University of Calcutta
The University of Calcutta is a collegiate public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857. It was the first institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" And Accredited "A" Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council and declared as a "University With Potential For Excellence" & a "Centre with Potential for Excellence In Particular Area" by the University Grants Commission, its alumni and faculty include four Nobel laureates, namely Ronald Ross, Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, Amartya Sen; the university has the highest number of students who have cleared the doctoral entrance eligibility exam in Natural Science & Arts conducted by Government of India's National Eligibility Test to become eligible to pursue research with a full scholarship awarded by the Government of India. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university.
The land for the establishment of this university was given by Maharaja Maheshwar Singh Bahadur, a Maharaja of Darbhanga. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon, Ceylon, the largest of any Indian university. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms and a fifth two-year term. Four Nobel laureates were associated with this university: Ronald Ross. Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen; the current university seal is the modified version of the sixth seal. The motto Advancement of Learning has remained the same through the seal's transitions; the university has a total of 14 campuses spread over the city of its suburbs. The major campuses are the Central Campus in College Street, Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan in Rajabazar, Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan in Ballygunge and Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan in Alipore. Other campuses include the Hazra Road Campus, the University Press and Book Depot, the B. T.
Road Campus, the Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, the University Health Service, the Haringhata Campus, the Dhakuria Lakes and the University Ground and Tent at Maidan. Asutosh Siksha Prangan is the main campus of the university. Located on College Street, is spread over a small area of 2.7 acres. Rashbihari Siksha Prangan, located on Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road in Rajabazar, established in 1914, houses several scientific and technological departments, including pure and applied chemistry and applied physics, applied mathematics, physiology and molecular biology, others. Taraknath Siksha Prangan on Ballygunge Circular Road in the southern part of the city, houses the departments of agriculture, biochemistry, botany, statistics, neuroscience, marine science and most notably geology, among others, and Department of Jute and Fibre Technology. Known as Institute of Jute Technology. Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan known as Alipore Campus,located at Alipore is the Humanities campus of the University.
Departments of History, Ancient Indian History & Culture, Islamic History & Culture, South & South East Asian Studies, Political Science, Business Management are situated in this campus. Department of Museology, houses in this campus is a valuable department of the University as well as any universities in India; the university is building a campus, known as "Technology Campus" or "Tech Campus", to bring together the three engineering and technical departments, in Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake. As of December 2016, most of these departments have been moved to this campus and regular classes are held here; the main building houses most of these departments while the Nanotechnology. Undergraduates enroll for a three-year program. Students choose a major when they enter the university, cannot change it unless they opt for the university's professional or self-financed postgraduate programs later. Science and business disciplines are in high demand in the anticipation of better employment prospects.
Most programs are organized on an annual basis. Most departments offer masters programs of a few years' duration. Research is conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments, many of which have doctoral programs. University of Calcutta has the biggest research center which started from the 100th Science Congress of India in January, 2013; this is the Center for Research in Nanosience and Nanotechnology in the Technology Campus of CU at Salt Lake, West Bengal. The university has 18 research centres, 710 teachers, 3000 non-teaching staff and 11,000 post-graduate students. Internationally, the University of Calcutta was ranked 751-780 in the QS World University Rankings of 2018; the same rankings ranked it 125 in Asia and 64 among BRICS nations. It was ranked 801-1000 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, 201-250 in ASIA an
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment. The term is used by groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner. Supporters of the term define a political prisoner as someone, imprisoned for his or her participation in political activity. If a political offense was not the official reason for the prisoner's detention, the term would imply that the detention was motivated by the prisoner's politics; some understand the term political prisoner narrowly, equating it with the term prisoner of conscience. Amnesty International campaigns for the release of prisoners of conscience, which include both political prisoners as well as those imprisoned for their religious or philosophical beliefs. To reduce controversy, as a matter of principle, the organization's policy applies only to prisoners who have not committed or advocated violence. Thus, there are political prisoners; the organisation defines the differences as follows: AI uses the term "political prisoner" broadly.
