Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
European Touring Car Championship
DThe European Touring Car Championship was an international touring car racing series organised by the FIA. It had two incarnations, the first one between 1963 and 1988, the second between 2000 and 2004. In 2005 it was superseded by the World Touring Car Championship, replaced by the European Touring Car Cup between 2005 and 2017 when became defunct; the European Touring Car Challenge, as it was known, was created in 1963 by Willy Stenger at the behest of the FIA. Cars competed under FIA Group 2 Improved Touring Car regulations which allowed a variety of touring cars of different sizes and engine displacements to race together, from the small Fiat 600 and Mini to the large Jaguar Mark 2 and Mercedes-Benz 300SE In 1963 races and hillclimbing events at Nürburgring, Mont Ventoux, Brands Hatch, Mallory Park, Zandvoort, Timmelsjoch and in the Népliget in Budapest counted towards the ETCC, won by German Peter Nöcker and his Jaguar. In 1968, the regulations were changed to allow Group 5 cars to participate, however these modified Special Touring Cars would only be eligible for two years.
In 1970 the series name was changed from European Touring Car Challenge to European Touring Car Championship. Group 2 again became the principle category although Group 2 regulations were now much more liberal in nature than the old Group 2. Following the 1973 oil crisis the next two seasons had few entrants, it was only in 1977. Rules allowed Group 2 and Group 1B "National" cars to compete together, with BMW 3.0 Coupé CSL and Capri RS remaining the most competitive entries. In 1982, the FIA replaced Groups 1 and 2 with Group N and Group A; the first one was ignored by the ETCC entrants, all cars going the Group A route. BMW and Alfa Romeo prepared regular touring cars for the championship, but it was the big-engined Tom Walkinshaw Racing prepared Jaguar XJS and Rover 3500 Vitesse that would be more competitive in the years to come, fighting against the BMW 635 CSi, the turbocharged Volvo 240T and Ford Sierra Cosworth as well as Australian manufacturer Holden and its V8 powered Commodore; the championship was cancelled due to escalating costs.
By the FIA had allowed "Evolution" models to be homologated, it was special cars such as the BMW M3 Evo and Ford Sierra RS500 that dominated the grids and results. The Macau Grand Prix's Guia Race, the Spa 24 Hours and the 24 Hours Nürburgring were the only international touring car races during those years. With the success and popularity of Supertouring in many national championships, the FIA organised the one-round Super Touring World Cup for these cars, between 1993 and 1995. In 1996, the FIA promoted the DTM, which had races outside Germany in its calendar, to International Touringcar Championship, but once more escalating costs ended the series after two seasons. In 2000, the Italian Superturismo Championship was promoted to Euro STC; the serie was made by Italian drivers and teams plus some other coming from ex Super Tourenwagen Cup. In the first season of Euro STC, 6 rounds were in Italy while the other 4 were in Austria, Czech Republic and Slovenia; the series was balanced with 4 drivers winning 5 races each one with 4 different manufacturer.
At the end of the year Giovanardi was able to win the title beating Kox in last round. In 2001, this series became the FIA 2001 European Super Touring Championship, with an extra class for Super Production cars alongside the main Super Touring class; as the former year this one was fought and attractive riveting thanks to the battle between Alfa drivers' Giovanardi and Larini and Honda driver Tarquini. Tarquini won 9 races on 20 compared with the 3 victories each one by Giovanardi and Larini, but he had to give up to Giovanardi due to lots retire that he had during the season. In 2002, due to high costs FIA decided to let D2 Class to make space to the new class Super 2000 and named the new series FIA ETCC, using Super 2000 rules; this new category had lots interest and it saw participating Alfa Romeo 156 GTA and BMW 320i, Volvo S60 and SEAT Toledo Cupra. Alfa Romeo won the first two championships with Fabrizio Giovanardi and Gabriele Tarquini while in the last season the title was won by Andy Priaulx and his BMW.
