Pauline Murray is best known as the lead singer of the punk rock band Penetration formed in 1976. Pauline Murray was born in Waterhouses, County Durham and her parents moved to Ferryhill, she left school at age sixteen, studied art at Darlington College and worked at odd jobs. In May 1976 the 18-year-old Murray saw the Sex Pistols perform, she and her Ferryhill comrades became Pistols devotees, earning for themselves the title of "Durham Contingent". In late 1976, Murray formed a band with friends Robert Blamire and Gary Smallman and named it after the Stooges' song "Penetration." They played their first gig in October 1976 at the Middlesbrough Rock Garden, played their first gig in London at The Roxy in January 1977, supporting Gen X. The band debuted on vinyl with the single "Don't Dictate", issued by Virgin in November of the same year; the band went on to release two studio albums, Moving Targets and Coming Up for Air, as well as an official bootleg. There would be a Best of Penetration compilation album.
After a measure of success during 1978/79, including a headline show at the Rainbow Theatre and a five-week American tour, they announced a split in October 1979. Penetration played a number of gigs around London in leading to a band reunion. In 2015 the band announced they would release a new studio album. In 1980 Murray worked on her first solo album with record producer Martin Hannett's band The Invisible Girls, which included ex-Penetration member and co-writer Robert Blamire, as well as guesting Manchester musicians such as Vini Reilly, guitarist in The Durutti Column, Steve Hopkins. John Maher from Buzzcocks drummed for the band; the resulting album, Pauline Murray and The Invisible Girls, reached Number 25 on the UK Albums Chart in October 1980 and spawned the singles "Dream Sequence" and "Mr. X"; the album was well received by critics. A reviewer for Melody Maker called it, "Unquestionably a musical highpoint of this year or any other. An exciting new area of electronic pop where Motown meets the modern world."Murray provided vocals for The Only Ones on their song "Fools" and backing vocals on "Me and My Shadow".
In the early 1980s, Murray formed the band Pauline Murray and The Storm, with Robert Blamire, Tim Johnston and Paul Harvey, releasing the singles "Holocaust" in 1984 and a cover of the Velvet Underground's "New Age" in 1986. In 1989 Murray released the EP This Thing Called the album Storm Clouds under her own name. In 2011 Murray established Polestar Studios with Robert Blamire in Byker where bands can rent out rehearsal and recording space. In 2013 she booked a number of solo acoustic dates around the North End in the UK, she said about the gigs, "This is the first time in my career that I’ve done a full solo set with just me and my guitar." During the tour, she played a number of older songs from her career and played a number of new songs she had written. Murray was married to Peter Lloyd, Penetration's road manager, but split with her husband after the release of Searching for Heaven in 1980, she and Robert Blamire became a couple and moved together to Liverpool. She resides in Newcastle upon Tyne.
Murray has two children. All UK releases. Dream Sequences Dream Sequence I / Dream Sequence II on 10" IVEX-1 Pauline Murray and The Invisible Girls Screaming In The Darkness / Dream Sequence 1 / European Eyes / Shoot You Down / Sympathy / Time Slipping // Drummer Boy / Thundertunes / When Will We Learn / / Mr. X / Judgement Day 1993 CD extra tracks: The Visitor / Animal Crazy / Searching For Heaven Mr X / Two Shots Searching For Heaven / Animal Crazy Searching For Heaven // Animal Crazy / The Visitor New Age / Body Music New Age // Archangel / Body Music Hong Kong Close Watch / All I Want // Body Music / Holocaust Holocaust / Don't Give Up Holocaust // Don't Give Up / Aversion This Thing Called Love // Mr Money / Pressure Zone Storm Clouds This Thing Called Love / Holocaust / Soul Power / No One Like You / Another World / Don't Give Up // Pressure Zone / Close Watch / Everybody's Talking / New Age / Time Halloween 2000 Stand For The Fire Demon / Night Of The Vampire / Creature With The Atom Brain Murray's biography on Penetration's official website
Smash Hits was a British pop music magazine aimed at teenagers and young adults, published by EMAP. It ran from 1978 to 2006 and, after appearing monthly, was issued fortnightly during most of that time; the name survived as a brand for a spin-off digital television channel -now named Box Hits - and website. A digital radio station was available but shut on 5 August 2013. Smash Hits featured songwords of interviews with all the big names in music, it was published monthly went fortnightly. The style of the magazine was one of irreverence, its interviewing technique was novel at the time and, rather than looking up to the big names, it made fun of them, asking strange questions rather than talking about their music. Created by journalist Nick Logan, the title was launched in 1978 and appeared monthly for its first few months, he based the idea on a songwords magazine that his sister used to buy, but, of poor quality. His idea being to launch a glossy-looking magazine which contained songwords as its mainstay.
