The dimension standards are absolute, meaning special consideration is not made for SUVs, CUVs, station wagons or hatchbacks. Compact car is a largely North American term denoting an automobile smaller than a mid-size car, Compact cars usually have wheelbases between 100 inches and 109 inches. The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines a car as measuring between 100 cubic feet and 109 cubic feet of combined passenger and cargo volume capacity. Vehicle class size is defined in the U. S. by environmental laws in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40—Protection of Environment, Section 600. 315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. Passenger car classes are defined based on interior volume index or seating capacity, in the United States, the compact car segment currently holds a 16% share of the market. This segment is dominated by import models, one of the first truly small cars on the U. S. market, in the sense that it was considerably smaller than the standard- size cars of its day, was the Austin Bantam that appeared in 1930.
Production of the British-based city car lasted only four years with a total of 20,000 units, although other little cars such as the Crosley focused on low price and economy, Americans did not take easily to small cars. The U. S. market after World-War II experienced growth in sales in standard-sized cars, by 1947, Chevrolet had prototypes of the Cadet, an economy car developed by Earle S. MacPherson. Ford experimented with a car and, unlike Chevrolets Cadet, production ensued for the European market as a large car. In 1950, Nash introduced a convertible Rambler model and it was built on a 100-inch wheelbase to which a station wagon and sedan versions were added. Compared to European standards, they were large, conceived by George W. Mason, the term compact was coined by George W. Romney as a euphemism for small cars with a wheelbase of 110 inches or less. The Nash Rambler established a new segment, it became known as Americas first small car. Several competitors to the Nash Rambler arose from the ranks of Americas other independent automakers, other early compact cars included the Henry J from Kaiser-Frazer, as well as the Willys Aero and the Hudson Jet.
In 1952, Ford Division assistant general manager Robert S. McNamara started the Market Research Unit, in 1954,64,500 of over 5 million cars sold in the United States were imports or small American cars. Ford alone sold over 1.4 million big cars, yet 5 percent of those surveyed said they would consider a small car. These models gave rise to compact vans that were sized similarly to the Volkswagen Type 2 microbus and were based from the Falcon and Valiant automobile platforms. Ford Division marketing research manager George Brown said smaller cars appealed to people with a college education, the cars had to offer not only high gas mileage but headroom and plenty of trunk space. Within a few years after that, the compacts had given rise to a new class called the car, named after the Ford Mustang
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression, the process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed, and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites. The first practical petrol engine was built in 1876 in Germany by Nikolaus August Otto, although there had been attempts by Étienne Lenoir, Siegfried Marcus, Julius Hock. The first petrol engine was prototyped in 1882 in Italy by Enrico Bernardi. British engineer Edward Butler constructed the first petrol combustion engine. Butler invented the spark plug, ignition magneto, coil ignition and spray jet carburetor, with both air and fuel in a closed cylinder, compressing the mixture too much poses the danger of auto-ignition — or behaving like a diesel engine.
Spark plugs are typically set statically or at idle at a minimum of 10 degrees or so of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches T. D, higher octane petrol burns slower, therefore it has a lower propensity to auto-ignite and its rate of expansion is lower. Thus, engines designed to run high-octane fuel exclusively can achieve higher compression ratios, Petrol engines run at higher rotation speeds than diesels, partially due to their lighter pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft and due to petrol burning more quickly than diesel. However the lower compression ratios of petrol engines give petrol engines lower efficiency than diesel engines, Bedford OB bus Bedford M series lorry GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab locomotive Petrol engines may run on the four-stroke cycle or the two-stroke cycle. For details of working cycles see, Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle Wankel engine Common cylinder arrangements are from 1 to 6 cylinders in-line or from 2 to 16 cylinders in V-formation. Flat engines – like a V design flattened out – are common in airplanes and motorcycles and were a hallmark of Volkswagen automobiles into the 1990s.
Flat 6s are still used in many modern Porsches, as well as Subarus, less common, but notable in vehicles designed for high speeds is the W formation, similar to having 2 V engines side by side. Alternatives include rotary and radial engines the latter typically have 7 or 9 cylinders in a single ring, Petrol engines may be air-cooled, with fins, or liquid-cooled, by a water jacket and radiator. The coolant was formerly water, but is now usually a mixture of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the cooling system is usually slightly pressurized to further raise the boiling point of the coolant. Petrol engines use spark ignition and high current for the spark may be provided by a magneto or an ignition coil. In modern car engines the ignition timing is managed by an electronic Engine Control Unit, the most common way of engine rating is what is known as the brake power, measured at the flywheel, and given in kilowatts or horsepower. This is the mechanical power output of the engine in a usable
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or a plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an engine is listed either as I4 or L4. The inline-four layout is in primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars. However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from an imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, the inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular. This inline engine configuration is the most common in cars with a displacement up to 3.0 L, in practice, the displacement of inline-four petrol engines in cars rarely exceeds this figure.