It does not use it, as some others do, to imply that all such prisoners have a special status or should be released. It uses the term only to define a category of prisoners for whom AI demands a prompt trial. In AI's usage, the term includes any prisoner whose case has a significant political element: whether the motivation of the prisoner's acts, the acts in themselves, or the motivation of the authorities. "Political" is used by AI to refer to aspects of human relations related to "politics": the mechanisms of society and civil order, the principles, organization, or conduct of government or public affairs, the relation of all these to questions of language, ethnic origin, sex or religion, status or influence. The category of political prisoners embraces the category of prisoners of conscience, the only prisoners who AI demands should be and unconditionally released, as well as people who resort to criminal violence for a political motive. In AI's use of the term, here are some examples of political prisoners: a person accused or convicted of an ordinary crime carried out for political motives, such as murder or robbery carried out to support the objectives of an opposition group.
Governments say they have no political prisoners, only prisoners held under the normal criminal law. AI however describes cases like the examples given above as "political" and uses the terms "political trial" and "political imprisonment" when referring to them, but by doing so AI does not oppose the imprisonment, except where it further maintains that the prisoner is a prisoner of conscience, or condemn the trial, except where it concludes that it was unfair. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has a much tighter definition: A person deprived of his or her personal liberty is to be regarded as a'political prisoner': In the parlance of many political movements that utilize armed resistance, guerrilla warfare, other forms of political violence, a political prisoner includes people who are imprisoned because they are awaiting trial for, or have been convicted of, actions which states they oppose describe as terrorism; these movements may consider the actions of political prisoners morally justified against some system of governance, may claim innocence, or have varying understandings of what types of violence are morally and ethically justified.
For instance, French anarchist groups call the former members of Action Directe held in France political prisoners. While the French government deemed Action Directe illegal, the group fashioned itself as an urban guerilla movement, claiming a legitimate armed struggle. In this sense, "political prisoner" can be used to describe any politically active prisoner, held in custody for a violent action which supporters deem ethically justified; some libertarians include all convicted for treason and some convicted of espionage in the category of political prisoners. There is still much controversy and debate around how to define this term and which cases to include or exclude. Political prisoners can be imprisoned with no legal veneer by extrajudicial processes; some political prisoners need not be imprisoned at all. Supporters of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima in the 11th Panchen Lama controversy have called him a "political prisoner", despite the fact that he is not accused of a political offense, he is held under secluded house arrest.
Political prisoners are arrested and tried with a veneer of legality where false criminal charges, manufactured evidence, unfair trials are used to disguise the fact that an individual is a political prisoner. This is common in situations which may otherwise be decried nationally and internationally as a human rights violation or suppression of a political dissident. A political prisoner can be someone, denied bail unfairly, denied parole when it would reasonably have been given to a prisoner charged with a comparable crime, or special powers may be invoked by the judiciary. In this latter situation, whether an individual is regarded as a political prisoner may depend upon subjective political perspective or interpretation of the evidence. In the Soviet Union, dubious psychiatric diagnoses were sometimes used to confine political prisoners in the so-called "psikhushkas". In Nazi German
The Mon are an ethnic group native to Myanmar's Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and the southern border with Thailand. One of the earliest peoples to reside in Southeast Asia, the Mon were responsible for the spread of Theravada Buddhism in Indochina; the Mon were a major source of influence on the culture of Myanmar. They speak the Mon language, an Austroasiatic language, share a common origin with the Nyah Kur people of Thailand; the eastern Mon include the current royal family of Thailand. The Mon assimilated to Thai culture long ago, yet the royal women of the Chakri dynasty perform and keep their Mon heritage alive in the Thai court; the western Mon of Myanmar were absorbed by Bamar society. They have worked to preserve their language and culture and to regain a greater degree of political autonomy. Recent studies have adduced evidence indicating that the Mon and Bamar share some common genetic ancestry. A genetic study done on Mon from Southern Myanmar and Bamar from Southern Myanmar showed a high prevalence of a particular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutation not found among Khmers, Laotians or Thais.
