Baboons are primates comprising the genus Papio, one of the 23 genera of Old World monkeys. The common names of the five species of baboons are the hamadryas, the Guinea, the olive, the yellow, the chacma baboons, they are each native to one of five specific areas of Africa, the hamadryas baboon is native to part of the Arabian Peninsula. They are among the largest non-hominoid primates. Baboons have existed for at least two million years. Baboons vary in weight depending on the species; the smallest, the Kinda Baboon, is 50 cm in length and weighs only 14 kg, while the largest, the chacma baboon, is up to 120 cm in length and weighs 40 kg. All baboons have long, dog-like muzzles, powerful jaws with sharp canine teeth, close-set eyes, thick fur except on their muzzles, short tails, nerveless, hairless pads of skin on their protruding buttocks called ischial callosities that provide for sitting comfort. Male hamadryas baboons have large white manes. Baboons exhibit sexual dimorphism in colour and/or canine teeth development.
Baboons have diurnality and are terrestrial, but sleep in trees, or on high cliffs or rocks at night, away from predators. They are found in open woodlands across Africa, they are omnivorous: common sources of food are grasses, roots, bark, various fruits, fish, rodents, vervet monkeys, small antelopes. Their principal predators are Nile crocodiles, leopards and hyenas. Most baboons live in hierarchical troops containing harems. Baboons can determine from vocal exchanges. In general, each male can mate with any female: the mating order among the males depends on their social ranking. Females give birth after a six-month gestation to a single infant; the females tend to be the primary caretaker of the young, although several females may share the duties for all of their offspring. Offspring are weaned after about a year, they reach sexual maturity around five to eight years. Males leave their birth group before they reach sexual maturity, whereas most females stay in the same group their entire lives.
Baboons in captivity live up to 45 years. Five species of Papio are recognized, although there is some disagreement about whether they are full species or subspecies, they are P. papio, P. hamadryas, P. anubis and P. cynocephalus. The five species of baboons in the genus Papio are: Hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas Guinea baboon, Papio papio Olive baboon, Papio anubis Yellow baboon, Papio cynocephalus Central yellow baboon, Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus Ibean baboon, Papio cynocephalus ibeanus Kinda baboon, Papio cynocephalus kindae Chacma baboon, Papio ursinus Cape chacma, Papio ursinus ursinus Gray-footed chacma, Papio ursinus griseipes Ruacana chacma, Papio ursinus raucanaMany authors distinguish P. hamadryas as a full species, but regard all the others as subspecies of P. cynocephalus and refer to them collectively as "savanna baboons". This may not be helpful: it is based on the argument that the hamadryas baboon is behaviorally and physically distinct from other baboon species, that this reflects a separate evolutionary history.
However, recent morphological and genetic studies of Papio show the hamadryas baboon to be more related to the northern baboon species than to the southern species. The traditional five-form classification under-represents the variation within Papio; some commentators argue that at least two more forms should be recognized, including the tiny Kinda baboon from Zambia, DR Congo, Angola, the gray-footed baboon found in Zambia, Zimbabwe and northern South Africa. However, current knowledge of the morphological and behavioral diversity within Papio is too poor to make any final, comprehensive judgment on this matter. In 2015 researchers found the oldest baboon fossil dating 2 million years ago. All baboons have long, dog-like muzzles, powerful jaws with sharp canine teeth, close-set eyes, thick fur except on their muzzles, short tails, rough spots on their protruding buttocks, called ischial callosities; these calluses are nerveless, hairless pads of skin that provide for the sitting comfort of the baboon.