For example, the largest engine of this form on the U. S. market in model year 2015 is the Toyota 2TR-FE, there are some notable exceptions. Early vehicles tended to have engines with larger displacements to develop horsepower, the Model A Ford was built with a 3.3 L inline-four engine. Inline-four diesel engines, which are lower revving than gasoline engines, Mitsubishi still employs a 3.0 L inline-four diesel. Generally and Asian manufacturers of trucks with a vehicle weight rating between 7.5 and 18 tonnes use inline four-cylinder diesel engines with displacements around 5 L. The MAN D0834 engine is a 4.6 L inline-4 with 220 hp and 627 lb·ft, the Isuzu Forward is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.2 L inline-four engine that delivers 210 hp and 470 lb·ft. The Hino Ranger is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.1 L inline-four engine that delivers 175 hp and 465 lb·ft, the earlier Hino Ranger even had a 5.3 L inline-four engine. The Kubota M135X is a tractor with a 6.1 L inline-four and this turbo-diesel engine has a bore of 118 mm and a relatively long stroke of 140 mm.
One of the strongest Powerboat-4-cylinders is the Volvo Penta D4-300 turbodiesel and this is a 3.7 L-inline-4 with 300 hp and 516 lb·ft. Brunswick Marine built a 127 kW3.7 L 4-cylinder gasoline engine for their Mercruiser Inboard/outboard line, the block was formed from one half of a Ford 460 cubic inch V8 engine. This engine was produced in the 1970s and 1980s, One of the largest inline-four engines is the MAN B&W 4K90 marine engine
The BYD Qin concept car was unveiled at the 2012 Beijing International Automotive Exhibition, and the car is named after Chinas first empire, the Qin Dynasty. An all-electric variant with a range of 300 km, the BYD Qin EV300, was released in China in March 2016, the Qin starts at 189,800 rmb, before any applicable government subsidies and tax exemptions available for eco-friendly vehicles. The EV300 starts at 259,800 rmb before incentives, the Qin is the successor of the BYD F3DM, the worlds first mass-produced plug-in hybrid automobile, launched in China in 2008. In April 2012, BYD announced that due to its low sales, the BYD Qin is the plug-in hybrid version of the BYD Su Rui, launched in the Chinese market in August 2012. Deliveries in China began in mid December 2013, retail sales of the BYD Qin began in Costa Rica in November 2013, and BYD planned to start sales in other countries in Central and South America in 2014. Sales of the hybrid model in China passed the 50,000 unit milestone in April 2016.
Since 2014 the Qin is the all-time top-selling highway legal plug-in passenger car in China with cumulative sales of 68,655 units through December 2016. The BYD Qin was for two years in a row,2014 and 2015, the top selling electric car in China. The Qin was the second best selling plug-in hybrid car in 2015 after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV. As of June 2016, the Qin plug-in hybrid listed sixth among the worlds top 10 best-selling plug-in electric cars ever, the all-electric variant, the Qin EV300, totaled 10,656 units sold between March and December 2016. The Qin was designed with BYD Autos next-generation more efficient dual-mode electric powertrain, the BYD Qin uses a smaller 13 kWh lithium iron phosphate batteries instead of the 16 kWh battery used on the F3DM. The LiFePo4 battery has an energy density and can withstand up to 4,000 charges while still retaining 80% performance. Due to its design, the new battery is about 50% smaller and lighter than the one used on the F3DM. BYD says the Qin will have a 7% better efficiency and energy-saving and in pure EV mode.
According to BYD Auto, the Qin has a top speed of 185 km/h, a pure battery electric version, the Qin EV300, was released in China in March 2016. The BYD Qin EV is powered by a 218hp electric motor, top speed is 150 kilometres per hour. There are four versions of the Qin EV300, with pricing ranging between 259,800 to 309,800 rmb, before any government subsidies and tax exemptions. Sales during its first month in the Chinese market totaled 229 units, the BYD Qin was the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2014, and ranked seventh in 2014 among the worlds top 10 best selling plug-in cars
The renminbi /ˌrɛnmɪnˈbiː/ is the official currency of the Peoples Republic of China. The yuan is the unit of the renminbi, but is used to refer to the Chinese currency in general. The distinction between the terms renminbi and yuan is similar to that between sterling and pound, which refer to the British currency and its primary unit. One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao, and a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen, the ISO code for renminbi is CNY, or CNH when traded in off-shore markets such as Hong Kong. The currency is often abbreviated RMB, or indicated by the yuan sign ¥, in Chinese texts the currency may be indicated with the Chinese character for the yuan, 圆. The renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Kong or Macau, renminbi is sometimes accepted in Hong Kong and Macau, and are easily exchanged in the two territories, with banks in Hong Kong allowing people to maintain accounts in RMB. The currency is issued by the Peoples Bank of China, the authority of China. Until 2005, the value of the renminbi was pegged to the US dollar and it has previously been claimed that the renminbis official exchange rate was undervalued by as much as 37. 5% against its purchasing power parity.