In the Burmese language, the term Mon မွန် is used. During the pre-colonial era, the Burmese used the term Talaing, subsequently adopted by the British, who invariably referred to the Mon as Peguans, during the colonial era; the etymology of Talaing is debated. The use of "Talaing" predates the Burmese conquest of the Hanthawaddy Kingdom in the 1700s and has been found on inscriptions dating to the reign of Anawrahta in the 1000s. In 1930 and 1947, Mon ethnic leaders, who considered the term "Talaing" to be pejorative, petitioned against the use of the term. "Talaing" is now obsolete in modern Burmese, except in the context of specific historical terms, such as the eponymous song genre in the Mahagita, the corpus of Burmese classical songs. The Burmese term "Mon" is synonymous with the Burmese word for "noble." In the Mon language, the Mon are known as the Mon, based on the Pali term Rāmañña, which refers to the Mon heartland along the Burmese coast. In classical Mon literature, they are known as the Raman.
The Mon of Myanmar are divided into three sub-groups based on their ancestral region in Lower Myanmar: Mon Nya from Pathein in the west Mon Tang. The Mon were believed to be one of the earliest peoples of Indochina, they founded some of the earliest civilizations there, including Dvaravati in Central Thailand, Sri Gotapura in central Laos and Northeastern Thailand, Hariphunchai in Northern Thailand and the Thaton Kingdom. They were the first receivers of Theravada missionaries from Sri Lanka, in contrast to their Hindu contemporaries like the Khmer and Cham peoples; the Mon adopted the Pallava alphabet and the oldest form of the Mon script was found in a cave in modern Saraburi dating around 550 AD. Though no remains were found belonging to the Thaton Kingdom, it was mentioned in Bamar and Lanna chronicles; the legendary Queen Camadevi from the Chao Phraya River Valley, as told in the Northern Thai Chronicle Cāmadevivaṃsa and other sources, came to rule as the first queen of Hariphunchai kingdom around 800 AD.
After 1000 AD onwards the Mon were under constant pressure. With the Tai peoples migrating from the north and Khmer invasions from the east, the Mons of Dvaravati gave their way to the Lavo Kingdom by around 1000 AD. Descendants of the Dvaravati Mon people are the Nyah Kur people of Isan; the Mon were transported as captives, or assimilated into new cultures. The Mon as an entity disappeared in Chao Phraya Valley. However, Hariphunchai kingdom survived as a Mon outpost in northern Thailand under repeated harassment by the Northern Thai people. In 1057, King Anawrahta of Pagan Kingdom conquered the Thaton Kingdom; the Mon culture and the Mon script were absorbed by the Burmese and the Mons, for the first time, came under Bamar rule. The Mon remained a majority in Lower Burma. Hariphunchai prospered in the reign of King Aditayaraj, who waged wars with Suryavarman II of Angkor and constructed the Hariphunchai stupa. In 1230, the Northern Thai chief, conquered Hariphunchai and the Mon culture was integrated into Lanna culture.
The Lanna adopted religion. In 1287, the Pagan Kingdom collapsed. Wareru, born from a Mon mother and a Tai father, at Domwon Village in the Thaton District, went to Sukhothai for merchandise and eloped with a daughter of the king, he was proclaimed king of the Mon.. The capital was moved to Bago, his Hanthawaddy Kingdom was a prosperous period for the Mon in both culture. The Mon were consolidated under King Rajathiraj, who fended off invasions by the Bamar Ava Kingdom; the reigns of Queen Shin Sawbu and King Dhammazedi were a time of prosperity. The Bamar, regained their momentum at Taungoo in the early sixteenth century. Hanthawaddy fell to the invasion of King Tabinshwehti of Taungoo in 1539. After the death of the king, the Mon were temporarily freed from Bamar rule by Smim Htaw, but they were defeated by King Bayinnaung in 1551
The Axis powers known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not coordinate their activity; the Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Benito Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis"; the simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan. Italy joined the Pact in 1937; the "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the so-called "Pact of Steel", with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany and Japan. At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of Europe, North Africa, East Asia.
