A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial motion picture, not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more identified films intended for distribution as the less-publicized bottom half of a double feature. Although the U. S. production of movies intended as second features ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in its broader sense to this day. In its post-Golden Age usage, there is ambiguity on both sides of the definition: on the one hand, the primary interest of many inexpensive exploitation films is prurient. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction and horror films became more popular in the 1950s. Early B movies were part of series in which the star played the same character. Always shorter than the top-billed feature films, many had running times of 70 minutes or less; the term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more lavishly budgeted headliners.
Latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures. In its current usage, the term has somewhat contradictory connotations: it may signal an opinion that a certain movie is a genre film with minimal artistic ambitions or a lively, energetic film uninhibited by the constraints imposed on more expensive projects and unburdened by the conventions of putatively "serious" independent film; the term is now used loosely to refer to some higher-budget, mainstream films with exploitation-style content in genres traditionally associated with the B movie. From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided opportunities both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies, they are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black.
Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine, Bruce Campbell and Pam Grier, worked in B movies for most of their careers. The term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work or in B pictures. In 1927–28, at the end of the silent era, the production cost of an average feature from a major Hollywood studio ranged from $190,000 at Fox to $275,000 at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; that average reflected both "specials" that might cost as much as $1 million and films made for around $50,000. These cheaper films allowed the studios to derive maximum value from facilities and contracted staff in between a studio's more important productions, while breaking in new personnel. Studios in the minor leagues of the industry, such as Columbia Pictures and Film Booking Offices of America, focused on those sorts of cheap productions, their movies, with short running times, targeted theaters that had to economize on rental and operating costs small-town and urban neighborhood venues, or "nabes".
Smaller production houses, known as Poverty Row studios, made films whose costs might run as low as $3,000, seeking a profit through whatever bookings they could pick up in the gaps left by the larger concerns. With the widespread arrival of sound film in American theaters in 1929, many independent exhibitors began dropping the then-dominant presentation model, which involved live acts and a broad variety of shorts before a single featured film. A new programming scheme developed that soon became standard practice: a newsreel, a short and/or serial, a cartoon, followed by a double feature; the second feature, which screened before the main event, cost the exhibitor less per minute than the equivalent running time in shorts. The majors' "clearance" rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents' timely access to top-quality films; the additional movie gave the program "balance"—the practice of pairing different sorts of features suggested to potential customers that they could count on something of interest no matter what was on the bill.
The low-budget picture of the 1920s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywood's Golden Age. The major studios, at first resistant to the double feature, soon adapted. All established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature market. Block booking became standard practice: to get access to a studio's attractive A pictures, many theaters were obliged to rent the company's entire output for a season. With the B films rented at a flat fee, rates could be set guaranteeing the profitability of every B movie; the parallel practice of blind bidding freed the majors from worrying about their Bs' quality—even when booking in less than seasonal blocks, exhibitors had to buy most pictures sight unseen. The five largest studios—Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Fox Film Corporation, Warner Bros. and RKO Radio Pictures —also belonged to companies with sizable theater chains, further securing the bottom line. Poverty Row studios, from modest outfits like Mascot Pictures, Tiffany Pictures, Sono Art-World Wide Pictures down to shoestring operations, made B movies and other shorts, d
Edward Tupper was a British trade unionist active in the National Sailors' and Firemen's Union, prominent in the 1911 strike in Cardiff. Born in Worthing in West Sussex, Tupper joined the British Army in 1888, but was soon discharged on medical grounds, he joined the Liberal Party, in 1903 was asked to be a Liberal-Labour candidate in Buckingham at the next general election, but turned this down. In 1910, Tupper met leader of the National Sailors' and Firemen's Union. Impressed by Tupper's skills, Wilson employed him as a private detective, in various union roles. Tupper was prominent in organising the 1911 seamen's strike. By this time, he had invented a colourful history for himself. In a newspaper article, Tupper claimed to have been born in Ontario; however this and a number of other claims — that he had been a captain, that he was awarded the VC and that he had trained for the priesthood in a monastery – have not been substantiated and do not appear in his autobiography. Numerous travel logs for Tupper list his place of birth as England, there is no record of his birth in Ontario.
Tupper attended the Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Delegates held on 3 June 1917 in Leeds. Tupper served as National Organiser of the union for many years, until his retirement in 1936
The AACTA Award for Best Original Screenplay is an award presented by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, for an Australian screenplay "written directly and for the screen". Prior to the establishment of the Academy in 2011, the award was presented by the Australian Film Institute at the annual Australian Film Institute Awards, it was first handed out in 1978 when the award for Best Screenplay was split into two categories: Best Original Screenplay and Best Adapted Screenplay. The award has since been presented intermittently from 1978-1979, 1983-1987, 1989, 1993-2006, from 2008-present. In the following table, the years listed correspond to the year of film release; the films and screenwriters in bold and in yellow background have won are the winners. Those that are neither highlighted nor in bold are the nominees; when sorted chronologically, the table always lists the winning screenplay first and the other nominees. AACTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay AACTA Award for Best Screenplay, Original or Adapted AACTA Award for Best Screenplay in a Short Film Australian Film Institute Award for Best Screenplay AACTA Awards The Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Official website