed by the 326. Detailed plans of the sedan and coupé derivative models were rescued by the British. Family connections, involving the founder of the Bristol Aeroplane Company and a Frazer-Nash director who had imported to England and adapted BMW designs in the 1930s, led to Bristol. A succession of Bristols cars introduced between 1947 and 1953 were unapologetic developments of the respected BMW design. Ten years after the war's end, Bristol’s 403 produced between 1953 and 1955 retained a BMW style front grill: under the skin the engine had been extensively upgraded, the Bristol 403 now offered a claimed output of 100 bhp.
The engine size, at 1971 cc, was unchanged
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. In automotive design, a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one that places the engine in the front, with the rear wheels of vehicle being driven. In contrast to the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the engine is pushed back far enough that its center of mass is to the rear of the front axle; this aids in weight distribution and reduces the moment of inertia, improving the vehicle's handling. The mechanical layout of an FMR is the same as an FR car; some models of the same vehicle can be classified as either FR or FMR depending on the length of the installed engine and its centre of mass in relation to the front axle. FMR cars are characterized by a long hood and front wheels that are pushed forward to the corners of the vehicle, close to the front bumper.
Grand tourers have FMR layouts, as a rear engine would not leave much space for the rear seats. FMR should not be confused with a "front midships" location of the engine, referring to the engine being located behind the front axle centerline, in which case a car meeting the above FMR center of mass definition could be classified as a FR layout instead; the v35 Nissan Skyline / Infiniti G35 / Nissan 350Z are FM cars. FMR layout came standard in most pre–World War II, front-engine / rear-wheel-drive cars
The Bristol 400 luxury car is the first automotive product of the British Bristol Aeroplane Company. After World War II, BAC decided to diversify and formed a car division, which would be the Bristol Cars company in its own right. BAC subsequently acquired a licence from Frazer Nash to build BMW models. Bristol chose to base its first model on the best features of two outstanding pre-war BMWs, namely the 328's engine, the 326's frame; these were covered with a steel body but with aluminium bonnet and boot skins inspired by the BMW 327's. The Bristol 400 featured a modified version of BMW's six-cylinder pushrod engine of 1,971 cc; this engine, considered advanced for its time due to its hemispherical combustion chambers and short inlet and exhaust ports, developed 80 horsepower at 4,500 revs per minute and could carry the 400 to a top speed of around 148 km/h with acceleration to match. In order to maintain a hemispherical combustion chamber, the valves had to be positioned at an angle to the head.
In order to drive both sets of valves from a single camshaft, the Bristol engine used a system of rods and bell-cranks to drive the valves on the far side of the engine from the camshaft. Owners soon found that setting and maintaining the numerous clearances in the system was difficult but vital to keep the engine in tune; the gearbox was a four-speed manual with synchromesh on the upper three ratios and a freewheel on first. The model 400 was the only Bristol to be fitted with a steel and aluminium skin, had all flat glass, but for the curved rear window, glazed in perspex, available to specification with a top hinge; this feature was welcome on warmer climate export markets, where the sliding door windows provided only marginal ventilation to the passengers. The 400 featured independent front suspension with a transverse leaf spring and a live axle, located by an A-bracket over the differential case and longitudinal torsion bars with transverse arms and brackets at the rear, it featured a lengthy 2895 mm wheelbase and a BMW-like grille at the front of its long bonnet.
The passenger area was short, with the spare tyre mounted inside the boot on the first cars, but mounted on the rear hinged boot lid, inside an aluminium cover. Bristol Owners Club - Bristol Type 400 - 2 litre Saloon Buying a Six-Cylinder Bristol jel450.com Bristol 2 litre engined cars
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 kilometres west of Erfurt, 70 km southeast of Kassel and 150 km northeast of Frankfurt. It is the main urban centre of western Thuringia and bordering northeastern Hessian regions, situated near the former Inner German border. A major attraction is Wartburg castle, a UNESCO world heritage site since 1999. Eisenach was an early capital of Thuringia in the 13th centuries. St. Elizabeth lived at the court of the Ludowingians here between 1211 and 1228. Martin Luther came to Eisenach and translated the Bible into German. In 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach was born here. During the early modern period, Eisenach was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins and was visited by numerous representatives of Weimar classicism like Johann Wolfgang Goethe. In 1869, the SDAP, one of the two precursors of the Social Democratic Party of Germany was founded in Eisenach. Car production is an important industry in Eisenach; the Automobilwerk Eisenach was founded in 1896.