The series became popular with the public due to the intense competition and Eurosport live broadcasts. For this reason in 2005, the ETCC was promoted to WTCC; the European Touring Car title was given from 2005 until 2009 to a once a year European Touring Car Cup, with the best representatives from national championships running to Super 2000, Super Production and Super 1600 regulations in the Baltic States, Finland, Italy, Russia and the United Kingdom. Starting in 2010 the ETCC will once again become a multi event racing series. Four events of two races each are set to be held in Portugal, Italy and Germany at the Circuito Vasco Sameiro in Braga, the Autodromo Bonara in Franciacorta, the Salzburgring in Salzburg and the Motorsport Arena Oschersleben in Oschersleben. However, on 25 Mar 2010, fiawtcc.com reported that the event in Germany was cancelled to avoid clashes with the German touring car series. European Touring Car Cup official website European Touring Car Championship official website European Touring Car Championship history European Touring Car Championship race results & images – 1967 to 1988 FIA STC Article 262
Alfa Romeo Montreal
The Alfa Romeo Montreal is a 2+2 coupé sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1970 to 1977. The Alfa Romeo Montreal was introduced as a concept car in 1967 at Expo 67, held in Montreal, Canada; the concept cars were displayed without any model name, but the public took to calling it The Montreal. It was a 2+2 coupe using the 1.6-litre engine of the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI and the short wheelbase chassis of the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT, with a body designed by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. One of the two concept cars built for Expo 67 is displayed in the Alfa Romeo Historical Museum in Arese, while the other is in museum storage; the first production car, Tipo 105.64, was shown at the 1970 Geneva Motor Show and was quite different from the original, using a 2593 cc 90° dry-sump lubricated, cross-plane V8 engine with SPICA fuel injection that produced around 200 PS, coupled to a five-speed ZF manual gearbox and a limited-slip differential. This engine was derived from the 2-litre V8 used in the 33 Stradale and in the Tipo 33 sports prototype racer.
The chassis and running gear of the production Montreal were taken from the Giulia GTV coupé and comprised double wishbone suspension with coil springs and dampers at the front and a live axle with limited slip differential at the rear. Since the concept car was unofficially known as The Montreal, Alfa Romeo kept the model name in production. Stylistically, the most eye catching feature is the car's front end with four headlamps covered by unusual "grilles", that retract when the lights are switched on. Another stylistic element is the NACA duct on the bonnet; the duct is blocked off since its purpose is not to draw air into the engine, but to optically hide the power bulge. The slats behind the doors contain the cabin vents, but apart from that only serve cosmetic purposes. Paolo Martin is credited for the prototype instrument cluster; the Montreal was more expensive to buy than the Jaguar E-Type or the Porsche 911. When launched in the UK it was priced at GB£5,077, rising to GB£5,549 in August 1972 and to GB£6,999 by mid-1976.
Production was split between the Alfa Romeo plant in Arese and Carrozzeria Bertone's plants in Caselle and Grugliasco outside Turin. Alfa Romeo produced the chassis and engine and mechanicals and sent the chassis to Caselle where Bertone fitted the body. After body fitment, the car was sent to Grugliasco to be degreased zinc coated, manually spray painted and have the interior fitted; the car was returned to Arese to have the engine and mechanicals installed. It is worth noting that because of this production method, there is not any correspondence between chassis number, engine number and production date; the Montreal remained unchanged until it was discontinued in 1977. By production had long ceased as Alfa were struggling to sell their remaining stock; the total number built was around 3900. None of them were sold in Montreal since Alfa did not develop a North American version to meet the emission control requirements in the United States & Canada. A Montreal can be seen in the 1974 movie The Marseille Contract where Michael Caine drives a metallic dark brown example.
