Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power. There are many different standards and types of horsepower, two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of engines with the power of draft horses. It was expanded to include the power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions, most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1,2010, units called horsepower have differing definitions, The mechanical horsepower, known as imperial horsepower equals approximately 745.7 watts. It was defined originally as exactly 550 foot-pounds per second [745.7 N. m/s), the metric horsepower equals approximately 735.5 watts. It was defined originally as 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts, the Pferdestärke PS is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size.
The boiler horsepower equals 9809.5 watts and it was used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts, one horsepower for rating Continental European electric motors is equal to 735 watts. Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, one British Royal Automobile Club horsepower can equal a range of values based on estimates of several engine dimensions. It is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe, the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines and this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour, the wheel was 12 feet in radius, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π ×12 feet in one minute.
Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds-force. So, P = W t = F d t =180 l b f ×2.4 ×2 π ×12 f t 1 m i n =32,572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft·lbf/min, Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony, engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute
It became the most successful fighter squadron in the Luftstreitkräfte. Jasta 11s first commander was First Lieutenant Rudolf Lang, from its mobilization at Brayelles, Jasta 11s first months of operations were very undistinguished. It was not until the appointment of 24-year-old Cavalry Captain Manfred von Richthofen on 16 January 1917 as Commanding Officer that the unit commenced its path to fame and he already had 16 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite just before he assumed his command. Between 22 January 1917 and the end of March the Jasta claimed some 36 victories, the Jastas performance is all the more extraordinary as the unit usually flew in small flights of six or fewer. Significant scorers in the unit that April were Manfred von Richthofen, Lt. Kurt Wolff, Lt. Karl Schäfer, Manfreds brother Lothar and NCO pilot Sebastian Festner. Cavalry Captain Manfred von Richthofen First Lieutenant Rudolf Lang Lt. Kurt Wolff Lt. Richthofen was promoted to command JG I, which was the second fighter wing in the history of military aviation.
It was dubbed Richthofens Flying Circus because it mimicked a circuss logistics by using dedicated railway trains to transport it to forward airfields, in September 1917, Jasta 11 would be equipped with Fokker Dr. I triplanes. It would operate these until April–May 1918, when it received the Fokker D. VIIs it would use until wars end, Manfred von Richthofen remained Jasta commander until 26 June 1917, when his deputy, Leutnant Karl Allmenroeder took over. Following the latters death the day, former Jasta 11 pilot Leutnant Kurt Wolff took over after his transfer back from Jasta 29. After Wolff was wounded in September, wilhelm Reinhard took charge until Wolff returned. Soon after Wolff was killed in action on 15 September, thereafter Lothar took command, Jasta 11 would have a bewildering succession of other temporary commanding officers, especially when Lothar was frequently away from the front recovering from wounds. Oberleutnant Erich Rüdiger von Wedel was the last Staffelführer, from September 1918 until the end of the war, the Jasta was demobilised at Darmstadt on 16 November 1918.
Jasta 11 eventually became the highest scoring German Jasta of World War I, the first was scored on 23 January 1917, the 100th on 23 April, the 200th on 17 August, the 250th on 2 April 1918, and the 300th on 28 June 1918. It numbered no fewer than twenty aces among its ranks, in return it suffered 17 pilots killed,2 POW, and 2 killed in flying accidents. Its loss rate was less than one-tenth of its opponents. The Red Baron Combat Wing, Jagdgeschwader Richthofen in Battle
The BMW VI was a water-cooled V-12 aircraft engine built in Germany in the 1920s. It was one of the most important German aero engines in the leading up to World War II. It was further developed as the BMW VII and BMW IX and it was produced in the Soviet Union as the M-17 and Japan as the Kawasaki Ha-9. The BMW VI was the first twelve-cylinder engine built by the BMW and it essentially consisted of two cylinder banks from the six-cylinder BMW IV bolted to a common cast aluminium crankcase at a 60-degree included angle between the cylinder banks. Series production commenced in 1926 after type approval had been granted, from 1930 on, after 1000 engines of the BMW VI type had already been delivered, Germany was again permitted to construct military aircraft. The sudden additional demand resulted in the production figures increasing rapidly, in 1933 the BMW VI was used for BMWs first experiments with direct fuel injection. The BMW VI was put to use as a power unit for the Rail Zeppelin high-speed railcar.
Many versions of the BMW VI engine were developed, and it was built under license in Japan and this was further evidence of the reliability of an engine with which BMW made a fundamental contribution to the build-up of German air transport. At least 9,200 were built between 1926 and 1938, the engine was license-built in the Soviet Union under the supervision of Mikulin, who further developed it as the M-17. More license built engines were produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan as the Kawasaki Ha-9, data from de, BMW VI Type, V-12 Bore,160 mm Stroke,190 mm /199 mm different between right and left cylinder bank due to articulated connecting rods. Displacement,46.93 L Length,1,810 mm Width,859 mm Height,1,103 mm Dry weight,510 kg Fuel system,2 x Zenith 60 DCL Fuel type, min
A valve train or valvetrain is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine, in which a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly. A traditional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control air and fuel flow into and out of the cylinders, the valve train consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valve train opening/closing and duration, as well as the geometry of the train, controls the amount of air. Timing for open/close/duration is controlled by the camshaft that is synchronized to the crankshaft by a chain, camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to actuate the valves. The valve train is the system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are usually of the type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve, slide. Poppet valves typically require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs and they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers.