The publisher was Emap, a small-time publisher based in Peterborough and the magazine was titled Disco Fever, before they settled on Smash Hits. Smash Hits launched the career of many journalists including Radio Times editor Mark Frith. Other well-known writers have included Dave Rimmer, Ian Birch, Mark Ellen, Steve Beebee, Peter Martin, Chris Heath, Sylvia Patterson, Alex Kadis, Sian Pattenden, Tom Hibbert, Miranda Sawyer. Neil Tennant of the Pet Shop Boys worked as a writer and assistant editor, once claimed that had he not become a pop star, he would have pursued his ambition to become editor; the magazine was available in Continental Europe in Germany where the issues could be bought at train stations or airports, whilst the title was licensed for a French version in the 1990s. There were other licensed versions in the magazine's history. In 1984, an Australian version was created and proved just as successful for that new market as the original had back in Britain, whilst in the United States, a version was published during the 1980s under the title Star Hits, drawing articles from the British version.
It was published by Emap, who use the name for one of their digital television services, for a digital radio station. The brand covered the annual Smash Hits Poll Winners Party, an awards ceremony voted for by readers of the magazine; the magazine's sales peaked during the late 1980s. In the early part of the decade it was selling 500,000 copies per issue, which had risen to over one million by 1989. Sales began to drop during the 1990s and by 1996 it was reported that sales were dropping 100,000 per year standing at 245,000. By the time of its demise, it was down to 120,000. In the 1990s, the magazine's circulation slumped and it was overtaken by the BBC's spin off magazine Top of the Pops. Emap's other biweekly teen magazine of the period Big! was closed and this celeb focus was shifted over to Smash Hits, which became less focused on teen pop and more of an entertainment magazine. The magazine shifted size a number of times in subsequent relaunches including one format, as big as an album with songwords to be clipped out on the card cover.
Television presenter and journalist Kate Thornton was editor for a short time. In February 2006, it was announced that the magazine would cease publication after the February 13 edition due to declining sales; the digital music video channel, digital radio, website services still continue. In July 2009, a one-off commemorative issue of the magazine was published as a tribute to singer Michael Jackson. Further one-off specials were released in November 2009 and December 2010. "Chris Hall" Ian Cranna David Hepworth Mark Ellen Steve Bush Barry McIlheney Richard Lowe Mike Soutar Mark Frith Kate Thornton Gavin Reeve Bob Monkhouse John McKie Emma Jones Lisa Smosarski Lara PalamoudianThe publication's Art Editor in the early 1990s was Phil Hawksworth, who guided the transition between traditional artwork to electronic artwork on the Mac, introducing many of the design/content features used until publication ceased in 2007. EMAP licensed the brand for a number of compilation albums, including a tie in with the Now That's What I Call Music brand for Now Smash Hits, a retrospective of the early 1980s.
The Australian edition of Smash Hits magazine began in November 1984 as a fortnightly edited by James Manning. The magazine blended some content from the parent publication with locally generated material. Eddy Sarafian, to edit the successful competitor TV Hits for Attic Futura Publications, was on staff at the time the magazine was founded. Robyn Doreian editor of Attic Futura's Hot Metal was graphic designer for Smash Hits and in the early 1990s Lisa Anthony editor of Attic Futura's Hit Songwords, would become Smash Hits' editor for a brief period. Australian Smash Hits was published by Fairfax Magazines and was purchased by Mason Stewart Publications. Over the years it became a monthly and a bi-monthly. In 2007 the magazine retailed for A$5.95 Inc. GST and NZ$6.50. On 30 March 2007 it was announced that the Australian edition would cease publication due to low readership; the editor at that time was Emma Bradshaw. The issue, scheduled to be released on 9 May 2007 was cancelled. Smash Hits
Special View is the second compilation album by English power pop band The Only Ones. Released in 1979 in the United States it consists of tracks selected by the American label Epic from the band's first two CBS albums. In his consumer guide for The Village Voice, Robert Christgau commented that "This selection from his first two British albums is an ideal introduction to an artist who may be major if he sticks at it."In a retrospective review for AllMusic, critic Ned Raggett wrote, "Though a compilation of albums for America rather than a proper release, Special View could be a greatest hits of sorts, capturing the unexpected and underrated talents of Perrett and his bandmates for a late-'70s audience well enough and still holding up in years." All tracks written by Peter Perrett. The Only OnesPeter Perrett – lead and background vocals.
The Only Ones (album)
The Only Ones is the debut studio album by English power pop band The Only Ones, released in 1978 by Columbia Records. It was produced by the Only Ones themselves, with the assistance of Robert Ash and was mixed at Basing St. Escape and CBS; the album was re-released in Europe in 2009 on Sony Music Entertainment, featuring rare bonus content. The reissue was a CD, it includes the original album digitally remastered from the original 1/2" mix tapes. Trouser Press called it "the best of the three original albums" in which "Perrett's languid vocals and songs provide the character and focus, while the band's skills carry it off handsomely"; the album is still admired by British critics. In 1994, The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music named The Only Ones one of the 50 best punk albums of all-time; the compilers claimed that the Only Ones were "the closest thing the UK had to Johnny Thunder's Heartbreakers, a laconic, shamble of a band who were, at moments, touched by a creative greatness that made you get out of the glare".
Since the end of the 1990s, the album has appeared on several all-time greatest albums lists. The album was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. All tracks written by Peter Perrett; the Only OnesPeter Perrett – lead and background vocals.