A careful observer can find a red Montreal in the beginning of the James Cameron movie True Lies prior to the lead character saying "Here is my invitation." A Montreal is featured in the 2017 movie Atomic Blonde. Autodelta completed late in 1972 a Group 4 Montreal, it was launched at the London Racing Car Show in January 1973, it was sold to Alfa Romeo Germany to be used in the DRM series for GT cars. Ready to race in May 1973, the car was entrusted to specialist racing team of Dieter Gleich, the principle driver; the Autodelta version had 2997 cc engine with maximum power of 370 hp at 9000 rpm. Without any further development the car was outdated soon. A Montreal was campaigned in the United States but without success. Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale The Alfa Romeo Montreal Website Classic Motorsports magazine Alfa Romeo Montreal buyer's guide
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure. Fins function as foils that produce lift or thrust, or provide the ability to steer or stabilize motion while traveling in water, air, or other fluids. Fins are used to increase surface areas for heat transfer purposes, or as ornamentation. Fins first evolved on fish as a means of locomotion. Fish fins are used to control the subsequent motion. Fish, other aquatic animals such as cetaceans propel and steer themselves with pectoral and tail fins; as they swim, they use other fins, such as dorsal and anal fins, to achieve stability and refine their maneuvering. Foil shaped fins generate thrust when moved, the lift of the fin sets water or air in motion and pushes the fin in the opposite direction. Aquatic animals get significant thrust by moving fins forth in water; the tail fin is used, but some aquatic animals generate thrust from pectoral fins. Fins can generate thrust if they are rotated in air or water. Turbines and propellers use a number of rotating fins called foils, arms or blades.
Propellers use the fins to translate torquing force to lateral thrust, thus propelling an aircraft or ship. Turbines work in reverse, using the lift of the blades to generate torque and power from moving gases or water. Cavitation can be a problem with high power applications, resulting in damage to propellers or turbines, as well as noise and loss of power. Cavitation occurs when negative pressure causes bubbles to form in a liquid, which promptly and violently collapse, it can wear. Cavitation damage can occur to the tail fins of powerful swimming marine animals, such as dolphins and tuna. Cavitation is more to occur near the surface of the ocean, where the ambient water pressure is low. If they have the power to swim faster, dolphins may have to restrict their speed because collapsing cavitation bubbles on their tail are too painful. Cavitation slows tuna, but for a different reason. Unlike dolphins, these fish do not feel the bubbles, because they have bony fins without nerve endings, they cannot swim faster because the cavitation bubbles create a vapor film around their fins that limits their speed.
Lesions have been found on tuna. Scombrid fishes are high-performance swimmers. Along the margin at the rear of their bodies is a line of small rayless, non-retractable fins, known as finlets. There has been much speculation about the function of these finlets. Research done in 2000 and 2001 by Nauen and Lauder indicated that "the finlets have a hydrodynamic effect on local flow during steady swimming" and that "the most posterior finlet is oriented to redirect flow into the developing tail vortex, which may increase thrust produced by the tail of swimming mackerel". Fish use multiple fins, so it is possible that a given fin can have a hydrodynamic interaction with another fin. In particular, the fins upstream of the caudal fin may be proximate fins that can directly affect the flow dynamics at the caudal fin. In 2011, researchers using volumetric imaging techniques were able to generate "the first instantaneous three-dimensional views of wake structures as they are produced by swimming fishes".
They found that "continuous tail beats resulted in the formation of a linked chain of vortex rings" and that "the dorsal and anal fin wakes are entrained by the caudal fin wake within the timeframe of a subsequent tail beat". Once motion has been established, the motion itself can be controlled with the use of other fins. Boats control direction with fin-like rudders, roll with stabilizer fins and keel fins. Airplanes achieve similar results with small specialised fins that change the shape of their wings and tail fins. Stabilising fins are used as fletching on arrows and some darts, at the rear of some bombs, missiles and self-propelled torpedoes; these are planar and shaped like small wings, although grid fins are sometimes used. Static fins have been used for one satellite, GOCE. Engineering fins are used as heat transfer fins to regulate temperature in heat sinks or fin radiators. In biology, fins can have an adaptive significance as sexual ornaments. During courtship, the female cichlid, Pelvicachromis taeniatus, displays a large and visually arresting purple pelvic fin.
"The researchers found that males preferred females with a larger pelvic fin and that pelvic fins grew in a more disproportionate way than other fins on female fish." Reshaping human feet with swim fins, rather like the tail fin of a fish, add thrust and efficiency to the kicks of a swimmer or underwater diver Surfboard fins provide surfers with means to maneuver and control their boards. Contemporary surfboards have a centre fin and two cambered side fins; the bodies of reef fishes are shaped differently from open water fishes. Open water fishes are built for speed, streamlined like torpedoes to minimise friction as they move through the water. Reef fish operate in the confined spaces and complex underwater landscapes of coral reefs. For this manoeuvrability is more important than straight line speed, so coral reef fish have developed bodies which optimize their ability to dart and change direction, they outwit predators by dodging into fissures in the reef or playing hide and seek around coral heads.