There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, with more between Germany and Italy. The war ended in 1945 with the dissolution of their alliance; as in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, with some nations switching sides or changing their degree of military involvement over the course of the war. The term "axis" was first applied to the Italo-German relationship by the Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini in September 1923, when he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's Germania Repubblica that "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin". At the time, he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume; the term was used by Hungary's prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany and Italy in the early 1930s. Gömbös' efforts did affect the Italo-Hungarian Rome Protocols, but his sudden death in 1936 while negotiating with Germany in Munich and the arrival of Kálmán Darányi, his successor, ended Hungary's involvement in pursuing a trilateral axis.
Contentious negotiations between the Italian foreign minister, Galeazzo Ciano, the German ambassador, Ulrich von Hassell, resulted in a Nineteen-Point Protocol, signed by Ciano and his German counterpart, Konstantin von Neurath, in 1936. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued a strategic alliance of Italy with Germany against France since the early 1920s. Prior to becoming head of government in Italy as leader of the Italian Fascist movement, Mussolini had advocated alliance with defeated Germany after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 settled World War I, he believed. In early 1923, as a goodwill gesture to Germany, Italy secretly delivered weapons for the German Army, which had faced major disarmament under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1923, Mussolini offered German Chancellor Gustav Stresemann a "common policy": he sought German military support against potential French military intervention over Italy's diplomatic dispute with Yugoslavia over Fiume, should an Italian seizure of Fiume result in war between Italy and Yugoslavia.
The German ambassador to Italy in 1924 reported that Mussolini saw a nationalist Germany as an essential ally for Italy against France, hoped to tap into the desire within the German army and the German political right for a war of revenge against France. During the Weimar Republic, the German government did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. General Hans von Seeckt supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland between them and restore the German-Russian border of 1914. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy; the Reichswehr Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, remilitarization of the Rhineland.
Since the 1920s Italy had identified the year 1935 as a crucial date for preparing for a war against France, as 1935 was the year when Germany's obligations under the Treaty of Versailles were scheduled to expire. Meetings took place in Berlin in 1924 between Italian General Luigi Capello and prominent figures in the German military, such as von Seeckt and Erich Ludendorff, over military collaboration between Germany and Italy; the discussions concluded that Germans still wanted a war of revenge against France but were short on weapons and hoped that Italy could assist Germany. However at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany: that Italy "must... tow them, not be towed by them". Italian foreign minister Dino Grandi in the early 1930s stressed the importance of "decisive weight", involving Italy's relations between France and Germany, in which he recognized that Italy was not yet a major power, but perceived that Italy did have
Buddhism in Myanmar
Buddhism in Myanmar is practiced by 90% of the country's population, is predominantly of the Theravada tradition. It is the most religious Buddhist country in terms of the proportion of monks in the population and proportion of income spent on religion. Adherents are most found among the dominant Bamar people, Rakhine, Karen, Zo, Chinese who are well integrated into Burmese society. Monks, collectively known as the sangha, are venerated members of Burmese society. Among many ethnic groups in Myanmar, including the Bamar and Shan, Theravada Buddhism is practised in conjunction with nat worship, which involves the placation of spirits who can intercede in worldly affairs. With regard to the daily routines of Buddhists in Myanmar, there are two most popular practices: merit-making and vipassanā; the weizza path is the least popular. Merit-making is the most common path undertaken by Burmese Buddhists; this path involves the observance of the Five precepts and accumulation of good merit through charity and good deeds to obtain a favourable rebirth.
The vipassana path, which has gained ground since the early 1900s, is a form of insight meditation believed to lead to enlightenment. The weizza path is an esoteric system of occult practices believed to lead to life as a weizza, a semi-immortal and supernatural being who awaits the appearance of the future Buddha, Maitreya. Buddhism is practiced by 90% of the country. According to Burmese census data dating back to 1891, between 84% to 90% of the population have practiced Buddhism; the history of Buddhism in Myanmar extends more than two thousand years. The Sāsana Vaṃsa, written by Pinyasami in 1834, summarises much of the history of Buddhism in Myanmar. According to the Mahavamsa, a Pali chronicle of fifth century Sri Lanka, Ashoka sent two bhikkhus and Uttara, to Suvarnabhumi around 228 BC with other monks and sacred texts, including books. An Andhra Ikshvaku inscription from about the 3rd century refers to the conversion of the Kiratas to Buddhism, who are thought to have been Tibeto-Burman-speaking peoples of Myanmar.
