The Bāburnāma is the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur, founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. It is written in the Chagatai language, known to Babur as "Turki", the spoken language of the Andijan-Timurids. During Emperor Akbar's reign, the work was translated to Persian, the usual literary language of the Mughal court, by a Mughal courtier, Abdul Rahīm, in AH 998. Translations into many other languages followed from the 19th century onwards. Bābur was an educated Timurid prince and his observations and comments in his memoirs reflect an interest in nature, society and economics, his vivid account of events covers not just his own life, but the history and geography of the areas he lived in as well as the people with whom he came into contact. The book covers topics as diverse as astronomy, statecraft, military matters and battles, plants and animals and family chronicles and artists, poetry and paintings, wine parties, historical monument tours as well as contemplations on human nature.
Though Babur himself does not seem to have commissioned any illustrated versions, his grandson began as soon as he was presented with the finished Persian translation in November 1589. The first of four illustrated copies made under Akbar over the following decade or so was broken up for sale in 1913; some 70 miniatures are dispersed among various collections, with 20 in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The three other versions copied from the first, are in the National Museum, New Delhi, British Library with a miniature over two pages in the British Museum, a copy lacking the text, with the largest portions in the State Museum of Eastern Cultures and the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. Various other collections have isolated miniatures from these versions. Illustrated manuscripts were made, though not on as a grand a scale. Babur is at the centre of most scenes shown; as far is known, no contemporary images of him survive, but from whatever sources they had Akbar's artists devised a consistent representation of him, "with a roundish face and droopy moustache", wearing a Central Asian style of turban and a short-sleeved coat over a robe with long sleeves.
Coming from a period after Akbar's workshop had developed their new style of Mughal painting, the illustrated Baburnamas show developments such as landscape views with recession, influenced by Western art seen at court. The scenes are less crowded than in earlier miniatures of "historical" scenes. Most images trimmed of borders According to historian Stephen Frederic Dale, Babur's Chagatai prose is Persianized in its sentence structure and vocabulary, contains many phrases and smaller poems in Persian; the Bāburnāma begins abruptly with these plain words: After some background, Bābur describes his fluctuating fortunes as a minor ruler in Central Asia – he took and lost Samarkand twice – and his move to Kabul in 1504. There is a break in all known manuscripts between 1508 and 1519. Annette Beveridge and other scholars believe that the missing part in the middle, an account of Babur's earlier childhood, a preface and an epilogue, were written but the manuscript of those parts lost by the time of Akbar.
There are various points in his active career, that of his son Humayun, where parts of the original manuscript might plausibly have been lost. By 1519 Bābur is established from there launches an invasion into north-western India; the final section of the Bāburnāma covers the years 1525 to 1529 and the establishment of the Mughal empire over what was by his death still a small part of north-western India, which Bābur's descendants would expand and rule for three centuries. The account of the decisive First Battle of Panipat in 1526 is followed by long descriptions of India, its people and flora. Various exciting incidents are recounted and illustrated: Babur jumps off his horse just in time to avoid following it into a river, when his army has formed its boats into a circle a fish jumps into a boat to escape from a crocodile; the original Chagatai language text does not seem to have existed in many copies, those that survive are partial. The copy seen in the Mughal Library in the 1620s, used to base the Persian translation on, seems to have been lost.
It was first translated into English by John Leyden and William Erskine as Memoirs of Zehir-Ed-Din Muhammed Baber: Emperor of Hindustan and by the British orientalist scholar Annette Beveridge. Translated, the Bāburnāma forms part of textbooks in no fewer than 25 countries – in Central and Southern Asia; the Baburnama fits into a tradition of imperial autobiographies or official court biographies, seen in various parts of the world. In South Asia these go back to the Ashokavadana and Harshacharita from ancient India, the medieval Prithviraj Raso, were continued by the Mughals with the Akbarnama, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri or Jahangir-nameh, Shahjahannama. Akbar's ancestor Timur had been celebrated in a number of works called Zafarnama, the best known of, produced in an illustrated copy in the 1590s by Akbar's workshop. A work purporting to be Timur's autobiography, which turned up in Jahangir's library in the 1620s, is now regarded as a fake of that period. Babur's autobiography has receiv
Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus is a Latin phrase meaning "false in one thing, false in everything." At common law, it is the legal principle that a witness who testifies falsely about one matter is not credible to testify about any matter. Although many common law jurisdictions have rejected a categorical application of the rule, the doctrine has survived in some American courts; the origins of the doctrine of falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus in the common law have been traced as far back as the Stuart Treason Trials in the late seventeenth century. However, the widespread acceptance of the principle in seventeenth century English courts suggests that the doctrine has much earlier roots. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the principle functioned as a mandatory presumption that a witness was unreliable if they lied while offering testimony. By the early nineteenth century, English courts began instructing juries that they may presume a witness who testified falsely was unreliable, but such a presumption was not mandatory.
In 1809, Lord Ellenborough rejected a categorical application of the rule, stating that "though a person may be proved on his own shewing, or by other evidence, to have foresworn himself as to a particular fact. Although some American courts disfavor the mandatory application of the doctrine, others continue to uphold a mandatory presumption of unreliability for witnesses that have testified falsely. Today, many jurisdictions have abandoned the principle as a formal rule of evidence and instead apply the rule as a "permissible inference that the jury may or may not draw." However, some courts continue to apply the doctrine to discredit witnesses that have offered false testimony. In 2013, for example, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that in immigration cases, a court may "use an adverse credibility finding on one claim to support an adverse finding on another claim." At the O. J. Simpson murder trial, Judge Lance Ito applied the doctrine to instruct the jury that " witness, willfully false in one material part of his or her testimony is to be distrusted in others."During the 2018 confirmation hearings into the Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court nomination, Senator Richard Blumenthal questioned Kavanaugh's credibility when he asked Kavanaugh if he was familiar with the words, Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus.