The pectoral and pelvic fins of many reef fish, such as butterflyfish and angelfish, have evolved so they can act as brakes and allow complex maneuvers. Many reef fish, such as butterflyfish and angelfish, have evolved bod
The BMW M30 is a SOHC straight-six petrol engine, produced from 1968 to 1992. With a production run of 22 years, it is BMW's longest produced engine and was used in many car models; the first models to use the M30 engine were 2800 sedans. The initial M30 models were produced in displacements of 2,494–2,986 cc, with versions having displacements of up to 3,430 cc; as per the BMW M10 four-cylinder engine from which the M30 was developed, the M30 has an iron block, an aluminium head and an overhead camshaft with two valves per cylinder. The engine was given the nicknames of'Big Six' and'Senior Six', following the introduction of the smaller BMW M20 straight-six engine in the late 1970s; the M30 was produced alongside the M20 throughout the M20's production, prior to the introduction of the BMW M70 V12 engine in 1987, the M30 was BMW's most powerful and largest regular production engine. Following the introduction of the BMW M50 engine in 1990, the M30 began to be phased out. Ward's have rated the M30 as one of the "Top Engines of the 20th Century".
The M30 was developed in the late 1960s, loosely based on the BMW M10 four-cylinder engine first used in the BMW New Class sedans and coupes. The engine code was "M06", until it was renamed the M30. Common features between the M10 and M30 include a profile lowering 30-degree slant to the right, a crossflow cylinder head and chain-driven camshaft with rocker arm valve actuation. Further similarities include a cast-iron block with a forged crankshaft; the first two M30 engines introduced were the 2,788 cc and the 2,494 cc versions, which both used an 86 mm bore. The M90 engine, used in several models from 1979-1982, combines the block from the motorsports BMW M88 DOHC engine with the M30's SOHC cylinder head; the first 2,494 cc version of the M30 was introduced in the 1968 E3 2500. This version uses dual Solex Zenith 35/40 INAT carburettors, has a compression ratio of 9.0:1 and produces 110 kW in most applications. It has a stroke of 86 mm × 71.6 mm. The M30B25 has been called the M06 and M68, prior to BMW retroactively renaming it the M30B25V.
Applications: 1968–1977 E3 2500 1974–1975 E9 2.5 CS 1973–1976 E12 525 — 107 kW, Solex 4A1 carburettor 1976–1981 E12 525 1977–1979 E23 725 In 1981, Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection was added to the 2,494 cc version. Peak power remained unchanged at 110 kW, however torque increased to 215 N⋅m. Applications: 1981-1987 E28 525i 1981-1986 E23 725i The M30B28V version produces up to 125 kW and 235 N⋅m, depending on the model year and country, it has a compression ratio of 9.0:1 and used dual Zenith 35/40 INAT carburettors. The bore is 86 mm and the stroke is 86 mm × 80 mm; this version has been known as the M06 and M68, prior to BMW renaming it the M30B28V. Applications: 1968-1977 E3 2800 / 2.8L — 125 kW 1968-1971 E9 2800 CS 1971-1971 E3 Bavaria — United States only 1974-1976 E12 528 — 121 kW, dual Zenith INAT carburettors 1976-1978 E12 528 — 125 kW, Solex 4A1 carburettor 1977-1979 E23 728 — 125 kW, Solex 4A1 carburettor In 1977, Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection was added to the 2,788 cc version.