Early Chinese texts of about the same date speak of a "Kingdom of Liu-Yang," where all people worshiped the Buddha and there were several thousand samaṇas. This kingdom has been identified with a region somewhere in central Burma. A series of epigraphic records in Pali, Sanskrit and Mon datable to the 6th and 7th centuries, has been recovered from Central and Lower Burma. From the 11th to 13th centuries, the Bamar kings and queens of the Pagan Kingdom built countless stupas and temples; the Ari Buddhism era included the worship of nāgas. Theravada Buddhism was implanted at Bagan for the first time as early as the 11th century by the Bamar king Anawrahta. In year 1057, Anawratha sent an army to conquer the Mon city of Thaton to obtain theTipiṭāka of the Pāli Canon, he was converted by Shin Arahan, to Theravada Buddhism. Shin Arahan's advice led to acquiring thirty sets of Pali scriptures from the Mon king Manuha by force. Mon culture, from that point, came to be assimilated into the Bamar culture based in Bagan.
Despite attempts at reform, certain features of Ari Buddhism and traditional nat worship continued, such as reverence for the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. Successive kings of Bagan continued to build large numbers of monuments and pagodas in honour of Buddhism, there is inscriptional evidence of a Theravadin vihara for bhikkhunis from 1279. Burmese rule at Bagan continued until the first Mongol invasion of Burma in 1287. Towards the end of the 13th century, Buddhism declined due to the invading Tatars. In the 14th century, another lineage was imported from Sri Lanka to Ayutthaya, the capital of the Thai Ayutthaya Kingdom. A new ordination line, that of the Thai Forest Tradition, thus entered Myanmar; the Shan, established themselves as rulers throughout the region now known as Myanmar. Thihathu, a Shan king, established rule in Bagan by patronising and building many monasteries and pagodas; the Mon kingdoms ruled by Shan chieftains, fostered Theravada Buddhism in the 14th century. Wareru, who became king of Mottama, patronised Buddhism, established a code of law, the Dhammasattha, compiled by Buddhist monastics.
King Dhammazedi a Mon bhikkhu, established rule in the late 15th century at Inwa and unified the sangha in Mon territories. He standardised ordination of monks set out in the Kalyani Inscriptions. Dhammazedi moved the capital back to Hanthawaddy, his mother-in-law, Queen Shin Sawbu, was a great patron of Buddhism. She is credited for giving her own weight in gold; the Bamars, who had fled to Taungoo before the invading Shan, established a kingdom there under the reigns of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung, who conquered and unified most of modern Myanmar. These monarchs embraced Mon culture and patronised Theravada Buddhism. In the reigns of succeeding kings, the Taungoo Dynasty became volatile and was overthrown by the Mon. In the mid-18th century, King Alaungpaya defeated the Mon, expanded the Bamar kingdoms, established the Konbaung Dynasty. Under the rule of Bodawpaya, a son of Alaungpaya, a unified sect of monks was created within the kingdom. Bodawpaya restored ties with Sri Lanka. During the reigns of the Konbaung kings that followed, both secular and religious literary works were created.
King Mindon Min moved his capital to Mandalay. After Lower Burma had been conquered by the British
Wang Jingwei, born as Wang Zhaoming, but known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician. He was a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang, leading a government in Wuhan in opposition to the right wing government, but became anti-communist after his efforts to collaborate with the Chinese Communist Party ended in political failure, his political orientation veered to the right in his career after he collaborated with the Japanese. Wang was a close associate of Sun Yat-sen for the last twenty years of Sun's life. After Sun's death Wang engaged in a political struggle with Chiang Kai-shek for control over the Kuomintang, but lost. Wang remained inside the Kuomintang, but continued to have disagreements with Chiang until the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, after which he accepted an invitation from the Japanese Empire to form a Japanese-supported collaborationist government in Nanjing. Wang served as the head of state for this Japanese puppet government until he died, shortly before the end of World War II.