All baboon species exhibit pronounced sexual dimorphism in size, but sometimes in colour or canine development. Males of the hamadryas baboon species have large white manes. Baboons are able to acquire orthographic processing skills. Baboons are found in open savannah, open woodland and hills across Africa, their diets are omnivorous: they eat grasses, seeds, fruits, fish, rodents, vervet monkeys, small antelopes. They are active at irregular times throughout the day and night, they raid human dwellings, in South Africa, they have been known to prey on sheep and poultry. Their principal predators are Nile crocodiles, lions and striped hyenas and cheetahs, they are considered a difficult prey for the leopard, a threat to young baboons. Large males will confront them by flashing their eyelids, showing
"867-5309/Jenny" is a 1981 song written by Alex Call and Jim Keller and performed by Tommy Tutone, released on the album Tommy Tutone 2, on the Columbia Records label. It peaked at #4 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in May 1982, #1 on the Billboard Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in April 1982.. The song caused a fad of people dialing 867-5309 and asking for "Jenny". Lead guitarist Jim Keller, interviewed by People in 1982, said "Jenny is a regular girl, not a hooker. Friends of mine wrote her number on a men's room wall at a bar. I called her on a dare, we dated for a while. I haven't talked with her since the song became a hit, but I hear she thinks I'm a real jerk for writing it."On March 28, 2008, Tommy Tutone lead singer Tommy Heath stated on the WGN Morning News that the number was real and it was the number of a girl he knew. As a joke, he wrote it on a bathroom wall in a motel. "We laughed about it for years," he said. However, in a June 2004 interview with Songfacts, co-writer Alex Call explained his version of the song's real origins: Despite all the mythology to the contrary, I just came up with the'Jenny,' and the telephone number and the music and all that just sitting in my backyard.
There was no Jenny. I don't know where the number came from, I was just trying to write a 4-chord Rock song and it just kind of came out; this was back in 1981 when I wrote it, I had at the time a little squirrel-powered 4-track in this industrial yard in California, I went up there and made a tape of it. I had the guitar lick, I had the name and number, but I didn't know what the song was about; this buddy of mine, Jim Keller, who's the co-writer, was the lead guitar player in Tommy Tutone. He stopped by that afternoon and he said,'Al, it's a girl's number on a bathroom wall,' and we had a good laugh. I said,'That's right, that's what it is.' Tommy Tutone's been using the story for years that there was a Jenny and she ran a recording studio and so forth. It makes a better story but it's not true; that sounds a lot better. I had the thing recorded. I had the name and number, they were in the same spots,'Jenny... 867-5309.' I had all that going, but I had a blind spot in the creative process, I didn't realize it would be a girl's number on a bathroom wall.
When Jim showed up, we wrote the verses in 15 or 20 minutes, they were just obvious. It was just a fun thing, we never thought. In fact after Tommy Tutone made the record and'867-5309' got on the air, it didn't have a lot of promotion to begin with, but it was one of those songs that got a lot of requests and stayed on the charts, it was on the charts for 40 weeks. I've met a few Jennys who've said, "Oh, you're the guy who ruined my high school years." But for the most part, Jennys are happy to have the song. "There was no Jenny," Call told a Tampa, columnist in June 2009. "The number? It came to me out of the ether."In the music video, the "Jenny" character is played by Karen Elaine Morton. The song, released in late 1981 gained popularity on the American West Coast in January 1982; when we'd first get calls at 2 or 3 in the morning, my husband would answer the phone. He can't hear too well. They'd ask for Jenny, he'd say "Jimmy doesn't live here any more."... Tommy Tutone was the one. I'd like to choke him.
Asking telephone companies to trace the calls was of no use, as Charles and Maurine Shambarger learned when Ohio Bell explained "We don’t know what to make of this. The calls are coming from all over the place." A little over a month they disconnected the number and the phone became silent. In some cases, the number was picked up by commercial businesses or acquired for use in radio promotions. In 1982, WLS radio obtained the number from a Chicago woman. In 1982, Southwest Junior High School received up to two hundred calls daily asking for Jenny in area code 704. Brown University obtained the +1-401-867 prefix in 1999, assigning 867-5309 to a student dormitory room, promptly inundated with nuisance calls. A February 2004 auction for the number in a New York City code was shut down by eBay after objections from Verizon; the US Federal Communications Commission takes the position that most phone numbers are "public resources" that "are not owned by carriers or their customers" but did not rule out the number being sold as part of a business.
