Duke Energy Corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is an electric power holding company in the United States, with assets in Canada and Latin America. Based in Charlotte, North Carolina, Duke Energy owns 58,200 megawatts of base-load and peak generation in the United States, which it distributes to its 7.2 million customers. The company has 29,000 employees. Duke Energy's service territory covers 104,000 square miles with 250,200 miles of distribution lines. In addition, Duke Energy has more than 4,300 megawatts of electric generation in Latin America, it operates eight hydroelectric power plants in Brazil with an installed capacity of 2,307 megawatts. All of Duke Energy's Midwest generation comes from coal, natural gas, or oil, while half of its Carolinas generation comes from its nuclear power plants. During 2006, Duke Energy generated 148,798,332 megawatt-hours of electrical energy. Duke Energy Renewable Services, a subsidiary of Duke Energy, specializes in the development and operation of various generation facilities throughout the United States.
This segment of the company operates 1,700 megawatts of generation. 240 megawatts of wind generation were under construction and 1,500 additional megawatts of wind generation were in planning stages. On September 9, 2008, DERS updated its projections for future wind power capacity. By the end of 2008, it would have over 500 MW of nameplate capacity of wind power online, an additional 5,000 MW in development. Duke Energy Carolinas Duke Energy Ohio Duke Energy Kentucky Duke Energy Indiana Duke Energy Florida Duke Energy Progress Duke Energy Renewables Duke Energy Retail Duke Energy International The company began in 1900 as the Catawba Power Company when Dr. Walker Gill Wylie and his brother financed the building of a hydroelectric power station at India Hook Shoals along the Catawba River near India Hook, South Carolina. In need of additional funding to further his ambitious plan for construction of a series of hydroelectric power plants, Wylie convinced James Buchanan Duke to invest in the Southern Power Company, founded in 1905.
In 1917 the Wateree Power Company was formed as a holding company for several utilities, founded and/or owned by Duke, his family, or his associates, in 1924 the name was changed to Duke Power. In 1927, most of the subsidiary companies, including Southern Power Company, Catawba Power Company, Great Falls Power Company, Western Carolina Power Company were merged into Duke Power, although Southern Public Utilities, 100% owned by Duke Power, maintained a separate existence for the retail marketing of Duke-generated power to residential and commercial customers. A 1973 labor dispute between mine workers and Duke Power was the subject of the documentary Harlan County, USA; the film documents the use of "gun thugs" to intimidate striking workers. In 1988, Nantahala Power & Light Co. which served southwestern North Carolina, was purchased by Duke and is now operated under the Duke Power Nantahala Area brand. Duke Power merged with a natural gas company, in 1997 to form Duke Energy; the Duke Power name continued as the electric utility business of Duke Energy until the Cinergy merger.
With the purchase of Cinergy Corporation announced in 2005 and completed on April 3, 2006, Duke Energy Corporation's customer base grew to include the Midwestern United States as well. The company operates nuclear power plants, coal-fired plants, conventional hydroelectric plants, natural-gas turbines to handle peak demand, pumped hydro storage. During 2006, Duke Energy acquired Chatham, Ontario-based Union Gas, regulated under the Ontario Energy Board Act. On January 3, 2007, Duke Energy spun off its gas business to form Spectra Energy. Duke Energy shareholders received 1 share of Spectra Energy for each 2 shares of Duke Energy. After the spin-off, Duke Energy now receives the majority of its revenue from its electric operations in portions of North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky and Indiana; the spinoff to Spectra included Union Gas, which Duke Energy acquired the previous year. In 2011, Duke Energy worked with Charlotte’s business leader community to help build Charlotte into a smart city.
The group called the initiative “Envision Charlotte.” At the time, the group decided on a goal to reduce energy use in the “urban core of the city by 20 percent.” To do so, the group focused on making energy consumption changes to commercial buildings larger than 10,000 square feet. On July 3, 2012, Duke Energy merged with Progress Energy Inc with the Duke Energy name being retained along with the Charlotte, North Carolina, headquarters. Duke announced on June 18, 2013 that CEO Jim Rogers was retiring and Lynn Good would become the new CEO. Rogers has been CEO and Chairman since 2006, while Good was Chief Financial Officer of Duke since 2009, having joined Duke in the 2006 Cinergy merger. Rogers' retirement was part of an agreement to end an investigation into Duke's Progress Energy acquisition in 2012; the company expects to spend $13 billion upgrading the North Carolina grid from 2017. On March 16, 2006, Duke Power announced that a Cherokee County, South Carolina site had been selected for a potential new nuclear power plant.
