Field hockey is a team sport of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the date back to the Middle Ages in England, France. The game can be played on a field or a turf field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie, players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball. The length of the stick depends on the players individual height, only one end of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies often have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick. The specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, the uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally, with particular popularity throughout Western Europe, the Indian subcontinent, Southern Africa, New Zealand, Field Hockey is the national game of India and Pakistan. The term field hockey is used primarily in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular, in Sweden the term landhockey is used.
To some degree in Norway and it is a section of Norways Bandy Association. Until recently they called it hockey, when it was changed to landhockey, during play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick, whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, there are many variations to overtime play that depend on the league and tournament play. In college play, an overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team. If a tie remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25 yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds, the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires.
If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored, the FIH is responsible for organising the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the principles of hockey
Francina Fanny Elsje Blankers-Koen was a Dutch athlete, best known for winning four gold medals at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London. She accomplished this as a 30-year-old mother of two, during a time when many disregarded womens athletics and her background and performances earned her the nickname the Flying Housewife. She was the most successful athlete at the 1948 Summer Olympics, having started competing in athletics in 1935, she took part in the 1936 Summer Olympics a year later. Apart from her four Olympic titles, she won five European titles and 58 Dutch championships and she retired from athletics in 1955, after which she became captain of the Dutch female track and field team. In 1999, she was voted Female Athlete of the Century by the International Association of Athletics Federations and her Olympic victories are credited with helping to eliminate the belief that age and motherhood were a barrier to success in womens sport. Blankers-Koen was born Francina Elsje Koen on 26 April 1918 in Lage Vuursche to Arnoldus and her father was a government official who competed in the shot put and discus.
As a teenager, she enjoyed tennis, gymnastics, standing 5 ft 9 in, she was a natural athlete. It soon became clear she was a talent, but she could not decide which sport to pick. Her first appearance in the sport was in 1935, aged 17 and her first competition was a disappointment, but in her third race, she set a national record in the 800 m. Fanny Koen soon made the Dutch team, although as a sprinter, at that time,800 m was generally considered too physically demanding for female contestants, and had been removed from the Olympic programme after 1928. The following year, her coach and future husband, Jan Blankers, only eighteen years old, she was selected to compete in the high jump and the 4 ×100 m relay. At the Berlin Olympics, the jump and the 4 ×100 m relay competitions were held on the same day. In the high jump, she took place while the Dutch relay team came in fifth in the final. She gained the autograph of American athlete Jesse Owens, it became her most treasured possession, Koen rose to the top.
In 1938, she ran her first world record, and she won her first international medals. At the European Championships in Vienna, she won the bronze in both the 100 and 200 m, which were won by Stanisława Walasiewicz. Many observers, and Koen herself, expected her to do well at the upcoming Olympics, the outbreak of World War II put a stop to the preparations. The Olympics were formally cancelled on 2 May 1940, a week before the Netherlands was invaded, just prior to the invasion, Koen had become engaged, and on 29 August 1940, she married Jan Blankers, thereby changing her name to Blankers-Koen
A1 motorway (Netherlands)
The A1 is a motorway in the Netherlands. The road connects the city of Amsterdam, near the interchange Watergraafsmeer, with the German border, near Oldenzaal and Bad Bentheim, on its way, it crosses four Dutch provinces, North Holland, Utrecht and Overijssel. The section of the road between its start at the interchange Watergraafsmeer, and the interchange Hoevelaken near Amersfoort, is a European route and this section of the A1 is the complete E231 route, the E231 does not consist of any other road or section. Between the interchange Hoevelaken and the German border, the European route E30 follows the A1 motorway and this European route is a so-called A-Class West-East European route, going from Cork in Ireland all the way to Omsk in Russia. Media related to Rijksweg 1 at Wikimedia Commons
Hilversum is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Located in the region called Het Gooi, it is the largest town in that area and it is surrounded by heathland, meadows and smaller towns. Hilversum is part of the Randstad, one of the largest conurbations in Europe, Hilversum is 31 km south-east of Amsterdam and 19 km north of Utrecht. The town is often called media city since it is the centre for radio. Radio Netherlands, heard worldwide via shortwave radio since the 1920s, is based here. As a result, many old AM radio sets in Europe had a Hilversum dial position marked on their tuning scales, the Dutch voting in the Eurovision Song Contest usually takes place from Hilversum. Hilversum is known for its architecturally important Town Hall, designed by Willem Marinus Dudok and built in 1931. Hilversum has one library, two swimming pools, a number of sporting halls and several shopping centers In the region, the city centre is called het dorp. Earthenware found in Hilversum gives its name to the Hilversum culture, artifacts from this prehistoric civilization bear similarities to the Wessex Culture of southern Britain and may indicate that the first Hilversum residents emigrated from that area.
