Babelsberg Studio

Babelsberg Film Studio, located in Potsdam-Babelsberg outside Berlin, Germany, is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world, producing films since 1912. With a total area of about 460,000 square metres and a studio area of about 25,000 square metres it is Europe's largest film studio. Hundreds of films, including Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Josef von Sternberg's The Blue Angel were filmed there. More recent productions include V for Vendetta, Captain America: Civil War, Æon Flux, The Bourne Ultimatum, Inglourious Basterds, Cloud Atlas, The Grand Budapest Hotel, The Hunger Games, Isle of Dogs. Today, Studio Babelsberg remains operational for feature film productions. Furthermore, it acts as co-producer on international high budget productions. In 1911, the film production company Deutsche Bioscope built its first glasshouse film studio in Neubabelsberg; the company had been formed by Jules Greenbaum in 1899 and incorporated in 1902. As his business increased, Greenbaum made a deal with the chemist Carl Moritz Schleussner of the photochemicals firm Schleussner AG in Frankfurt/Main.

Carl Schleussner had been involved since 1896 in producing negative film stock for Röntgen photography soon after its discovery. In February 1908 Carl Schleussner bought a majority share in Deutsche Bioscop as a film manufacturing and sales operation, for a 2/3 share of 140,000 marks, with 1/3 provided by Jules Greenbaum & his brother Max. Ownership of Deutsche Bioscop was transferred to Schleussner AG and registered on 27 February 1908: Schleussner bought out the Greenbaums' remaining share of Deutsche Bioscop in 1909; the first filming in Babelsberg began as early as February 1912 for The Dance of Death by Danish director Urban Gad. In 1920 the Deutsche Bioscop Gesellschaft merged with Erich Pommer's Decla-Film GmbH to form „Decla Bioscop“. In 1928, Decla-Bioscop merged with Universum Film AG, founded in 1917; this company built the large studio in 1926 for the major film production of Metropolis by Fritz Lang. The first German sound stage in Babelsberg, the Tonkreuz, was built during 1929, to make use of the Tri-Ergon sound-on-film process to which Ufa acquired the rights.

Ufa's first successful full-sound film Melodie des Herzens/Melody of the Heart with Willy Fritsch was in fact made in Hungary in 1929, although this was followed in April 1930 by the premiere of The Blue Angel by Josef von Sternberg, with Marlene Dietrich and Emil Jannings in the main roles. From 1933 to 1945, around 1,000 feature films were made on the studio lot. Under the direction of Hitler's propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels, the studio churned out hundreds of films including Leni Riefenstahl's propagandistic Triumph of the Will; the virulently anti-Semitic propaganda film Jud Süss, was made at Babelsberg. On May 17, 1946 the DEFA was established, producing over 800 feature films, including 150 children's films. In addition, over 600 films were made for television from 1959 to 1990; the DEFA period was honored by a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 2005. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Treuhand took over the responsibility for the privatisation of the former DEFA.

In August 1992, the Treuhandanstalt sold the former DEFA film studios in Babelsberg to the French group Compagnie Générale des Eaux. Over the following 12 years the company invested around €500 million updating the studio's infrastructure. In July 2004, Vivendi sold Studio Babelsberg to the investment company FBB, which has Carl Woebcken and Christoph Fisser as shareholders. In Spring of 2005, the restructured studio presented an initial public offering and began trading on the free market. 2007 was the most profitable year since the Studio's privatization in 1992 - 12 feature films were shot at Studio Babelsberg, among them Valkyrie with Tom Cruise, The International with Clive Owen, The Reader with Kate Winslet. In 2008 Studio Babelsberg and Hollywood producer Joel Silver formed a strategic alliance to produce feature films from the Dark Castle production slate at the world’s oldest film studio. Recent co-productions of Studio Babelsberg include Quentin Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds, Roman Polanski's The Ghost Writer, Brian De Palma's Passion, George Clooney's The Monuments Men.

Bock, Hans-Michael. The Concise Cinegraph: Encyclopedia of German Cinema. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9780857455659. Hampicke, Evelyn. "'More than ten lines' Jules Greenbaum. A contribution against forgetting in film history.". Positionen deutscher Filmgeschichte. Schaudig, Michael. Munich: Discourse Filmverlag Schaudig & Single. Pp. 23–36. ISBN 978-3926372079. Hans-Jürgen Tast Anton Weber - Filmarchitekt bei der UFA ISBN 3-88842-030-X.


Millmannoch once known locally as the'Mill of Mannoch' or Kilmannoch, is a ruined mill and hamlet in the old Barony of Sundrum, South Ayrshire, Parish of Coylton, Scotland about a mile from Coylton and Drongan. The'Trysting Tree' of Robert Burns's poem The Soldier's Return stood nearby. A smithy was once located here in addition to the miller's cottage and a farm. Nineteenth-century historian Paterson described it as being "on the south bank, not far from the'Craigs o'Kyle', a more lovely spot never inspired a poet's fancy; the Coyl winds round the mill in serpentine form, in a dark and rather narrow stream, over which the ash and elm throw their gigantic arms, in summer, with their waving foliage prevent the sun's beams from playing upon its waters. At the bend, where stands the mill, driven by water conveyed from a considerable distance above, the stream is spanned by a rustic bridge for foot passengers, beneath which the waters run in a deep channel, peculiarly pleasing to the eye of the angler."The weir, on the Water of Coyle, was at the Mill o'Shiel and water, having driven the old water wheel, was discharged into the Millmannoch Dam from which a circa one-mile long lade conveyed it to the retaining dam above the mill at Millmannoch.

