SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

BT Tower

The BT Tower is a communications tower located in Fitzrovia, owned by BT Group. It has been known as the GPO Tower, the Post Office Tower and the Telecom Tower; the main structure is 177 metres high, with a further section of aerial rigging bringing the total height to 191 metres. Its Post Office code was YTOW. Upon completion in 1964, it overtook the Millbank Tower to become the tallest building in both London and the United Kingdom, titles that it held until 1980, when it in turn was overtaken by the NatWest Tower; the tower was commissioned by the General Post Office. Its primary purpose was to support the microwave aerials used to carry telecommunications traffic from London to the rest of the country, as part of the General Post Office microwave network, it replaced a much shorter steel lattice tower, built on the roof of the neighbouring Museum telephone exchange in the late 1940s to provide a television link between London and Birmingham. The taller structure was required to protect the radio links' "line of sight" against some of the tall buildings in London in the planning stage.

These links were routed via other GPO microwave stations at Harrow Weald, Kelvedon Hatch and Fairseat, to places like the London Air Traffic Control Centre at West Drayton. The tower was designed by the architects of the Ministry of Public Building and Works: the chief architects were Eric Bedford and G. R. Yeats. Typical for its time, the building is concrete clad in glass; the narrow cylindrical shape was chosen because of the requirements of the communications aerials: the building will shift no more than 25 centimetres in wind speeds of up to 150 km/h. The first 16 floors were for technical equipment and power. Above, a 35-metre section for the microwave aerials, above that were six floors of suites, technical equipment and a cantilevered steel lattice tower. To prevent heat build-up, the glass cladding was of a special tint; the construction cost was £2.5 million. Construction began in June 1961. A question was raised in Parliament about the crane, in August 1963. Reginald Bennett MP asked the Minister of Public Buildings and Works, Geoffrey Rippon, when the crane on the top of the new Tower had fulfilled its purpose, he proposed to remove it.

Rippon replied: "This is a matter for the contractors. The problem does not have to be solved for about a year but there appears to be no danger of the crane having to be left in situ."The tower was topped out on 15 July 1964, opened by the Prime Minister Harold Wilson on 8 October 1965. The main contractor was Co Ltd.. The tower was designed to be just 111 metres high; the tower was opened to the public on 19 May 1966, by Tony Benn and Billy Butlin, with HM the Queen visiting on 17 May 1966. In its first year the Tower hosted just under one million visitors and over 100,000 diners ate in the restaurant; as well as the communications equipment and office space, there were viewing galleries, a souvenir shop and a rotating restaurant on the 34th floor. It made one revolution every 23 minutes. A bomb, responsibility for, at first blamed on the Provisional IRA, exploded in the roof of the men's toilets at the Top of the Tower restaurant at 04:30 on 31 October 1971. Responsibility for the bomb was claimed by members of the Angry Brigade, a far-left anarchist collective.

That act left the tower closed to the general public. The restaurant was closed to the public for security reasons a matter of months after the bombing in 1971. 1980 was the year in which Butlins' lease expired. Public access to the building ceased in 1981; the tower is sometimes used for corporate events, such as a children's Christmas party in December, Children in Need, other special events. The first documented race up the tower's stairs was on 18 April 1968, between University College London and Edinburgh University. In 1969, eight university teams competed, with John Pearson from Manchester University winning in a time of 5 minutes, 6 seconds. Due to its importance to the national communications network, information about the tower was designated an official secret. In 1978, the journalist Duncan Campbell was tried for collecting information about secret locations, during the trial the judge ordered that the sites could not be identified by name, it is said that the tower did not appear on Ordnance Survey maps, despite being a 177-metre tall structure in the middle of central London, open to the public for about 15 years.

However, this is incorrect. It is shown in the London A–Z street atlas from 1984. In February 1993, the MP Kate Hoey used the tower as an example of trivial information being kept secret, joked that she hoped parliamentary privilege allowed her to confirm that the tower existed and to state its street address; the t

Marcus Annius Libo

Marcus Annius Libo was a Roman Senator active in the early second century AD. He was consul in 128 as the colleague of Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas. Libo was the paternal uncle of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Libo came from the upper ranks of the Roman aristocracy, he was the son of Marcus Annius Verus, consul III in 126, Rupilia Faustina. Annius Verus was Spanish of Roman descent. Rupilia was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo Rupilius Frugi Bonus and Salonina Matidia. Libo is known to have two sisters and one brother, his elder sister was the Empress Faustina the Elder and his younger sister was the wife of Gaius Ummidius Quadratus Sertorius Severus, suffect consul in 118. His brother was the father of Marcus Aurelius. Beyond his consulship nothing is known of his senatorial career. During the reign of his brother-in-law, Antoninus Pius, he was one of seven witnesses to a Senatus consultum issued to the city of Cyzicus in 138, which sought approval for establishing a corpus juvenum for the education of young men.

Libo married a noblewoman whose name has been surmised as Fundania, daughter of Lucius Fundanius Lamia Aelianus consul in 116. They are known to have together two children: Marcus Annius Libo, suffect consul in 161, he is known to have Marcus Annius Flavius Libo. Annia Fundania Faustina, wife of Titus Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio, consul II in 176

Hardial Singh Johal

A chief engineer for the Vancouver School Board, Hardial Singh Johal was an avid follower of Talwinder Singh Parmar, thus eyed in the investigation following the bombing of Air India Flight 182. He was alleged to have stored the suitcase explosives in the basement of a Vancouver school, to have purchased the tickets for the flights on which the bombs were placed. Moments after a wiretapped phonecall with Parmar on June 20, 1985, a man phoned Canadian Pacific Airlines where he spoke to ticket agent Martine Donahue, purchased two tickets - one for a "Mohinderbel Singh" for Air India Flight 301 to Tokyo, another under the name of "Jaswand Singh" for CP Air Flight 086, connecting to the Air India flight; the contact phone number left with the ticket agent became one of the first leads tracked by investigators, was owned by Johal. The initial phone conversation, as translated, included the following exchange. Johal: No he didn't. Parmar: Do that work first, it is believed that "writing the story" referred to purchasing the tickets for the flight, after the tickets were purchased, Johal phoned Parmar back and asked if he could "come over and read the story he asked for", to which Parmar agreed.

In the documentary Air India 182 Mandip Singh Grewal, the son of Air India 182 victim Dajlit Singh Grewal, stated that he and his family met Johal at Vancouver International Airport on the day that his father departed for the flight connecting to Air India 182. Johal's house was raided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on November 6, 1985 along with the residences of Talwinder Singh Parmar, Inderjit Singh Reyat, Surjan Singh Gill and Manmohan Singh. On November 15, 2002, Johal died of natural causes at the age of 55