Depending on the used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger. Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, and pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are long, slender metal rods seated within the engine block, at the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact. The camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a chain, rubber belt. Because these mechanisms are essential to the timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts. Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, and could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still partially open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke.
Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, high-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges. These changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake, automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, and numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines, in commercial aviation, the major players in the manufacturing of turbofan engines are Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, and CFM International. In general aviation, the dominant manufacturer of engines has been Pratt & Whitney. General Electric announced in 2015 entrance into the market,1848, John Stringfellow made a steam engine for a 10-foot wingspan model aircraft which achieved the first powered flight, albeit with negligible payload. 1903, Charlie Taylor built an inline aeroengine for the Wright Flyer,1903, Manly-Balzer engine sets standards for radial engines. 1906, Léon Levavasseur produces a successful water-cooled V8 engine for aircraft use,1908, René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. 1908, Louis Seguin designed the Gnome Omega, the worlds first rotary engine to be produced in quantity.
In 1909 a Gnome powered Farman III aircraft won the prize for the greatest non-stop distance flown at the Reims Grande Semaine dAviation setting a record for endurance of 180 kilometres. 1910, Coandă-1910, a ducted fan aircraft exhibited at Paris Aero Salon. The aircraft never flew, but a patent was filed for routing exhaust gases into the duct to augment thrust,1930, Frank Whittle submitted his first patent for turbojet engine. June 1939, Heinkel He 176 is the first successful aircraft to fly powered solely by a rocket engine. August 1939, Heinkel HeS3 turbojet propels the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 aircraft,1940, Jendrassik Cs-1, the worlds first run of a turboprop engine. It is not put into service,1943 Daimler-Benz DB670, first turbofan runs 1944, Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet, the worlds first rocket-propelled combat aircraft deployed. 1945, First turboprop powered aircraft flies, a Gloster Meteor with two Rolls-Royce Trent engines,1947, Bell X-1 rocket propelled aircraft exceeds the speed of sound.
1948,100 shp 782, the first turboshaft engine to be applied to aircraft use,1949, Leduc 010, the worlds first ramjet-powered aircraft flight. 1950, Rolls-Royce Conway, the worlds first production turbofan, enters service,1968, General Electric TF39 high bypass turbofan enters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency. 2002, HyShot scramjet flew in dive,2004, NASA X-43, the first scramjet to maintain altitude. This is typically to differentiate them from radial engines, a straight engine typically has an even number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five-cylinder engines
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel. The higher the number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating. In broad terms, fuels with an octane rating are used in high performance gasoline engines that require higher compression ratios. Gasoline engines rely on ignition of air and fuel compressed together as a mixture, high compressibility of the fuel matters mainly for gasoline engines. Use of gasoline with lower numbers may lead to the problem of engine knocking. In a normal engine, the air-fuel mixture is triggered to burn rapidly by the spark plug. If it is compressed too much, it will self-ignite before the ignition system sparks and this causes much higher pressures than engine components are designed for, and can cause a knocking or pinging sound. Knocking can cause engine damage if severe. The most typically used engine management systems found in automobiles today have a sensor that monitors if knock is being produced by the fuel being used.
In modern computer-controlled engines, the timing will be automatically altered by the engine management system to reduce the knock to an acceptable level. Octanes are a family of hydrocarbon that are components of gasoline. They are colorless liquids that boil around 125 °C, one member of the octane family, isooctane, is used as a reference standard to benchmark the tendency of gasoline or LPG fuels to resist self-ignition. For example, gasoline with the same knocking characteristics as a mixture of 90% iso-octane, a rating of 90 does not mean that the gasoline contains just iso-octane and heptane in these proportions but that it has the same detonation resistance properties. Because some fuels are more knock-resistant than pure iso-octane, the definition has been extended to allow for octane numbers greater than 100, Octane ratings are not indicators of the energy content of fuels. They are only a measure of the tendency to burn in a controlled manner, rather than exploding in an uncontrolled manner.
Where the octane number is raised by blending in ethanol, energy content per volume is reduced, Ethanol BTUs can be compared with gasoline BTUs in heat of combustion tables. It is possible for a fuel to have a Research Octane Number more than 100, Racing fuels, avgas, LPG and alcohol fuels such as methanol may have octane ratings of 110 or significantly higher. Typical octane booster gasoline additives include MTBE, ETBE, isooctane and toluene, lead in the form of tetraethyllead was once a common additive, but its use for fuels for road vehicles has been progressively phased-out worldwide, beginning in the 1970s
The Gnome 7 Lambda was a French designed, seven-cylinder, air-cooled rotary aero engine that was produced under license in Britain and Germany. Powering several World War I era aircraft types it was claimed to produce 80 horsepower from its capacity of 12 litres although recorded figures are lower, just under 1,000 units were produced in Britain, the majority by the Daimler Company of Coventry. A 14-cylinder variant was known as the Gnome 14 Lambda-Lambda, in Germany Motorenfabrik Oberursel license-built the seven-cylinder engine as the Oberursel U.0 and copied the 14-cylinder design and designated it as the Oberursel U. III. Gnome 7 Lambda Seven-cylinder, single-row rotary engine, Gnome 7 Lambda Increased stroke of 145 mm to raise the compression ratio to 3.87,1, and total displacement to 12.26 litres. Gnome 14 Lambda-Lambda 14-cylinder, two-row rotary engine using Lambda cylinders, Motorenfabrik Oberursel U.0 German production of the Gnome 7 Lambda - had a 124mm cylinder bore and 140mm piston stroke for a total displacement of 11.52 litres, external diameter of 1.020 meters
Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly