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Babylonian captivity

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon besieged Jerusalem, resulting in tribute being paid by King Jehoiakim. Jehoiakim refused to pay tribute in Nebuchadnezzar's fourth year, which led to another siege in Nebuchadnezzar's seventh year, culminating with the death of Jehoiakim and the exile to Babylonia of King Jeconiah, his court and many others; the dates, numbers of deportations, numbers of deportees given in the biblical accounts vary. These deportations are dated to 597 BCE for the first, with others dated at 587/586 BCE, 582/581 BCE respectively. After the fall of Babylon to the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE, exiled Judeans were permitted to return to Judah. According to the biblical book of Ezra, construction of the second temple in Jerusalem began around 537 BCE.

All these events are considered significant in Jewish history and culture, had a far-reaching impact on the development of Judaism. Archaeological studies have revealed that not all of the population of Judah was deported, that, although Jerusalem was utterly destroyed, other parts of Judah continued to be inhabited during the period of the exile; the return of the exiles was a gradual process rather than a single event, many of the deportees or their descendants did not return, becoming the ancestors of the Iraqi Jews. In the late 7th century BCE, the Kingdom of Judah was a client state of the Assyrian empire. In the last decades of the century, Assyria was overthrown by an Assyrian province. Egypt, fearing the sudden rise of the Neo-Babylonian empire, seized control of Assyrian territory up to the Euphrates river in Syria, but Babylon counter-attacked. In the process Josiah, the king of Judah, was killed in a battle with the Egyptians at the Battle of Megiddo. After the defeat of Pharaoh Necho's army by the Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BCE, Jehoiakim began paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon.

Some of the young nobility of Judah were taken to Babylon. In the following years, the court of Jerusalem was divided into two parties, one supporting Egypt, the other Babylon. After Nebuchadnezzar was defeated in battle in 601 BCE by Egypt, Judah revolted against Babylon, culminating in a three-month siege of Jerusalem beginning in late 598 BCE. Jehoiakim, the king of Judah, died during the siege and was succeeded by his son Jehoiachin at the age of eighteen; the city fell on 2 Adar 597 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar pillaged Jerusalem and its Temple and took Jeconiah, his court and other prominent citizens back to Babylon. Jehoiakim's uncle Zedekiah was appointed king in his place, but the exiles in Babylon continued to consider Jeconiah as their Exilarch, or rightful ruler. Despite warnings by Jeremiah and others of the pro-Babylonian party, Zedekiah revolted against Babylon and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra. Nebuchadnezzar returned, defeated the Egyptians, again besieged Jerusalem, resulting in the city's destruction in 587 BCE.

Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city wall and the Temple, together with the houses of the most important citizens. Zedekiah and his sons were captured and the sons were executed in front of Zedekiah, blinded and taken to Babylon with many others. Judah became a Babylonian province, called Yehud, putting an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah.. The first governor appointed by Babylon was a native Judahite; some time a surviving member of the royal family assassinated Gedaliah and his Babylonian advisors, prompting many refugees to seek safety in Egypt. By the end of the second decade of the 6th century, in addition to those who remained in Judah, there were significant Jewish communities in Babylon and in Egypt. According to the book of Ezra, the Persian Cyrus the Great ended the exile in 538 BCE, the year after he captured Babylon; the exile ended with the return under Zerubbabel the Prince and Joshua the Priest and their construction of the Second Temple in the period 521–516 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Jerusalem, his capture of King Jeconiah, his appointment of Zedekiah in his place, the plundering of the city in 597 BCE are corroborated by a passage in the Babylonian Chronicles:In the seventh year, in the month of Kislev, the king of Akkad mustered his troops, marched to the Hatti-land, encamped against the City of Judah and on the ninth day of the month of Adar he seized the city and captured the king.

He appointed there a king of his own choice and taking heavy tribute brought it back to Babylon. Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets, describing ration orders for a captive King of Judah, identified with King Jeconiah, have been discovered during excavations in Babylon, in the royal archives of Nebuchadnezzar. One of the tablets refers to food rations for "Ya’u-kīnu, king of the land of Yahudu" and five royal princes, his sons. Nebuchadnezzar an

Melanie Williams

Melanie Williams is a British singer. She sang on the hit single, "Ain't No Love" alongside the Manchester based electronic group Sub Sub. Williams was a friend of Sub Sub at the time, the band, searching for a female guest vocalist, featured her vocals; this helped expose her talents to the public, was followed by further critical success. Williams and her writing colleague Eric Gooden, found Square One Studios in Bury, Greater Manchester; the proprietor Trevor Taylor, liked what he heard and they began recording a string of tracks assisted by house engineer and musician Stephen Boyce-Buckley. They released the single "Showdown" under the name No Sovereign on Geffen Records in 1987, subsequently landed a recording contract with 10 Records, they released a self-titled album as Temper Temper in 1991. Williams launched a solo career in 1994 as a soul/dance singer, signed to Columbia Records, her debut solo single, "All Cried Out!" Peaked at No. 60 in the UK Singles Chart. The follow-up, "Everyday Thang", did better, hitting the UK Top 40.

It peaked at No. 38. Her next single, the ballad "Not Enough?" Managed a No. 65 chart placing. Her debut album, Human Cradle, failed to reach the UK Albums Chart. Williams has featured on the Adrian Snell album, Father, in which she read Psalm 139. Early in 1995, Williams returned to the UK Top 40 with a cover of "You Are Everything"; the song reached No. 28. Williams and Roberts released the album Feed My Soul as Dark Flower, they re-teamed in 2007 to release the single "Mire" as Bodhi. They changed their name to Butterfly Jam and released the album Bodhi in 2011 and the single "Wag" in 2014; the Other Two's second album, Super Highways, featured Williams on some tracks as co-writer and guest vocalist. 1990 Father 1991 Eric Gooden & Melanie Williams – Temper Temper 1994 Human Cradle 2001 Dark Flower – Feed My Soul 2007 Bodhi Melanie Williams at discogs.com

19th Virginia Infantry

The 19th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought with the Army of Northern Virginia; the 19th Virginia, organized at Manassas Junction, Virginia, in May, 1861, contained men recruited at Charlottesville and in the counties of Albemarle and Amherst. It fought at First Manassas under General Cocke was assigned to General Pickett's, Garnett's, Hunton's Brigade; the 19th participated in the campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from Williamsburg to Gettysburg except when it was with Longstreet at Suffolk. It served in North Carolina, returned to Virginia, was active at Drewry's Bluff and Cold Harbor. Continuing the fight, it was engaged in the Petersburg siege north of the James River and the Appomattox Campaign, it in April, 1862, totalled 650 effectives. The regiment had 138 casualties during the Seven Days' Battles and lost forty-two percent of the 150 in the Maryland Campaign and more than forty-five percent of the 328 engaged at Gettysburg.

Many were captured at Sayler's Creek, only 1 officer and 29 men surrendered. The field officers were Colonels Philip St. George Cocke, Henry Gantt, Armistead T. M. Rust, John B. Strange; the 19th Virginia Infantry service begins on April 17, 1861, at Charlottesville, when Virginia secedes from the United States. Two militia companies, the Monticello Guard and the Albemarle Rifles, along with two companies, the Southern Guard and the Sons of Liberty, formed in front of the Charlottesville Court House; the Monticello Guard was formed in May 1857, by William B. Mallory, it is unknown. One record says they wore uniforms similar to the Continentals of the American Revolution, while one report claims they wore red battleshirts with red fezzes when they participated in a shooting competition in 1859; the Albemarle Rifles were formed in 1860, by William T. W. R. Duke; the pre-war uniform consisted of Gray frock coats with blue blue trousers. They wore white leather goods, according to Richard Duke's son, carried either US Springfield or Mississippi Rifles.

The other two companies, the Southern Guard and the Sons of Liberty, consisted of students from the University of Virginia. At 10:30 pm, they were loaded onto a train bound for Staunton, they became known as the Charlottesville-University Battalion. They arrived at Harper's Ferry and stayed there until April 23, when they were ordered back to Charlottesville; the two student companies were disbanded, while the Monticello Guard and the Albemarle Rifles were mustered into service on May 12, at Culpeper Court House. The other eight companies arrived in the months; the nicknames of the companies of the regiment are as follows: Company A: "The Monticello Guard" - Enlisted April 16, 1861, Virginia. They were organized on May 5, 1857. Company B: "The Albemarle Rifles" - Enlisted April 17, 1861, Virginia. Company C: "The Scottsville Guard." - Enlisted April 17, 1861, Virginia. They wore trousers, along with white leather goods; the blue was according to the Virginia Militia Regulations of 1858. Company D: "The Howardsville Grays" -Enlisted April 19, 1861, Virginia.

According to the Scottsville Register, published April 20, 1861, they were referred to as the Howardsville Blues. They left with Company C to join the war. Company E: "The Piedmont Guards" - Enlisted May 20, 1861, Stony Point, Virginia Company F: "The Montgomery Guard" - Enlisted May 20, 1861, Virginia Company G: "The Nelson Grays" - Enlisted May 1, 1861, Massie's Mill, Virginia Company H: "The Southern Rights Guard" - Enlisted April 15, 1861, Amherst Court House, Virginia Company I: "The Amherst Rifles" - Enlisted May 1, 1861, Amherst Court House, Virginia Company K: "The Blue Ridge Rifles" - Enlisted May 20, 1861, VirginiaCompanies A - F and K were recruited from Albemarle County. Company G was recruited from Nelson County, Companies H and I were recruited from Amherst County; the 19th Virginia was clothed in the regulation Confederate Infantry garb. The light blue designated the wearer as an infantryman; the men of the 19th were issued brown leather accouterments: a brown leather cartridge box and strap and a brown leather belt with cap box.

According to most records, the 19th Virginia leather goods varied throughout the war adopting black leather or anything at one time. In May, 1863, as the 19th's division was passing through Richmond, the 19th and many of the regiments in the division received shell jackets. Shell jackets are like frock coats, only without the skirt end, ends just below the waist. Most the men received Richmond Depot Type II Jackets; the 19th Virginia was greatly supplied by the Charlottesville Mills at Charlottesville, Virginia. They supplied the 19th with frock coats, but into 1864 and 1865, grey dye was harder to find, so butternut substituted. Of course, like much of the Confederate Army, uniforms may have varied, using anything they could find; the 19th Virginia became part of a brigade alongside the 8th, 18th, 28th Virginia infantry regiments. The 56th Virginia Infantry joined the brigade as well; the brigade became known as the "Gamecock Brigade" for its fierce fighting and extreme bravery. Much of what is known of the 19th Virginia's experiences during the war is bas