Power increased to torque increased to 240 N ⋅ m. 1977-1978 E12 528i — North America only, 129 kW, 9.0:1 compression ratio 1978-1981 E12 528i 1979-1986 E23 728i 1979-1987 E24 628CSi 1981-1987 E28 528i Based on the M30B28V version with a 3 mm larger bore, the M30B30V produces 132 kW and 255 N⋅m, uses dual Zenith 35/40 INAT carburettors and has a compression ratio of 9.0:1. Applications: 1971-1975 E9 3.0 CS 1971-1972 E9 3.0 CSL 1971-1974 E3 3.0 S / 3.0 L / Bavaria 1976-1979 E24 630 CS — 136 kW, Pierburg 4A1 carburetor 1977-1979 E23 730 — 135 kW, Solex 4 A 1 carburettor The fuel injected version of the 2,986 cc M30 debuted in 1971 in the E9 3.0 CSi and used the Bosch D-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection system. In 1976, the fuel injection system was upgraded to Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection; the M30B30 produces up to 149 kW and 272 N⋅m, depending on the model year and whether a catalytic converter is fitted. The compression ratio is 9.5:1. Applications: 1971-1975 E9 3.0 CSi — 149 kW 1972-1973 E9 3.0 CSL — 149 kW 1972-1975 E3 3.0 Si — 147 kW 1975-1978 E12 530i — North America only, 131 kW 1976-1976 E12 530 MLE — South Africa only, 147 kW 1977-1978 E24 630CSi — North America only, 129 kW 1986-1992 E32 730i — 138 kW 1988-1990 E34 530i — 138 kW Despite having a capacity of 3,210 cc, this engine appeared in many cars badged so as to suggest 3.3 L of displacement- such as the 633i, 3.3 Li, 733i.
The compression ratio is 8.8:1. In the E24 633CSi coupe, the M30B32 uses Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection; the US version used L-Jetronic from 1978 until mid-1981, changing over to Motronic digital fuel injection in June of that year. The 1979 732i is BMW's first use of Bosch's Motronic fuel injection; the bore is 89 mm and the stroke is 86 mm. Applications: 1973-1975 E9 3.0 CSL — 152 kW, 3,153 cc 1976-1984 E24 633CSi — 145–147 kW in Euro spec, 128–130 kW in USA spec 1976-1979 E3 3.3 Li — 147 kW 1977-1984 E23 733i — 147 kW in Euro spec, 130–145 kW in U
Wilhelm Karmann GmbH, known as Karmann, in Osnabrück, was until its 2009 bankruptcy the largest independent motor vehicle manufacturing company in Germany. Since 1901 the company fulfilled roles including design and assembly of components for a wide variety of automobile manufacturers; the company was broken up in 2010 with its components purchased by Webasto and Valmet Automotive—with the Osnabrück plant itself transferred to Volkswagen. The company was established in 1901, when Wilhelm Karmann purchased Klases, a coachbuilder since 1874, renamed the business; the company grew together with the expanding automobile industry. Known cars produced by Karmann include the Volkswagen Beetle Cabriolet as well as the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia. Between 1955 and 1974, a total of 443,482 VW Karmann Ghias were manufactured, placing their own sports car-style body on the chassis of the Volkswagen Beetle. Subsequently, Karmann assembled the Scirocco and Golf Cabriolet for Volkswagen. Many Karmann models feature a small wagon wheel emblem, the coat of arms of Osnabrück, where the company was founded.
Karmann assembled complete knock down kits in an agreement with American Motors. In 1968, AMC introduced the Javelin, a new competitor in the U. S. "pony car" segment. AMC did not have a manufacturing subsidiary in Europe, Karmann assembled the American-designed car for distribution in Europe. Karmann built the cars in Rheine with 280 horsepower 343 cu in V8 engines. About 90% of the necessary components were shipped by boat from the U. S. All were SST trim versions and their name, Javelin 79-K stood for AMC's "79" model number and the "K" for Karmann. Karmann is known for its work on convertibles/cabriolets, providing roof components for convertibles including the Mercedes-Benz CLK, the Renault Mégane CC, the Volkswagen New Beetle Cabriolet. Both the headquarters in Osnabrück and the additional facility in Rheine construct complete vehicles, such as the former Volkswagen Golf Cabriolet, the former Audi A4 Cabriolet, the Mercedes-Benz CLK, the Chrysler Crossfire. A small number of vehicles are produced in Brazil São Bernardo do Campo.