The first brick settlements formed around 900, but it was not until 1305 that the first official mention of Hilversum is found, at that point it was a part of Naarden, the oldest town in the Gooi area. Farming, raising sheep and some wool manufacturing were the means of life for the Gooi in the Middle Ages, in 1424, on 21 March at 6,30 am, Hilversum received its first official independent status. This made possible further growth in the village because permission from Naarden was no longer needed for new industrial development. The town grew further in the 17th century when the Dutch economy as a whole entered its age of prosperity, in 1725 and 1766 large fires destroyed most of the town, leveling parts of the old townhouse and the church next to it. The town overcame these setbacks and the industry continued to develop. In the 19th century a substantial textile and tapestry industry emerged, aided by a link to Amsterdam in 1874. Despite this growth, Hilversum was never granted city rights so it is referred to by many locals as het dorp.
For the 1928 Summer Olympics in neighboring Amsterdam, it hosted all of the non-jumping equestrian, the city was the headquarters of the German ground forces in the Netherlands. By the industry had started its decline, only one factory, managed to continue into the 1960s
The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as mayor. Bürgermeister, in German, in Germany and formerly in Switzerland, in Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century, various current titles for roughly equivalent offices include Gemeindepräsident, Stadtpräsident and Stadtamtmann. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany, the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germanys 112 urban districts usually bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world, the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but often used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister.
In the Netherlands nominated by the council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post, bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Burmistrz, a title, derived from German. The German form Oberbürgermeister is often translated as Nadburmistrz, the German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare, the title is not used in Sweden in present times, boargemaster Pormestari In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was usually held simultaneously by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts
Beatrix of the Netherlands
Beatrix reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 until her abdication in 2013, after a reign of exactly 33 years. Beatrix is the eldest daughter of Queen Juliana and her husband, upon her mothers accession in 1948, she became heir presumptive. Beatrix attended a primary school in Canada during World War II. In 1961, she received her law degree from Leiden University, in 1966, Beatrix married Claus von Amsberg, a German diplomat, with whom she had three children. When her mother abdicated on 30 April 1980, Beatrix succeeded her as queen, on Koninginnedag,30 April 2013, Beatrix abdicated in favour of her eldest son, Willem-Alexander, and resumed the title of princess. At the time of her abdication, Beatrix was the oldest reigning monarch of the Netherlands, Beatrix was born Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, on 31 January 1938 at the Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, Netherlands. She is the first child of Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, Beatrix was baptized on 12 May 1938 in the Great Church in The Hague.
Beatrixs middle names are the first names of her grandmother, the reigning Queen Wilhelmina. When Beatrix was one old, in 1939, her younger sister Princess Irene was born. World War II broke out in the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, on 13 May, the Dutch Royal Family evacuated to London, United Kingdom. One month later, Beatrix went to Ottawa, Canada, with her mother Juliana and her sister Irene, while her father Bernhard, the family lived at the Stornoway residence. With bodyguards and ladies in waiting, the family summered at Bigwin Inn on Lake of Bays, while on Bigwin Island, the constitution of the Netherlands was stored in the cast iron safe of Bigwin Inns Rotunda building. In order to them with a greater sense of security, culinary chefs. Upon their departure, the musicians of the Bigwin Inn Orchestra assembled dockside, and at every public performance afterward through to the end of World War II. In the years following the shuttering and neglect of the island resort, the second sister of Beatrix, Princess Margriet, was born in Ottawa in 1943.
During their exile in Canada, Beatrix attended nursery and Rockcliffe Park Public School, on 5 May 1945, the German troops in the Netherlands surrendered. The family returned to the Netherlands on 2 August 1945, Beatrix went to the progressive primary school De Werkplaats in Bilthoven. Her third sister Princess Christina was born in 1947, in April 1950, Princess Beatrix entered the Incrementum, a part of Baarnsch Lyceum, where, in 1956, she passed her school-graduation examinations in the subjects of arts and classics
Amersfoort railway station
Amersfoort railway station is the main railway station in Amersfoort, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands. The station was an important link between the part of the Netherlands and the north and east of the country until December 2012 when the Hanzelijn opened. The original station building opened on 20 August 1863, and closed in 1904 and it was called Amersfoort NCS and is located next to the railway tracks 200 metres east of the end of the platforms of the current station. This first station opened as part of the Utrecht–Kampen railway, which runs from Utrecht via Amersfoort to Zwolle, in 1874 the Gooilijn opened, running from Amsterdam via Hilversum to Amersfoort. Two years the line was extended to form the Oosterspoorweg from Amersfoort to Apeldoorn, in 1886 a railway line opened from Amersfoort to Kesteren, offering a direct service between Amsterdam and Nijmegen. However, the 1863 station was just too far east for the line, parts of the Kesteren line still exist today. To permit connections between the two stations, a station was built, called Amersfoort Aansluiting.