The site is jointly owned by Southern Company. Duke plans to develop the site for two Westinghouse Electric Company AP1000 pressurized water reactors; each reactor is capable of producing 1,117 megawatts. On December 14, 2
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
West Point, Mississippi
West Point is a city in Clay County, Mississippi, in the Golden Triangle region of the state. The population was 11,307 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Clay County and the principal city of the West Point Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the larger Columbus-West Point Combined Statistical Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.1 square miles, of which 20.8 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. West Point, MS is located in the North East section of Mississippi just across the Alabama state line. West Point has a rich heritage with generations of family lineage calling it home; the area has a blend of African American and Native American lineage. The city has many social activities sponsored by church and civic organizations; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,307 people 4,444 households, 3,043 families residing in the city. The population density was 535.13 people per square mile. There were 4,856 housing units at an average density of 235.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 37.57% White, 61.40% African American, 0.01% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 0.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 0.88% of the population. There were 3,043 households out of which 22.2% had own children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a female householder with no husband present, male household no wife present 4.9% and 31.5% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 28.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48, the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 20 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.4 years. The population was 46.3 % male. The median income for a household in the city was $30,440, the median income for a family was $39,295.
The per capita income for the city was $17,675. About 23.4% of families and 24.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.8% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those people age 65 or over. Old Waverly Golf Club, located outside of West Point and recognized as one of Mississippi's top golf courses, hosted the 1999 U. S. Women's Open, won by Juli Inkster. West Point Country Club is three minutes from downtown West Point and offers 18 rounds of golf, tennis and a club house. Payne Field was an advanced Aviation School operated from May 1918 to March 1920. About 1,500 pilots were trained there, it is recognized as the first airfield in the state of Mississippi. Despite averaging less than 1" of snow a year West Point was the home of the original Blazon-Flexible Flyer, Inc. proclaimed to make the best snow sled in the United States, which became an American tradition. It is called The Flexible Flyer. Waverly Plantation Mansion, just eight miles east of West Point, is a National Historic Landmark.
Its four-story cantilevered stair hall and cupola is considered unique in the United States. The mansion is open daily for tours from 9 closes promptly at 5 pm. Admission fee charged. West Point is the home of the Howlin' Wolf Blues Museum; each Labor Day weekend the town of West Point hosts the Prairie Arts Festival. The weekend kicks off with the Howlin’ Wolf Blues Festival on Friday night followed by the Prairie Arts Festival during the day on Saturday; the festival showcases the areas arts and crafts with shopping, rides for children, a 5K race and a car show. West Point is the home of three high schools: West Point High School, the town's lone public high school, offers a diverse classroom environment and is the largest of the three. Oak Hill Academy and Hebron Christian School are tuition based private schools. Large businesses in West Point include Southern Ionics, Babcock & Wilcox, Mossy Oak. Bryan Foods was founded in West Point in 1936 by John H. Bryan, Sr and W. B. Bryan. Bryan Foods was acquired by Sara Lee Corporation in 1968 and continued operations in West Point until March 2007.
West Point has an ever-increasing economic sector with the opening of the new Prairie Belt Power Site. The Prairie Belt Power Site allows advantage to West Point with its easy access to major highways and railways. Jesse Anderson, professional football player. Tyrone Bell, professional football player. Orlando Bobo, professional football player. George Bryan, local businessman, former CEO of Sara Lee Foods. John H. Bryan, local businessman and former chairman of Sara Lee Corporation. Chester Burnett, better known as "Howlin' Wolf" famous blues musician. Silas Chandler, co-founder of Mount Hermon Baptist Church Jesse Dukeminier, professor of law. David Gibbs, businessman. Johnny Green, football player. Tom Goode, professional football player Toxey Haas, founder and CEO of Haas Outdoors, Inc. David Halberstam and Pulitzer prize recipient. Carey Henley, football player. Don Hopkins, pinch runner for the Oakland Athletics of major league baseball. Bubba Phillips, baseball player. Earl T. Ricks, U. S. Air Force major general, Chief of the National Guard Bureau and mayor of Hot Springs, Arkansas.