From there the water power was regulated by a sluice to the water wheel or a turbine. Millmannoch, Milnmannoch or Kilmanoch was in the old barony of Sundrum, in 1373 held by Sir Duncan Wallace, who had the barony of Dalmellington. Sir Duncan, although married to Eleanor Bruce, Countess of Carrick, had no offspring and his nephew, Sir Allan Cathcart, bring with him the possession of the barony of Auchincruive. Large portions of these lands were sold off and the remnants were made into one free barony in 1713 under the name of Cathcart, with Millmannoch as the barony mill, holding still a large amount of multures. In 1758 the Cathcart barony was sold by Charles Shaw of Sauchrie, Lord Cathcart, to James Murray of Broughton. Murray sold the Sundrum part of the barony with the mill and lands of Milnmannoch and Bankhead to one John Hamilton and it remained with the family for one hundred and fifty five years; the lands of Milnmannoch and Bankhead were held by one John Morton. Part of the smithy at Millmannoch was still standing in the early 20th century with in front of it a large granite boulder sunk to ground level with a "dog" fixed into it for cart wheel shods, the metal band or ring on a cartwheel.

Mr. John Thom took four leases of Mill Mannoch in his lifetime, each of fifteen years, his second lease being taken in 1792. A wooden breast wheel with steel gearing was still in use up until 1884 when improvements included a new iron overshot wheel with gearing for one pair of stones; the set proved less than satisfactory, in 1902 the whole machinery was replaced. The wheel was removed and a Hercules water turbine was installed with a belt drive, it operated at speed of 450 revolutions and if the gate was opened moved 600 cubic feet of water per minute through a single pipe of 21 in. Diameter; the changes are apparent in the gable ends and side walls where the enlargements to the mill were built with brick. The lade ran a mile from the weir on the Water of Coyle at Mill o'Shiel. Three stone axes were discovered on one occasion. Millmannoch Mill was supplied with one pair of Kameshill stones from West Kilbride for shelling, one pair of French burr for finishing oatmeal and one pair "Eversharp" for provender.

These last stones were invented and made by Joseph Trapp, Austria-Hungary, were said to be the first such grindstones to be used in Scotland. These grindstone were made from re-constituted rock, put into a mould and pressed like a cheese in a chisset mould; these stones were easier to manufacture, therefore cheaper, worked well enough, were easier to dress or sharpen. Before being gutted by fire the mill was still used on occasions, powered by a tractor; the mill pond and much of the lade have been infilled. Whilst the lade from the weir at Mill O'Shiel was being cleaned, three stone axes were found. One of them was flint of the "Doggerbank" or "Grime's Graves" class, well shaped, rounded on the face with the other end narrow and had been sharp; the old name for Millmannoch is recorded as'Kilmannoch' and it is suggested that this name could indicate an early religious foundation of some kind at this site. Kilmarnoc may be the original name. Kilmannoch may means the chapel of the monks. Burns's ` Handsome Nell'.

He moved to Perclewan Mill and worked as both a miller and a blacksmith. Burns's home at the time, Mount Oliphant, was no great distance away, being about one and a half miles up the hill. Millmannoch is the mill of the "Soldier's Return" by written whilst at Ellisland Farm. Discharged soldiers of the Royal North British Fusiliers made their way back home from the depot at Dumfries via this old road to the Ayr depot and Burns wished to feature this regiment in his ballad. Burns knew the Mannoch Road well, having been seen passing the mill on several recorded occasions on journeys from Mauchline to Dalrymple, when one John Thom was the miller. Thom related seeing Burns standing on the road viewing and meditating on the beauty of the surrounding countryside, he used to cross the Water of Coyle by the old footbridge at Cairnstone, stepping into the glen that he described as'bonnie' and about one hundred yards further on reached the local "Trysting Thorn" and, in about the same distance again, the home of the mother of Nancy of the poem was reached.

Bankhead was abandoned, as was nearby Sandyknowe, by the 1940s only basic foundations remained in situ. Millmannoch had always been recognised as


WBCL is an FM radio station located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The station operates on the FM radio frequency of 90.3 MHz. WBCL is owned by Taylor University in Upland, Indiana with its studios located at the university's Fort Wayne campus, its current programming consists of Contemporary Christian Music. WBCL maintains a network of repeaters and translators that enable its signal to reach a wide geographical area. WBCL's signal extends beyond Fort Wayne into Northwest Ohio and Southern Michigan, extending to Toledo, to Detroit. WBCW 89.7 FM in Upland, In WBCJ 88.1 FM in Spencerville, OH WBCY 89.5 FM in Archbold, OH WCVM 94.7 in Bronson, MI WTPG 88.9 in Whitehouse, OH W291AH 106.1 FM in Muncie, IN W249BT 97.7 in Adrian, MI W258CE 99.5 in Findlay, OH W267BN 101.3 in Marion, IN Official WBCL site Query the FCC's FM station database for WBCL Radio-Locator information on WBCL Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WBCL