The Osnabrück facility produces the chassis and body panels of the Spyker C8 Spyder. Other facilities at Sunderland UK, Puebla Mexico, Plymouth Township U. S. manufacture roof systems for the Nissan Micra C+C, Volkswagen New Beetle Cabriolet, Pontiac G6, respectively. A large part of the development of the Chrysler Crossfire was done independently by Karmann, the vehicle was produced at their Osnabrück facility. Karmann U. S. supplied the top sub-assemblies for the third-generation Chrysler Sebring and Ford Mustang convertible. Since its beginning in 1901, Karmann built more than three million complete vehicles of the models as follows, exceptions as indicated: Chassis Chrysler Crossfire Coupé 2001–2007 Chrysler Crossfire Roadster 2003–2007 Mercedes-Benz SLK Spyker C8 Spyder Roof modules Audi A4 and Audi S4 Cabriolet, 2001 Bentley Continental GTC convertible, 2006 BMW 1 Series convertible Mercedes CLK convertible Nissan Micra C+C retractable hardtop, 2005 Renault Mégane CC retractable hardtop, 2002 Volkswagen New Beetle Cabriolet Pontiac G6 retractable hardtop, 2007 Chrysler Sebring retractable hardtop and convertible softtop, 2007 Ford Mustang convertible, 2007 The first Karmann motorhomes were launched in 1974 based on the Volkswagen Type 2'Bay Window' chassis.
The bodies were of a sandwich structure. These motorhomes had two beds, shower, waste water tank, rear body supports, leisure battery, water heater and gas heating. Options included the luggage rack over the driver's cab. 1,000 units were produced through 1979. With the introduction of the Volkswagen T2/3 - known as the in 1979, the motorhomes received a permanent overhead area with a bed for two people. Called Karmann Gipsy, 741 were made between 1980 and 1992; this number excludes 30 or more Type 3 Syncro models made between 1986 and 1989, 7 Syncro 16" models made between 1991 and 1992. In addition 113 Cheetah T2/3's were manufactured between 1986 and 1990 to make a total 891 Volkswagen T3 Karmann Coachbuilt Motorhomes - all produced in Karmann Rheine factory and not at Osnabruck as believed. From 1978 to 1996, a total of 3,103 Volkswagen LT-based models were produced; these included the LT "M", LT "L 1", LT "L 2", LT "L Distance Wide", LT "L Distance-Wide Gold", LT "H Distance-Wide", LT "H Distance-Wide Gold", LT "S Distance-Wide" and the top-of-the-line LT "Distance-Wide Autovilla".
In 1991, the Karmann motorhome design was updated and based on the Volkswagen T4. The Gipsy and Cheetah models names were retained in the form of Cheetah. In 1996 two new models were introduced namely the Missouri; the Volkswagen Transporter -based versions were introduced in 2003. On 8 April 2009, Karmann filed for bankruptcy protection due to the sharp decline in demand for cars, the company's financial obligations. Volkswagen revealed on 24 October 2009, that it had made an offer to acquire long-time partner Karmann. On 20 November 2009 Volkswagen said that it would buy Karmann's site at Osnabrück, to produce a new vehicle. On 4 November 2010 Valmet Automotive signed an agreement to buy Karmann's roof-component sections in Osnabrück, Żary, Poland. Karmann's North American operations were sold August 2010 to Webasto Group. Karmann Motorhomes Website
Group 5 (racing)
Group 5 was an FIA motor racing classification, applied to four distinct categories during the years 1966 to 1982. Group 5 regulations defined a Special Touring Car category and from 1970 to 1971 the classification was applied to limited production Sports Cars restricted to 5 litre engine capacity; the Group 5 Sports Car category was redefined in 1972 to exclude the minimum production requirement and limit engine capacity to 3 litres. From 1976 to 1982 Group 5 was for Special Production Cars, a liberal silhouette formula based on homologated production vehicles. In 1966 the FIA introduced a number of new racing categories including one for modified touring cars known as Group 5 Special Touring Cars; the regulations permitted vehicle modifications beyond those allowed in the concurrent Group 1 and Group 2 Touring Car categories. Group 5 regulations were adopted for the British Saloon Car Championship from 1966 and for the European Touring Car Championship from 1968; the Special Touring Cars category was discontinued after the 1969 season.