Brad Smith, guitarist for the band Blind Melon. Rogers Stevens, guitarist for the band Blind Melon. Barrett Strong, Motown singer, who had Motown's first hit with "Money". Bennie Turner, lawyer. Public education in the city of West Point is provided by the West Point School District. Oak Hill Academy is a priva
A high pressure watertube boiler is a type of boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire. Fuel is burned inside the furnace. In smaller boilers, additional generating tubes are separate in the furnace, while larger utility boilers rely on the water-filled tubes that make up the walls of the furnace to generate steam. High Pressure Water Tube Boiler: The heated water rises into the steam drum. Here, saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. In some services, the steam will reenter the furnace through a superheater to become superheated. Superheated steam is defined as steam, heated above the boiling point at a given pressure. Superheated steam is a dry gas and therefore used to drive turbines, since water droplets can damage turbine blades. Cool water at the bottom of the steam drum returns to the feedwater drum via large-bore'downcomer tubes', where it pre-heats the feedwater supply.. To increase economy of the boiler, exhaust gases are used to pre-heat the air blown into the furnace and warm the feedwater supply.
Such watertube boilers in thermal power stations are called steam generating units. The older fire-tube boiler design, in which the water surrounds the heat source and gases from combustion pass through tubes within the water space, is a much weaker structure and is used for pressures above 2.4 MPa. A significant advantage of the watertube boiler is that there is less chance of a catastrophic failure: there is not a large volume of water in the boiler nor are there large mechanical elements subject to failure. A water tube boiler was patented by Blakey of England in 1766 and was made by Dallery of France in 1780. “The ability of watertube boilers to generate superheated steam makes these boilers attractive in applications that require dry, high-pressure, high-energy steam, including steam turbine power generation”. Owing to their superb working properties, the use of watertube boilers is preferred in the following major areas: Variety of process applications in industries Chemical processing divisions Pulp and Paper manufacturing plants Refining unitsBesides, they are employed in power generation plants where large quantities of steam having high pressures i.e. 16 megapascals and high temperatures reaching up to 550 °C are required.
For example, the Ivanpah solar-power station uses two Rentech Type-D watertube boilers. Modern boilers for power generation are entirely water-tube designs, owing to their ability to operate at higher pressures. Where process steam is required for heating or as a chemical component there is still a small niche for fire-tube boilers, their ability to work at higher pressures has led to marine boilers being entirely water-tube. This change began around 1900, traced the adoption of turbines for propulsion rather than reciprocating engines – although watertube boilers were used with reciprocating engines. There has been no significant adoption of water-tube boilers for railway locomotives. A handful of experimental designs were produced, but none of these were successful or led to their widespread use. Most water-tube railway locomotives in Europe, used the Schmidt system. Most were compounds, a few uniflows; the Norfolk and Western Railway's Jawn Henry was an exception, as it used a steam turbine combined with an electric transmission.
LMS 6399 FuryRebuilt after a fatal accidentLNER 10000 "Hush hush"Using a Yarrow boiler, rather than Schmidt. Never successful and re-boilered with a conventional boiler. A more successful adoption was the use of hybrid water-tube / fire-tube systems; as the hottest part of a locomotive boiler is the firebox, it was an effective design to use a water-tube design here and a conventional fire-tube boiler as an economiser in the usual position. One famous example of this was the USA Baldwin 4-10-2 No. 60000, built in 1926. Operating as a compound at a boiler pressure of 2,400 kilopascals it covered over 160,000 kilometres successfully. After a year though, it became clear that any economies were overwhelmed by the extra costs and it was retired to become a stationary plant. A series of twelve experimental locomotives were constructed at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Mt. Clare shops under the supervision of George H. Emerson, but none of them was replicated in any numbers; the only railway use of water-tube boilers in any numbers was the Brotan boiler, invented in Austria in 1902 by Johann Brotan and found in rare examples throughout Europe.