Many legal scholars have criticized the continued use of the doctrine of falsus in uno to discredit a witness' entire testimony. For example, Judge Richard Posner once remarked that falsus in uno was a "discredited doctrine" based on "primitive psychology." This assertion was not made in relation to a "material" inconsistency. Indeed in the Kadia opinion, the court concedes that inconsistencies of less than material importance can be relevant to the assessment of veracity; the court stated that “the mistakes that witnesses make in all innocence must be distinguished from slips that, whether or not they go to the core of the witness's testimony, show that the witness is a liar.” Judge Posner argued that because witnesses "are prone to fudge, to fumble, to misspeak, to misstate, to exaggerate," few trials would reach a judgment if "any such pratfall warranted disbelieving a witness's entire testimony." Additionally, evidence scholar John Henry Wigmore was an outspoken critic of the doctrine. In his Treatise on the Anglo-American System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law, he wrote: It may be said, once for all, that the maxim is in itself worthless, first, in point of validity, because in one form it contains in loose fashion a kernel of truth which no one needs to be told, in the others it is false as a maxim of life.
It is in practice pernicious, because there is a misunderstanding of its proper force, secondly, because it has become in the hands of many counsel a mere instrument for obtaining new trials upon points wholly unimportant in themselves. Roman law Common law Evidence
Catherine Helen Spence was a Scottish-born Australian author, journalist, leading suffragist, Georgist. In 1897 she became Australia's first female political candidate after standing for the Federal Convention held in Adelaide. Called the "Greatest Australian Woman" by Miles Franklin and by the age of 80 dubbed the "Grand Old Woman of Australia", Spence was commemorated on the Australian five-dollar note issued for the Centenary of Federation of Australia. Spence was born in Scotland, as the fifth child in a family of eight. In 1839, following sudden financial difficulties, the family emigrated to South Australia. Arriving on 31 October 1839, on the Palmyra, at a time when the colony had experienced several years of drought, the contrast to her native Scotland made her "inclined to go and cut my throat"; the family endured seven months "encampment", growing wheat on an eighty-acre selection before moving to Adelaide. Her father, David Spence, was elected first Town Clerk of the City of Adelaide.
Her brother John Brodie Spence was a prominent banker and parliamentarian and her sister Jessie married Andrew Murray Hamdache. Spence had a talent for writing and an urge to be read, so it was natural that in her teens she became attracted to journalism. Through family connections, she began with short pieces and poetry published in The South Australian, she worked as a governess for some of the leading families in Adelaide, at the rate of sixpence an hour. For several years, Spence was the South Australian correspondent for The Argus newspaper writing under her brother's name until the coming of the telegraph, her first work was the novel Clara Morison: A Tale of South Australia During the Gold Fever. It was rejected but her friend John Taylor, found a publisher in J W Parker and Son and it was published in 1854, she received forty pounds for it, but was charged ten pounds for abridging it to fit in the publisher's standard format. Her second novel Tender and True was published in 1856, to her delight went through a second and third printing, though she never received a penny more than the initial twenty pounds.
Followed her third novel, published in Australia as Uphill Work and in England as Mr Hogarth's Will, published in 1861 and several more though some were unpublished in her lifetime including Gathered In and Hand fasted. In 1888 she published A Week In the Future, a tour-tract of the utopia she imagined a century in the future might bring, her final work, called A Last Word, was lost. Although Spence rejected both of the two proposals of marriage she received during her life, never married, she had a keen interest in family life and marriage, as applied to other people. Both her life's work and her writing were devoted to raising the awareness of and improving the lot of women and children, she successively raised three families of orphaned children, the first being those of her friend Lucy Duval. She was one of the prime movers, with Emily Clark, of the "Boarding-out Society"; this organization had as its aim removing children from the Destitute Asylum into approved families and to remove all children from institutions except the delinquent.
At first treated with scorn by the South Australian government, the scheme was encouraged when the institutions devoted to the handling of troublesome boys became overcrowded. Spence and Clark were appointed to the State Children's Council, which controlled the Magill Reformatory. Spence was the first female member of the Destitute Board. Around 1854, having become disillusioned with some doctrines of the Church of Scotland, she began attending meetings of the Adelaide Unitarian Christian Church, she preached her first sermons at the Wakefield Street church in 1878, she filled in for the minister J. Crawford Woods during his occasional absences between 1884 and 1889, she was an advocate of Thomas Hare's scheme for the representation of minorities, at one stage considering this issue more pressing than that of woman suffrage. She travelled and lectured both at home and abroad on what she called Effective Voting that became known as Proportional Representation, she lived to see it adopted in Tasmania.
She was an early advocate of the work of Australian artist Margaret Preston and purchased her 1905 still-life "Onions". Preston received a commission to paint a portrait of Spence in 1911 from a citizens' committee of Adelaide, she was buried in the Brighton Cemetery in Adelaide. There are numerous memorials to Spence around the Adelaide city centre, including: a bronze statue in Light Square the Catherine Helen Spence building in the City West campus of the University of South Australia the Spence wing of the State Library of South Australia Catherine Helen Spence Street in the south-east of the city centre a plaque on the Jubilee 150 Walkway on North TerraceThe posthumous portrait of her, by Rose McPherson is held by the Art Gallery of South Australia; this portrait was used as the basis of her appearance on an edition of the Australian five dollar note. In 1975 she was honoured on a postage stamp bearing her portrait issued by Australia Post; the Catherine Helen Spence Memorial Scholarship was instituted by the South Australian Government in her honour.
See separate article for a list of recipients. Her image appears on the commemorative Centenary of Federation