A subsequent February 2004 auction for the number in area code 800 and 888 listed Jeffrey Steinberg's Philadelphia business JSS Marketing for sale, including both numbers as part of the bundle. This circumvents eBay restrictions. In 2004, New Jersey resident Spencer Potter picked up the number for free after discovering to his surprise that it was available in the 201 area code, hoping it would improve his DJ business. Unable to handle the overwhelming volume of calls, he sought to sell the number on eBay in February 2009. Although bids reached $1 million, his inability to confirm the identity of the bidders led him to sell it to Retro Fitness, a gym franchise with a location in Secaucus, New Jersey that felt the 1980s origin of the number tied in with their business' retro theme. In 2006, Benjamin Franklin Franchising, a large national plumbing franchise, began using a toll-free version of the number, which it advertises as "867-5309/Benny". In 2007, Gem Plumbing & Heating brought suit against Clockwork Home Services, the parent company of Benjamin Frank
Han is a Japanese historical term for the estate of a daimyō in the Edo period and early Meiji period. Han served as a system of de facto administrative divisions of Japan alongside the de jure provinces until they were abolished in the 1870s; the concept of han originated as the personal estates of prominent warriors after the rise of the Kamakura Shogunate in 1185, which saw the rise of feudalism and the samurai noble warrior class in Japan. This situation existed for 400 years during the Kamakura Shogunate, the brief Kenmu Restoration, the Ashikaga Shogunate. Han became important as de facto administrative divisions as subsequent Shōguns stripped the Imperial provinces and their officials of their legal powers. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the preeminent warlord of the late Sengoku period, caused a transformation of the han system during his reforms of the feudal structure of Japan. Hideyoshi's system saw the han become an abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields, rather than delineated territory.
Hideyoshi died in 1598 and his young son Toyotomi Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara in October 1600, but his new feudal system was maintained after Ieyasu established the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1603. The han belonged to daimyō, the powerful samurai feudal lords, who governed them as personal property with autonomy as a vassal of the Tokugawa Shōgun. Unlike Western feudalism, the value of a Japanese feudal domain was now defined in terms of projected annual income rather than geographic size. Han were valued for taxation using the Kokudaka system which determined value based on output of rice in koku, a Japanese unit of volume considered enough rice to feed one person for one year. A daimyō was determined by the Tokugawa as a lord heading a han assessed at 10,000 koku or more, the output of their han contributed to their prestige. Early Japanologists such as Georges Appert and Edmond Papinot made a point of highlighting the annual koku yields which were allocated for the Shimazu clan at Satsuma Domain since the 12th century.
The Shogunal han and the Imperial provinces served as complementary systems which worked in tandem for administration. When the Shōgun ordered the daimyōs to make a census of its people or to make maps, the work was organized along the borders of the provinces; as a result, a han could overlap multiple provinces which themselves contained sections of multiple han. In 1690, the richest han was the Kaga Domain, located in the provinces of Kaga, Etchū and Noto, with over 1 million koku. In 1868, the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown in the Meiji Restoration by a coalition of pro-Imperial samurai in reaction to the Bakumatsu. One of the main driving forces of the anti-Tokugawa movement was support for modernization and Westernization in Japan. From 1869 to 1871, the new Meiji government sought to abolish feudalism in Japan, the title of daimyō in the han system was altered to han-chiji or chihanji. In 1871 all of the domains were disbanded and replaced with a new Meiji system of prefectures which were directly subordinate to the national government in Tokyo.
However, in 1872, the Meiji government created the Ryūkyū Domain after Japan formally annexed the Ryukyu Kingdom, a vassal state of the Shimazu clan of Satsuma since 1609. The Ryūkyū Domain was governed as a han headed by the Ryukyuan monarchy until it was abolished and became Okinawa Prefecture in March 1879. List of Han Han school Shōen Fanzhen Demesne Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520080263.