Hungary, was a keen user and had around 1,000 of them. Like the Baldwin, this combined a water-tube firebox with a fire-tube barrel; the original characteristic of the Brotan was a long steam drum running above the main barrel, making it resemble a Flaman boiler in appearance. While the traction engine was built using its locomotive boiler as its frame, other types of steam road vehicles such as lorries and cars have used a wide range of different boiler types. Road transport pioneers Goldsworthy Gurney and Walter Hancock both used water-tube boilers in their steam carriages around 1830. Most undertype wagons used water-tube boilers. Many manufacturers used variants of the vertical cross-tube boiler, including Atkinson, Clayton and Sentinel. Other types include the Clarkson'thimble tube' and the Foden O-type wagon's pistol-shaped boiler. Steam fire-engine makers such as Merryweather used water-tube boilers for their rapid
Penn Central Transportation Company
The Penn Central Transportation Company abbreviated to Penn Central, was an American Class I railroad headquartered in Philadelphia, that operated from 1968 until 1976. It was created by the 1968 merger of the New York Central railroads; the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad was added to the merger in 1969. S. history. The Penn Central was created as a response to challenges faced by all three railroads in the late 1960s; the Northeast United States is the most densely populated region of the U. S. While railroads elsewhere in North America drew a sizable percentage of revenues from the long-distance shipment of commodities such as coal, lumber and iron ore, northeastern railroads traditionally depended on a more heterogeneous mix of services, including: commuter rail/passenger rail service Railway Express Agency freight service Break-bulk freight service via boxcars Consumer goods and perishables These labor-intensive, short-haul services were vulnerable to competition from automobiles and trucks where facilitated by four-lane highways.
In 1956, the U. S. Congress passed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956; this law authorized construction of the Interstate Highway System, which provided an economic boost to the trucking industry. Another problem was the inability to respond to market conditions. At the time, U. S. railroads were regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission, which did not allow railroads to change rates it charged both shippers and passengers. Reducing costs was the only way to survive and become profitable, but the ICC restricted what cost-cutting could take place. A merger seemed to be a promising way out of a difficult situation; the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad had been significant rivals for most of the 20th century. Both railroads had physical plant not being utilized to capacity. Talks of a merger had been announced as early as 1957; the initial reaction in the industry was utter surprise. Every merger proposal for decades had tried to balance the two giant railroads against each other and create two, three, or four more-or-less equal systems in the east.
Traditionally, the PRR had been allied with the Wabash railroads. Any remaining players were swept up with the Nickel Plate. In addition, tradition favored end-to-end mergers rather than those of parallel railroads. Planning and justifying the merger took nearly a decade, during which time the eastern railroad scene changed in large measure because of the impending merger of the NYC and PRR; the Erie merged with the DL&W to create the Erie Lackawanna Railway in 1960, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway acquired control of the B&O, the N&W took in several railroads, including the Nickel Plate and Wabash. The merger formally closed on February 1, 1968. On that date, the PRR — the nominal survivor of the merger — changed its name to Pennsylvania New York Central Transportation Company, it shortened its name to Penn Central Company on May 8, 1968. On October 1, 1969, Penn Central reorganized as a holding company, with its railroad interests under a wholly owned subsidiary, Penn Central Transportation Company.
The ICC approved the merger on the following conditions: The new company had to take over the freight and passenger operations of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. That occurred on December 31, 1968. PC had to absorb Susquehanna & Western Railway. PC and NYS&W could not agree on a price, NYS&W became part of the Delaware Otsego System. PC had to make the Lehigh Valley Railroad available for merger by either N&W or C&O or, if neither of those railroads wanted it, merge it into PC. LV entered bankruptcy only three days after PC did; the merger was not a success. An implementation plan was drawn up, but not carried out. Attempts to integrate operations and equipment were unsuccessful, due to clashing corporate cultures, incompatible computer systems and union contracts. Little thought had been given to unifying the two railroads, which had different styles of operation. In the decade prior to the merger, the NYC had trimmed its physical plant and assembled a young, eager management group under the leadership of Alfred E. Perlman.