For the 1970 season, the FIA applied the Group 5 classification to the Sports Car class, known as Group 4 Sports Cars. The minimum production requirement remained at 25 and the engine capacity maximum at 5 litres as had applied in the superseded Group 4. Group 5 Sports Cars contested the FIA's International Championship for Makes in 1970 & 1971, alongside the 3 litre Group 6 Prototype Sports Cars. During 1970 the FIA decided to replace the existing Group 5 Sports Car category when the rules expired at the end of the 1971 season, so the big 917s and 512s would have to be retired at the end of that year. Ferrari decided to give up any official effort with the 512 in order to prepare for the new 1972 season regulations, but many 512s were still raced by most of them converted to M specification. As a result of the rule change, sports car racing popularity suffered and did not recover until the following decade, with the advent of Group C which incidentally were forced out of competition in favour of the 3.5 atmo engine formula, reminiscent of events nineteen years previous.
In an effort to reduce the speeds generated at Le Mans and other fast circuits of the day by the unlimited capacity Group 6 Prototypes such as the 7 litre Fords, to entice manufacturers of 3 litre Formula One engines into endurance racing, the Commission Sportive Internationale announced that the new International Championship for Makes would be run for Group 6 Sports-Prototypes limited to 3 litre capacity for the four years from 1968 through 1971. Well-aware that few manufacturers were ready to take up the challenge, the CSI allowed the participation of 5 litre Group 4 Sports Cars manufactured in quantities of at least 50 units; this targeted existing cars like the newer Lola T70 coupe. In April 1968, the CSI announced that, as there were still too few entries in the 3 litres Group 6 Prototype category, the minimal production figure to compete in the Group 4 Sport category of the International Championship of Makes would be reduced from 50 to 25 starting in 1969 through to the planned end of the rules in 1971.
This was to allow the homologation in Group 4 of cars such as the Ferrari 250 LM and the Lola T70 which had not been manufactured in sufficient quantities to qualify. Starting in July 1968, Porsche made a surprising and expensive effort to take advantage of this rule; as they were rebuilding race cars with new chassis every race or two anyway, they decided to conceive and build 25 versions of a whole new car for the Sport category with one underlying goal: to win its first overall victory in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In only ten months the Porsche 917 was developed, based upon the Porsche 908, with remarkable technology: Porsche's first 12-cylinder engine, many components made of titanium and exotic alloys, developed for lightweight hillclimb racers. Other ways of weight reduction were rather simple, like a gear lever knob made of Balsa wood; when Porsche was first visited by the CSI inspectors only three cars were completed, while 18 were being assembled and seven additional sets of parts were present.
Porsche argued that if they assembled the cars they would have to take them apart again to prepare the cars for racing. The inspectors asked to see 25 assembled and working cars. On April 20 Ferdinand Piëch displayed 25 917s parked in front of the Porsche factory to the CSI inspectors. Piëch offered the opportunity to drive one of the cars, declined. During June 1969, Enzo Ferrari sold half of his stock to FIAT, used some of that money to do what Porsche did 6 months earlier with the 917, to build 25 cars powered by a 5-litre V12 in order to compete against them. With the financial help of Fiat, that risky investment was made, surplus cars were intended to be sold to racing customers to compete for the 1970 season. Within 9 months Ferrari manufactured 25 512S cars. Ferrari entries only consisted of the factory cars, tuned by SpA SEFAC and there were the private cars of Scuderia Filipinetti, N. A. R. T. Écurie Francorchamps, Scuderia Picchio Rosso, Gelo Racing Team and Escuderia Montjuich which not receive the same support from the factory.
They were considered as field fillers, never as candidate for a win. At Porsche, however, JWA Gulf, KG Salzburg who were replaced by Martini Racing for the following season, received all direct factory support and the privateers like AAW Shell Racing and David Piper Racing received a much better support than Ferrari's clients; the 917 instability problem was resolved with a rev