Because this meant there were three stations all close to other, it was decided to consolidate them and the current station was built. It was renovated in 1997, at time a third island-platform. Passengers only need to cross to the side of an island platform to change for trains to other destinations. Since December 2012 and the opening of the Hanzelijn, trains from The Hague and Amsterdam now travel via Lelystad to Zwolle, a second station was opened in Amersfoort in 1987, called Amersfoort Schothorst, and in 2006 a third was opened, Amersfoort Vathorst. Both these stations are on the Amersfoort – Zwolle line, the Centraalspoorweg between Amersfoort and Zwolle is known as the Veluwelijn. A new fly-under was opened on 18 October 2013, after two years of construction, to trains from Hilversum to access Platform 1 without crossing the other lines
Amsterdam Centraal station
Amsterdam Centraal is the largest railway station of Amsterdam, and a major national railway hub. Used by 162,000 passengers a day, it is the second-busiest railway station in the country after Utrecht Centraal and international railway services at Amsterdam Centraal are provided by NS, the principal rail operator in the Netherlands. Amsterdam Centraal is the terminus of Amsterdam Metro Routes 51,53. It is served by a number of GVB tram and ferry routes as well as local and regional bus routes operated by GVB, Amsterdam Centraal was designed by Dutch architect Pierre Cuypers and first opened in 1889. It features a Gothic/Renaissance Revival station building and a cast iron platform roof spanning approximately 40 metres, Amsterdam Centraal was designed by Pierre Cuypers, who is known for his design of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. While Cuypers was the architect, it is believed that he focused mostly on the decoration of the station building. The station was built by contractor Philipp Holzmann, the new central station replaced Amsterdam Willemspoort Station, which had closed in 1878, as well as the temporary Westerdok Station used from 1878 to 1889.
In the first proposal, the station would be situated between the Leidseplein and the Amstel river, Cuypers design of the station building in many ways strongly resembled his other architectural masterpiece, the Rijksmuseum, of which the construction had begun in 1876. It features a palace-like, Gothic/Renaissance Revival facade, with two turrets and many details and stone reliefs referring to the capital citys industrial and commercial importance. Cuypers station reflects the nationalistic mood in the late nineteenth-century Netherlands, with its many decorative elements glorifying the nations economic. As with the Rijksmuseum, the overall architecture reminded many contemporaries of medieval cathedrals. Finally, the plan made its way through the Amsterdam municipal council by a narrow majority, the station is built on three interconnected artificial islands in the IJ lake. These islands were created with sand taken from the dunes near Velsen, the islands together are known as Stationseiland.
Like many other structures in Amsterdam, the station was built on wooden piles, the construction of the station was delayed because of the instability of the soil, which set back the completion of the work by several years. The station building was completed in 1884, but the commission to Cuypers did not include the roofwork of the platforms, the station did not yet feature its distinctive station roof. This roof, consisting of 50 curved trusses and a span of almost 45 meters, was designed by L. J. Eijmer, the roof was manufactured by Andrew Handyside and Company of Derby, England. Cuypers did design the decorations for the trusses and the gable ends, on 15 October 1889, the station was officially opened, drawing large numbers of crowds. The visitors were charged 0.25 guilders to see the station, the waterways would soon be replaced by tramways and cars as the primary modes of transport in the city
Unilever is a Dutch-British transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in Rotterdam and London, United Kingdom. Its products include food, cleaning agents and personal care products and it is the worlds largest consumer goods company measured by 2012 revenue. Unilever is the worlds largest producer of food spreads, such as margarine, Unilever is one of the oldest multinational companies, its products are available in around 190 countries. It is a company consisting of Unilever N. V. based in Rotterdam. The two companies operate as a business, with a common board of directors. Unilever is organised into four main divisions – Foods, Home Care and it has research and development facilities in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, China and the United States. Unilever was founded in 1930 by the merger of the Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie, during the second half of the 20th century the company increasingly diversified from being a maker of products made of oils and fats, and expanded its operations worldwide.
It has made numerous acquisitions, including Lipton, Brooke Bond, Chesebrough-Ponds, Best Foods, Ben & Jerrys, Alberto-Culver. Unilever divested its speciality chemicals businesses to ICI in 1997, in 2015, under leadership of Paul Polman, the company gradually shifted its focus towards health and beauty brands and away from food brands showing slow growth. Unilever N. V. has a listing on Euronext Amsterdam and is a constituent of the AEX index. Unilever plc has a listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. The company is a lux of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, in 1872, Anton Jurgens, founded the first margarine factory in the world in Oss, Netherlands. Then, in 1888, Samuel van den Bergh, from Oss and these two companies merged in 1927 to form Margarine Unie. The initial harvesting of palm oil was from British West Africa, in 1911, the company received a concession for 750,000 hectares of forest in Belgian Congo, mostly south of Bandundu, where a system of forced labour operated.
In 1922 Lever Brothers acquired Mac Fisheries, owner of T, the merger made sound commercial sense, as palm oil was a major raw material for both margarines and soaps, and could be imported more efficiently in larger quantities. In the 1930s business grew and new ventures were launched in Africa, the Nazi occupation of Europe during the Second World War meant that Unilever was unable to reinvest its capital into Europe, so it instead acquired new businesses in the UK and the US. In 1943 it acquired T. J. Lipton, a majority stake in Frosted Foods and Batchelors Peas, after 1945 Unilevers once successful US businesses began to decline. As a result, Unilever began to operate a hands off policy towards the subsidiaries, sunsilk was first launched in the UK in 1954