Since 2006, the exchange rate has been allowed to float in a narrow margin around a fixed base rate determined with reference to a basket of world currencies. The Chinese government has announced that it gradually increase the flexibility of the exchange rate. As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the worlds 8th most traded currency in 2013, and 5th in 2015. On 1 October 2016, the RMB became the first emerging market currency to be included in the IMFs special drawing rights basket, a variety of currencies circulated in China during the Republic of China era, most of which were denominated in the unit yuán. Each was distinguished by a name, such as the fabi, the gold yuan. During the era of the economy, the value of the renminbi was set to unrealistic values in exchange with western currency. The unrealistic levels at which exchange rates were pegged led to a black market in currency transactions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, China worked to make the RMB more convertible, through the use of swap centres, the exchange rate was brought to realistic levels and the dual track currency system was abolished.
As of 2013, the renminbi is convertible on current accounts, the ultimate goal has been to make the RMB fully convertible. From 1949 until the late 1970s, the state fixed Chinas exchange rate at a highly overvalued level as part of the countrys import -substitution strategy
The BYD F3 is a compact car by BYD Auto. The F3 is one of the top selling cars in China. In April 2012, the second generation BYD F3 Plus, called Su Rui, was launched at the Beijing Auto Show, during 2013, the BYD L3 was introduced in several export markets as the New F3. Transmission choices are a 5 speed manual,6 speed manual or 6 speed dual clutch gearbox, in March 2014, the F3 was facelifted and started production that year. It was given a new grille, tailights, wheels, pricing starts from 63,900 yuan to 70,900 yuan. It runs on a 1. 5L four cylinder engine known as the BYD473QE producing 107 horsepower and this engine has been the signature for the F3 since 2011. A turbocharged 1. 5L engine is available as the BYD476ZQA producing 151 horsepower. Transmission choices for the model are 5 speed manual,6 speed manual or a 6 speed automatic gearbox. In February 2015, the F3 was facelifted again with new headlights and tailights, bumpers and it runs on the same 1.5 BYD473QE engine. The turbocharged engine was not available, transmission are a 5 speed manual or 6 speed automatic gearbox.
Pricing ranges 55,900 yuan to 77,900 yuan, the BYD F3 features a 4-cylinder,1. 5-liter, Mitsubishi Orion engine with distributor-less Bosch ignition and fuel injection. The vehicle boasts Euro 4 emissions standards, fuel efficiency is rated at approx 4.7 L/100 km. A1. 6-liter Mitsubishi Orion engine was standard, engine output is 73.5 kW while fuel efficiency is rated at approx 5 L/100 km. The Mitsubishi engines were replaced by new BYD engines from 2011 onwards. The transmission MaTriX is a 5-speed manual transmission, three point safety belts, power steering, alloy wheels fitted with 195/60 R15 tires, 4-wheel ABS disk brake system as standard, LED tail lights, and halogen headlights. The BYD F3 owner can choose from 3 trim packages, all models come with standard equipment, AC, AM/FM/CD/MP3 stereo, electric windows and mirrors. Optional equipment includes upgraded leather seats, 3rd brake-light and passenger air bags, auxiliary front fog lights, color schemes are white, black and red, with black being most common.
Derivatives of the BYD F3 include the BYD F3DM and the BYD F3R, in 2009, BYD introduced the G3 as an updated/upgraded compact class vehicle - however, the F3 will continue to be sold in domestic markets
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design, petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward, the functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better, Fuel injection dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which have not been possible with carburetors, Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency.
With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine. The more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective, herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a jerk pump to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch. Fuel injection was in commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Another early use of direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, fuel is injected toward the end of the compression stroke and they are often started on gasoline and switched to diesel or kerosene.
Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB601, the BMW801, German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Later versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi had two radial aircraft engines utilizing fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei. Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic systems in Alfa Romeo 6C2500 with Ala spessa body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system, all diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. The invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902, the first post-World War I example of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925
A dual-clutch transmission, is a type of automatic transmission or automated automotive transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets and it can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions contained within one housing, and working as one unit. This type of transmission was invented by Frenchman Adolphe Kégresse just before World War II, the control systems were based on purely analogue/discrete digital circuitry with patents filed in July 1981. All of these early AP twin-clutch installations featured a dry clutch. A dual-clutch transmission eliminates the torque converter as used in conventional epicyclic-geared automatic transmissions, the first series production road car with a DCT was the 2003 Volkswagen Golf Mk4 R32. In 2010, on BMW Canadas website for the 3 Series Coupe and it is actually a dual-clutch semiautomatic. In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically, the outer clutch drives the odd-numbered gears, while the smaller inner clutch drives the even-numbered gears.
Since alternate gear ratios can preselect an odd gear on one gear shaft while the vehicle is being driven in an even gear, DCTs are the fastest-shifting road car transmission available and are even able to shift faster than a professional race car driver using a manual transmission. DCTs can even shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions, with a DCT, shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT, making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars. Dual-clutch transmissions use two different types of clutches, either two wet multiplate clutches, bathed in oil —or two dry single-plate clutches. Currently, three variations of clutch installation are used, the second implementation uses two single-plate dry clutches—side-by-side from the perpendicular view, but again sharing the center line of the crankshaft. A variation uses two separate but identical-sized clutches and these are arranged side-by-side when viewed head-on, and share the same plane when viewed perpendicularly.
This latter clutch arrangement is driven by a gear from the engine crankshaft, BorgWarner Inc. supplies wet dual clutches and electrohydraulic control modules for these dual-clutch transmissions, along with complete dual-clutch transmission and transaxle assemblies. BorgWarner, which call their technology DualTronic, entered production for Volkswagen Group. The company signed agreements with three other European automotive manufacturers to incorporate their components in DCTs. On 14 January 2009, BorgWarner announced a joint venture with the China Automobile Development United Investment Co. Ltd. which is owned by 12 Chinese automakers and this joint venture is known as the BorgWarner United Transmission Systems Co. Ltd. and is located in Dalian, China. The company has produced various dual-clutch transmission modules beginning in 2011, the Nissan GT-R uses BorgWarner components, including the dual-clutch module, clutch-control, shift-actuation systems, and synchronizer assemblies. EATON developed the first dual-clutch transmission for class 6-7 trucks in North America - Procision, Fiat Powertrain Technologies developed a dual-clutch transmission with Magneti Marelli and BorgWarner called Euro Twin Clutch Transmission
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
European emission standards
European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU and EEA member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards, for each vehicle type, different standards apply. Compliance is determined by running the engine at a standardised test cycle, non-compliant vehicles cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles already on the roads. No use of technologies is mandated to meet the standards. New models introduced must meet current or planned standards, but minor lifecycle model revisions may continue to be offered with pre-compliant engines, in the early 2000s, Australia began harmonising Australian Design Rule certification for new motor vehicle emissions with Euro categories. Euro III was introduced on 1 January 2006 and is progressively being introduced to align with European introduction dates, see the EU-mandated European on-board diagnostics.
Within the European Union, road transport is responsible for about 20% of all CO2 emissions, with passenger cars, the target fixed at Kyoto Protocol was an 8% reduction of emissions in all sectors of the economy compared to 1990 levels by 2008–12. Relative CO2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, from 21% of the total in 1990 to 28% in 2004, EU transport emissions of CO2 currently account for about 3. 5% of total global CO2 emissions. In the United Kingdom, the approach was deemed ineffective. The way the information was presented was too complicated for consumers to understand, the goal of the new “green label” is to give consumers clear information about the environmental performance of different vehicles. Other EU member countries are in the process of introducing consumer-friendly labels, EU Regulation No 443/2009 sets an average CO2 emissions target for new passenger cars of 130 grams per kilometre. The target is gradually being phased in between 2012 and 2015, a target of 95 grams per kilometre will apply from 2021.
For light commercial vehicle, a target of 175 g/km applies from 2017. The stages are referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4, Euro 5. The following is a summary list of the standards, when they come into force, what they apply to, and which EU directives provide the definition of the standard. Also for passenger cars and light trucks—93/59/EEC. 75% of all fossil fuels should be replaced by biofuels by 31 December 2010. However, MEPs have since voted to lower this target in the wake of new evidence about the sustainability of biofuels. In a vote in Strasbourg, the European parliament’s environment committee supported a plan to curb the EU target for renewable sources in transport to 4% by 2015