BNP Paribas S. A. is a French international banking group. It is the world's 8th largest bank by total assets, operates with a presence in 72 countries, it was formed through the merger of Banque Nationale de Paris and Paribas in 2000, but has a corporate identity stretching back to its first foundation in 1848 as a national bank. It is one of three major international French banks, along with Société Générale and Crédit Agricole; the group is listed on the first market of Euronext Paris and a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, while it included in the French CAC 40 index. With both a retail banking section and investment banking operations, the bank is present on five continents, its retail banking networks serve more than 30 million customers in its three domestic markets, France and Italy through several brands such as BNL and Fortis. The retail bank operates in the Mediterranean region and in Africa. In the Americas, it operates in the western United States as Bank of the West.
As an investment bank and international financial services provider for corporate and institutional clients, it is present across Europe, the Americas, Asia. BNP Paribas is the largest bank in the Eurozone, it became one of the five largest banks in the world following the 2008 financial crisis. Despite some legal difficulties in the United States in 2014, including being fined the largest sum as reparation for violating US sanctions, it remains one of the ten largest banks worldwide; the Banque Nationale de Paris S. A. resulted from a merger of two French banks – Banque nationale pour le commerce et l'industrie and Comptoir national d'escompte de Paris – in 1966. The Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas S. A. or Paribas, was formed from two investment banks based in Paris and Amsterdam, in 1872. Les Pays-Bas is French for the Netherlands. In May 2000, BNP and Paribas merged to form BNP Paribas, thus descended from four founding banking institutions. On 7 March 1848, the French Provisional Government founded the Comptoir national d'escompte de Paris in response to the financial shock caused by the revolution of February 1848.
The upheaval destroyed the old credit system, struggling to provide sufficient capital to meet the demands of the railway boom and the resulting growth of industry. The CEP grew in France and overseas, although in 1889 there was a crisis in which it was temporarily placed in receivership. Separately, on 18 April 1932, the French government replaced Banque nationale de crédit, which failed as a result of the 1930s recession, with the new bank Banque nationale pour le commerce et l'industrie; the former banks headquarter and staff were used to create BNCI with fresh capital of 100 million francs. The bank grew through absorbing a number of regional banks that got into financial trouble. After the Second World War, it continued to grow steadily, it grew its retail business in France and its commercial business overseas in the French colonial empire. After the end of the Second World War, the French state decided to "put banks and credit to work for national reconstruction". René Pleven Minister of Finance, launched a massive reorganization of the banking industry.
A law passed on 2 December 1945 and which went into effect on 1 January 1946 nationalized the four leading French retail banks: Banque nationale pour le commerce et l'industrie, Comptoir national d'escompte de Paris, Crédit Lyonnais, Société Générale. In 1966, the French government decided to merge Comptoir national d'escompte de Paris with Banque nationale pour le commerce et l'industrie to create one new bank called Banque Nationale de Paris; the bank was re-privatised in 1993 under the leadership of Michel Pébereau as part of a second Chirac government's privatization policy. Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas was established on 27 January 1872, through the merger of Banque de Crédit et de Dépôt des Pays-Bas, established in 1820 by Louis-Raphaël Bischoffsheim in Amsterdam, Banque de Paris, founded in 1869 by a group of Parisian bankers, it went on to develop a strong investment banking business both domestically in France and overseas. During the period 1872 to 1913, it was involved in raising funds for the French and other governments as well as big businesses through a number of bond issues.
It helped the French government raise funds during the First World War and raised further capital and expanded into investments into industrial companies during the Great Depression. It lost assets during the Second World War. After World War II, it missed the nationalisation of the other French banks due to its status as an investment bank and managed to take advantage of that by expanding its operations overseas, it directs its activity towards businesses and participates in the development and restructuring of French industry, including names such as Groupe Bull and Thomson-CSF. The bank was nationalized in 1982 by the government of Pierre Mauroy under François Mitterrand as part of a law that nationalized five major industrial companies, thirty-nine registered banks, two financial companies and Paribas, it was re-privatized in January 1987 by the Chirac government. In the 1990s, Paribas had an active policy of acquisitions and divestiture; this included selling the Ottoman Bank to Doğuş Holding, setting up the joint venture lending company Cetelem in Germany.
It sold Crédit du Nord to Société Générale and in 1998 it merged with Compagnie Bancaire, renaming the bank with the official name Compagnie Financière de Paribas. In 1999, BNP and Société Générale fought a complex batt
Ayyavazhi theology is the theology of a South Indian religious Faith and a sect of Hinduism known as Ayyavazhi. Several fundamental theological beliefs distinguish the Ayyavazhi tradition from Hinduism. Ayyavazhi believes in one God, but recognizes that the one God Vishnu can appear to humans in a multiplicity of names and forms; the first half of Akilam asserts the existence and power-status of different god-heads and in the second half after the incarnation of Vaikundar though they have a secondary place, they do exist. Though all powers were surrendered to Vaikundar, Narayana acts a double role throughout the incarnation of Vaikundar, as the Father of Vaikundar. So Akilam accepts, but Vaikundar is the only powerful and supreme, which channels Ayyavazhi theology towards Henotheism. But God is, in the highest sense, one: formless and eternal. God is the source of consciousness as well as the supreme consciousness itself. God is beyond time and causation yet still exists within everything and every being.