The PRR, headed by Stuart T. Saunders, had been a more traditional operation. Many of NYC's management people saw that the PRR was dominant in PC management and soon left for other positions; those who departed had said the different corporate philosophies could never have merged successfully. The network was so poorly integrated. In addition to the problems of unification, the industrial states of the Northeast and Midwest were fast becoming the Rust Belt; as industries shut down and relocated, railroads found themselves with excess capacity. The PRR was burdened with excess trackage. Though this track was no longer needed, it was still on the tax rolls. West of the Allegheny Mountains, the NYC and PRR duplicated each other at every major point.
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
Erwin is a town in and the county seat of Unicoi County, United States. The population was 6,097 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Johnson City Metropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region. The town of Erwin received its name by a mail mishap. On December 5, 1879, the name of the town was Ervin, in honor of D. J. N. Ervin, who had donated 15 acres of land for the county seat. A typo made by post office officials caused the name to be recorded as Erwin; the mistake was never corrected. Erwin earned some notoriety in 1916 when the only known public execution of an elephant in Tennessee occurred in the community. Mary, the elephant, had killed Walter Eldridge, in nearby Kingsport. Mary's owner, Charlie Sparks, decided to execute Mary by hanging; as home to the region's largest railway yard, Erwin was the only community with the means to carry out the death sentence. Surrounding communities decided that Erwin was the best place to carry out the execution and Erwin obliged though the town itself was against it.
An estimated 2,500 people turned out at the local railway yard to see Mary hoisted by a crane to meet her demise. The town has implemented a yearly festival to help raise funds that go to the Elephant Sanctuary in Hohenwald. Between 1916 and 1957, the Southern Potteries plant operated in Erwin along Ohio Avenue; the plant produced a hand-painted dishware known as Blue Ridge that became popular nationwide in late 1930s and 1940s. Blue Ridge pieces are still popular items with collectors of antique dishware. Erwin is located at 36°8′42″N 82°24′39″W, The town is situated in a valley at the confluence of North Indian Creek, which approaches from the northeast, the Nolichucky River, which enters the valley from the mountains to the southeast. Just before reaching Erwin, the Nolichucky passes through a narrow gorge popular with whitewater rafters. Erwin is surrounded by the Cherokee National Forest, mountains dominate the view in all directions. Buffalo Mountain rises to the north, Rich Mountain rises to the west, the Unaka Mountains rise to the south and east.
The Appalachian Trail passes east of Erwin. The trail crosses the Nolichucky near the western end of the Nolichucky Gorge, at a place known as Unaka Springs. Nearby is "Moaning Rock", a large boulder near the trail, supposed to be the site of a long ago murder of a stranger. According to local lore, the murdered man's spirit is still around, if anyone stands on or touches the rock, "...it moans as if under a heavy burden."Interstate 26 passes through western and southern Erwin. Tennessee State Route 107 connects Erwin to Unicoi to the north and the Embreeville area and Washington County to the west. Tennessee State Route 395 connects Erwin with the rural parts of Mitchell and Yancey counties to the east in North Carolina, crossing the Unakas at the 3,100-foot Indian Grave Gap. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles, of which 3.5 square miles is land and 0.28% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,610 people, 2,470 households, 1,588 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,582.8 people per square mile. There were 2,645 housing units at an average density of 746.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.77% White, 0.05% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 1.02% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.00% of the population. There were 2,470 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.80. In the city the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 22.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,644, the median income for a family was $37,813. Males had a median income of $31,894 versus $20,118 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,868. About 7.5% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Nuclear Fuel Services has a major facility in Erwin, it began operation in 1957 as the Davison Chemical Division of the W. R. Grace Company. Production activities at the Erwin facility include preparing enriched uranium to be processed into nuclear reactor fuel, processing uranium hexafluoride into other uranium compounds, downblending high-enriched uranium to convert it to a low-enriched form for use in commercial nuclear reactors; the facility worked with thorium compounds. Erwin was host to a CSX rail yard, diesel shop, car repair facility, which closed in 2015. Official website Town charter Erwin, Tennessee at Curlie