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses give you a good knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studio and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow you to get a job in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify and categorize audio tracks through Music Information Retrieval. Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room.
For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive; the production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering.
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Backing vocalists or backup singers are singers who provide vocal harmony with the lead vocalist or other backing vocalists. In some cases, a backing vocalist may sing alone as a lead-in to the main vocalist's entry or to sing a counter-melody. Backing vocalists are used in a broad range of popular music, traditional music and world music styles. Solo artists may employ professional backing vocalists in studio recording sessions as well as during concerts. In many rock and metal bands, the musicians doing backing vocals play instruments, such as guitar, electric bass, drums, or keyboards. In Latin or Afro-Cuban groups, backing singers may play percussion instruments or shakers while singing. In some pop and hip-hop groups and in musical theater, the backing singers may be required to perform elaborately choreographed dance routines while they sing through headset microphones; the style of singing used by backing singers varies according to the type of song and the genre of music the band plays.
In pop and country songs, backing vocalists may perform vocal harmony parts to support the lead vocalist. In hardcore punk or rockabilly, other band members who play instruments may sing or shout backing vocals during the chorus section of the songs. Alternative terms for backing vocalists include backing singers, backing vocals, additional vocals or in the United States and Canada, backup singers or sometimes background singers or harmony vocalists. While some bands use performers whose sole on-stage role is performing backing vocals, it is common for backing singers to have other roles. Two notable examples of band members who sang back-up are The Beatles; the Beach Boys were well known for their close vocal harmonies with all five members singing at once such as "In My Room" and "Surfer Girl". All five members would sing lead, although most Brian Wilson or Mike Love would sing lead with guitarists Carl Wilson and Al Jardine and drummer Dennis Wilson singing background harmonies; the Beatles were known for their close style of vocal harmonies – all Beatles members sang both lead and backing vocals at some point John Lennon and Paul McCartney, who supported each other with harmonies with fellow Beatle George Harrison joining in.
Ringo Starr, while not as prominent in the role of backing singer as his three bandmates due to his distinctive voice, can be heard singing backing vocals in such tracks as "The Continuing Story of Bungalow Bill" and "Carry That Weight". Examples of three-part harmonies by Lennon, McCartney and Harrison include "Nowhere Man", "Because", "Day Tripper", "This Boy"; the members of Crosby, Nash & Young and Bee Gees all each wrote songs and sang back-up or lead vocals and played various instruments on their albums and various collaborations with each other. Former guitarist John Frusciante and current guitarist Josh Klinghoffer of the Red Hot Chili Peppers sing nearly all backing vocals singing some parts without accompaniment from lead vocalist Anthony Kiedis; the band's bassist Flea filled in for additional vocals. Frusciante sang one song by himself during concerts. Another example is "No Frontiers" by The Corrs, sung by Sharon and Caroline. Other backing vocalists include rhythm guitarist Sebastien Lefebvre & bass guitarist David Desrosiers of pop punk band Simple Plan, guitarist John Petrucci of Dream Theater, lead guitarist Kirk Hammett & bass guitarist Robert Trujillo of Metallica, guitarists Zacky Vengeance & Synyster Gates and of heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold.
In the recording studio, some lead singers record their own backing vocals by overdubbing with a multitrack recording system. A multitrack recording system enables the record producer to add many layers of recordings over top of each other. Using a multitrack system, a lead vocalist can record his or her own backing vocals, record the lead vocal part over top; some lead vocalists prefer this approach because the sound of their own harmonies will blend well with their main vocal. One famous example is Freddie Mercury of Queen singing the first part of "Bohemian Rhapsody" himself by overdubbing. Patrick Stump of Fall Out Boy, Tom DeLonge of Angels and Airwaves, Wednesday 13 in his own band and Murderdolls, Ian Gillan of Deep Purple, Simon Le Bon of Duran Duran and Brad Delp of Boston recorded lead and backing vocals for their albums. With the exception of a few songs on each album, Dan Fogelberg, Eddie Rabbitt, David Bowie and Richard Marx sing all of the background vocals for their songs. Robert Smith of the Cure not only sings his own backing vocals in the studio, but doesn't perform with backing vocalists when playing live.
Many metalcore and some post-hardcore bands, such as As I Lay Dying, Haste the Day and Silverstein feature a main vocalist who performs using harsh vocals, whilst the backing vocalist sings harmonies during choruses to create a contrast. Some bands, such as Hawthorne Heights and Finch have the backing singers do harsh vocals to highlight specific lyrics. Pop and R&B vocalists such as Diana Ross, Ariana Grande, Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé Knowles, Faith Evans, D'Angelo, Mary J. Blige and Amerie have become known for not only recording their own backing vocals, but for arranging their own multi-tracked vocals and developing complex harmonies and arrangements; when they perform live, they may have backing vocalists. Some bands use backing vocals in order to contrast with the lead singer who may be performing an unusual vocal technique. For example, Brian "Head" Welch, the lead guitarist of the band Korn, performed backin