Although he is still regarded as an important contributor in the Xinhai Revolution, his collaboration with Imperial Japan is a subject of academic debate, the typical narratives regard him as a traitor in the War of Resistance. Born in Sanshui, but of Zhejiang origin, Wang went to Japan as an international student sponsored by the Qing Dynasty government in 1903, joined the Tongmenghui in 1905; as a young man, Wang came to blame the Qing dynasty for holding China back, making it too weak to fight off exploitation by Western imperialist powers. While in Japan, Wang became a close confidant of Sun Yat-sen, would go on to become one of the most important members of the early Kuomintang, he was among the Chinese nationalists in Japan who were influenced by Russian anarchism, published a number of articles in journals edited by Zhang Renjie, Wu Zhihui, the group of Chinese anarchists in Paris. In the years leading up to the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, Wang was active in opposing the Qing government.
Wang gained prominence during this period as an excellent public speaker and a staunch advocate of Chinese nationalism. He was jailed for plotting an assassination of the regent, Prince Chun, admitted his guilt at trial, he remained in jail from 1910 until the Wuchang Uprising the next year, became something of a national hero upon his release. During and after the Xinhai Revolution, Wang's political life was defined by his opposition to Western imperialism. In the early 1920s, he held several posts in Sun Yat-sen's Revolutionary Government in Guangzhou, was the only member of Sun's inner circle to accompany him on trips outside of Kuomintang -held territory in the months preceding Sun's death, he is believed by many to have drafted Sun's will during the short period before Sun's death, in the winter of 1925. He was considered one of the main contenders to replace Sun as leader of the KMT, but lost control of the party and army to Chiang Kai-shek. Wang had lost control of the KMT by 1926, following the Zhongshan Warship Incident, Chiang sent Wang and his family to vacation in Europe.
It was important for Chiang to have Wang away from Guangdong while Chiang was in the process of expelling communists from the KMT because Wang was the leader of the left wing of the KMT, notably sympathetic to communists and communism, may have opposed Chiang if he had remained in China. During the Northern Expedition, Wang was the leading figure in the left-leaning faction of the KMT that called for continued cooperation with the Chinese Communist Party. Although Wang collaborated with Chinese communists in Wuhan, he was philosophically opposed to communism and regarded the KMT's Comintern advisors with suspicion, he did not believe that Communists could be true Chinese nationalists. In early 1927, shortly before Chiang captured Shanghai and moved the capital to Nanjing, Wang's faction declared the capital of the Republic to be Wuhan. While attempting to direct the government from Wuhan, Wang was notable for his close collaboration with leading communist figures, including Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu, Borodin, for his faction's provocative land reform policies.
Wang blamed the failure of his Wuhan government on its excessive adoption of communist agendas. Wang's regime was opposed by Chiang Kai-shek, in the midst of a bloody purge of communists in Shanghai and was calling for a push farther north; the separation between the governments of Wang and Chiang are known as the "Ninghan Separation". Chiang Kai-shek occupied Shanghai in April 1927, began a bloody suppression of suspected communists known as the "White Terror". Within several weeks of Chiang's suppression of communists in Shanghai, Wang's leftist government was attacked by a KMT-aligned warlord and disintegrated, leaving Chiang as the sole legitimate leader of the Republic. KMT troops occupying territories controlled by Wang conducted massacres of suspected Communists in those areas: around Changsha alone, over ten thousand people were killed in a single twenty-day period. Fearing retribution as a communist sympathiser, Wang publicly claimed allegiance to Chiang and fled to Europe. Between 1929 and 1930, Wang collaborated with Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan to form a central government in opposition to the one headed by Chiang.
Wang took part in a conference hosted by Yan to draft a new constitution, was to serve as the Prime Minister under Yan, who would be President. Wang's attempts to aid Yan's government ended when Chiang defeated the alliance