Being formless, God is genderless. The name Ekam is mentioned quite in Ayyavazhi scriptures, but beyond the mere mention of the'term' several times, no longer description is provided for the word. The term Ekam in Tamil gives the meaning, "one and the incomparable supreme"; this is some sort of monistic definition about god from Ayyavazhi theology. There are a series of lesser god-heads mentioned in Akilam with minor powers. Vaikundar is viewed on one hand as the incarnation of Ekam and on the other hand as being equal in powers to him, but during the encounter of Vaikundar with the King of Travancore, a verse of Akilam states that Ekam itself was created by Vaikundar. So Vaikundar would be superior to all. Regarding Vaikundar, Ekam remains one among the three in the Trinity in Vaikundar during the incarnation. So all qualities of Ekam fits to Vaikundar. Strengthening this view a series of quotes from Arul Nool portraits Vaikundar as eternal and reveals his Universal form; the mythical narrative speaks of Shakti as the next evolved powers from the supreme Ekam.
The Three lesser God-heads which are Sivan and Thirumal evolved from this Shakthi. It speaks of several further evolved lesser Gods, but in Kali Yukam, due to the cruel nature of the boons offered to Kaliyan, Thirumal cannot destroy the sixth fragment of Kroni directly so all God-heads were unified into the Ekam, Ekam Incarnated in the world as a Turine god in the form of Vaikundar to overcome the boons and to destroy Kali. Since all were unified in Vaikundar, in Kali Yukam Vaikundar he was the Supreme Power and he was the only worshippable God. So in this regard Ayyavazhi is viewed as a monotheistic religion. Akilattirattu Ammanai speaks of Dharma Yukam in which Vaikundar rules like a king. There Vaikundar will be the undisputed power ruling the fourteen worlds. No such a a single God to rule the fourteen worlds exists. No such throne to rule the fourteen worlds exists, but after the incarnation of Vaikundar, Narayana told Vaikundar in the Muttappathi Vinchai that the incomparable throne is growing for him.
The mythical narration of Ayyavazhi shows Vaikundar as a supreme power. The Kroni, the primordial manifestation of evil, was fragmented into six; each was destroyed in successive Yugas. Kaliyan is called an evil spirit. So it was accepted that the destruction of the maya was symbolised in such a way, but the scripture is most concerned with Ultimate Oneness right from the beginning to the end. So the dualistic views were contrasted by the monistic narration; the contents of Arul Nool, based on the teachings of Vaikundar, which were believed to be written by arulalarkal and Citars, is monistic. Though Ayyavazhi is connected with the concept of Ekam, some followers advocate Ayyavazhi as Pantheistic, sticking to the concept of Ekan, used to refer as God in Akilam seven. In this expression, the Akilam lays the groundwork for viewing Ayyavazhi as a pantheistic faith. In a quote in Kappu, the first part of Akilam one, the author of Akilam says, "By keeping us inside yourself, please help us". Akilam1:12.
Regarding Panentheism, there are many quotes in Akilam to suggest it, but there are more that reveal Ayyavazhi as monistic. For example, during the Vinchai, inside the sea, seeing Vaikundar, says that "You are Sivan, you are Thirumal, you are Nathan, you are the Tapas, you are the one, omnipresent in all which exists", and when Vaikundar is jailed in Thiruvananthapuram he alleviates the Santror by saying "I am the one who created the Ekam and the one, omnipresent." --. Lord Narayana has the most important role in Ayyavazhi theology compared to any other God-heads from Hindu tradition; the internal evidence states that the primary scripture of Ayyavazhi, Akilattirattu Ammanai was told by Narayan to his consort Lakshmi, heard by Hari Gopalan Citar. The importance of Narayana in the theology of Ayyavazhi varies through the ages. Before the creation, though the three god-heads, Siva and Vishnu are all treated with equal status Siva is the supreme or over-all power. All the powers came from Siva and the final w
The following is a list of nicknames, aliases and slogans for municipalities and unincorporated communities in the U. S. state of Washington. City nicknames can help in establishing a civic identity, helping outsiders recognize a community or attracting people to a community because of its nickname. Nicknames and slogans that create a new community "ideology or myth" are believed to have economic value, their economic value is difficult to measure, but there are anecdotal reports of cities that have achieved substantial economic benefits by "branding" themselves by adopting new slogans. This list includes unofficial nicknames; some of the nicknames that were used may no longer be in use. Aberdeen – Port of Missing Men Algona – City of the Great Blue Heron Auburn – More Than You Imagined Bellevue – City in a Park Bellingham City of Subdued Excitement Let Us Surprise You Blaine – The Peace Arch City Bothell – For a Day or a Lifetime Burlington – The Hub City Chehalis – Rose City Chewelah – Place For All Seasons Colville – Washington's Most Livable Community Cosmopolis – City of the World Enumclaw – The Gateway to Mount Rainier Everett – City on the Sound Forks – The Logging Capital of the World Gig Harbor – The Maritime City Ilwaco – By Land or By Sea Kelso City of Friendly People Smelt Capital of the World Kirkland Gateway to Seattle The Little City that Could Lynden – The Gem City Marysville – The Strawberry City Mount Vernon – The City of Tulips Olympia Oly The Town Poulsbo – Little Norway Pullman – Lentil Capital Puyallup – The Land of Generous People Redmond Bicycle Capital of the Northwest Home of Microsoft Richland The Windy Town City Of the Bombers Atomic City Seattle City of Flowers Emerald City: official since 1982 Jet City: for the prominence of the aerospace industry Boeing.
Queen City: official from 1869–1982 Sedro-Woolley – Gateway to the North Cascades Sequim – Sunny Sequim Spokane – The Lilac City Sumner – Rhubarb Pie Capital Tacoma America’s #1 Wired City The City of Destiny – Applied in 1873 when Tacoma was the terminus for the Northern Pacific Railroad. Tackyoma T-Town Grit City Tumwater - Scumwater, Green Town Walla Walla – The City was so Nice, They Named it Twice Wenatchee – Apple Capital of the World. Yakima – The Palm Springs of Washington List of city nicknames in the United States List of cities in Washington List of towns in Washington List of census-designated places in Washington List of unincorporated communities in Washington