In the German Democratic Republic, the Wartburg was produced here. Eisenach is situated on the Hörsel river, a tributary of the Werra between the Thuringian Forest in the south, the Hainich mountains in the north-east and the East Hesse Highlands in the north-west. Eisenach's origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as the nucleus of Eisenach. However, there are no written sources about that early period. According to legend, Louis the Springer began in 1067 to establish Wartburg castle above the settlement. In 1080, the castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach itself followed in a document dating to 1150 where it was referred to as "Isinacha". During the 1180s, the town was established by the construction of three independent market settlements around the Saturday's market, the Wednesday's market and the Monday's market. Due to its convenient location at a bottleneck between the Thuringian Forest in the south and the Hainich mountains in the north, Eisenach benefitted from substantial west-east trade along Via Regia from Frankfurt to Erfurt and Leipzig and became a rich merchant town.
During the second half of the 12th century, the town walls were erected and Eisenach got a planned grid of streets and alleys. In the late 12th century, the Wartburg became the main residence of the Ludowingians, making Eisenach a leading place in today's western Thuringia and northern Hesse, which belonged to the Ludowingian landgraviate. In 1207, the legendary Sängerkrieg took place at Wartburg castle. In 1221, St. Elizabeth married Landgrave Louis' IV and she lived in Eisenach or at Wartburg castle until 1228, she became the patroness of Thuringia and Hesse. In 1247, the Ludowingians died out which led to the War of the Thuringian Succession between the Wettins and Duchess Sophie of Brabant; as a consequence, the landgraviate was divided. Eisenach and the eastern parts went to the Wettins and Kassel and the western parts went to Sophie. Eisenach kept a leading position among the Wettin's Thuringian cities by becoming their Oberhof, so that their law had to be derived from Eisenach's municipal law and disputes had to be resolved here.
The confident citizens of Eisenach fought against the Wettin's rule to become a free imperial city between 1306 and 1308, but lost. In the 14th century various crises followed: in 1342, a big fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and the Black Death killed many inhabitants in 1349 and 1393. Since 1406, Eisenach was no longer a Wettin residence. In 1485, in the "division of Leipzig", the town fell to the Ernestine line of the Wettins. Between 1498 and 1501, the young Martin Luther attended the St. George's Latin school in Eisenach in preparation for his following studies at the University of Erfurt. In 1521/22 he was hidden by Frederick the Wise at Wartburg castle to protect him from the Imperial ban. In that time, Luther translated the New Testament from Greek into German, in what was an important step both for the German Reformation and the development of a consistent German standard language. Luther referred to Eisenach as ein Pfaffennest, since during his time there were 300 monks and nuns per 1,000 inhabitants.
In 1525, there was heavy fighting in the area during the Bauernkrieg. In 1528, the Lutheran Reformation was implemented in Eisenach. In 1596, Eisenach became a ducal residence again for the house of Saxe-Eisenach. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach in 1685, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach worked here as a musician at that time. Other famous composers and musicians associated with Eisenach during that period were Johann Pachelbel, Johann Christoph Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann; as the Eisenach dukes died out in 1741, the town and the state became part of Saxe-Weimar. The cultural life stayed unimpaired; the coterie around the poet Julie von Bechtolsheim met up with famous personalities like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Christoph Martin Wieland in Eisenach. From 1809 to 1918, Eisenach was part of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. In 1817, the Wartburg Festival took place in Eisenach, a meeting of students advocating moves towards a more liberal, constitutional state and a unification of Germany.
The industrial revolution started early in Eisenach. As early as the first half of the 19th century, the first factories were founded. In 1847, Eisenach was connected by the Thuringian Railway to Erfurt and Halle/Leipzig in the east an