Bachelor of Science

A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for programs that last three to five years. The first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts by one university but as a BS by another, some universities offer the choice of either; some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA in the natural sciences, while some universities offer only the BS in non-science fields. At universities that offer both BA and BS degrees in the same discipline, the BS degree is more extensive in that particular discipline and is targeted toward students who are pursuing graduate school or a profession in that field. Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service awards Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degrees to all of its undergraduates, although many students major in humanities-oriented fields such as international history or culture and politics.

The London School of Economics offers BSc degrees in all subject areas those associated with arts degrees, while the Oxbridge universities exclusively award arts qualifications. In both instances, there are traditional reasons. Northwestern University's School of Communication grants BSc degrees in all of its programs of study, including theater and radio/television/film. University of California, Berkeley grants a BS degree in Environmental Economics and Policy at the College of Natural Resources, a BS degree in Business Administration at Haas School of Business, a BA degree in Environmental Economics and Policy at the College of Letters and Science. Cornell University offers a BS degree in Computer Science from its College of Engineering and a BA degree in Computer Science from its College of Arts and Sciences. In Argentina most university degrees are given as a license in a discipline, they are specific to a field and awarded to students upon completion of a course of study which lasts 5 years.

In most cases, at the end of a course and as a mandatory condition for its completion, students are compelled to work on an original research project related to the field. This project is called a thesis and it is presented in front of a group of people, including university professors who will evaluate it and let the student know whether they passed or not on the same day, shortly after the presentation. In Australia, the BSc is a three-four-year degree. An honours year or a Master of Science is required to progress on to the Doctor of Philosophy. In New Zealand, in some cases, the honours degree comprises an additional postgraduate qualification. In other cases, students with strong performance in their second or third year, are invited to extend their degree to an additional year, with a focus on research, granting access to doctoral programs. In South Africa, the BSc is taken over three years, while the postgraduate BSc entails an additional year of study. Admission to the honours degree is on the basis of a sufficiently high average in the BSc major.

In Brazil, a Bachelor of Science degree is an undergraduate academic degree and is equivalent to a BSc. It could take from 4 to 6 years to complete, is more specific and could be applied for Scientific Arts courses, somewhat is called Human Art courses in Brazil as well as for Health Arts. To be able to start the bachelor's degree in Brazil the candidate must prove to be proficient in different disciplines and have at least the accumulated Preliminary and High School degrees accomplished with the minimum merit of 60% to 70% of the degrees and a correspondent study period that can vary from 10 to 12 years minimum; the Bachelor of Science courses in Brazilian Universities have the first 1 to 2 years of basic fundamental disciplines and the last 2 to 3 years disciplines more related to the professional fields of that Bachelor of Science. Some disciplines are prerequisite to others and in some universities, the student is not allowed to course any discipline for the entire next period if he was unsuccessful in just one prerequisite discipline of the present period.

The Bachelor of Science courses demand a one-year mandatory probation period by the end of the course, followed by elaborate written and oral evaluations. To get the certification as BSc, most universities require that the students achieve the accomplishment of 60% to 70% in all the "obligatory disciplines", plus the supervisioned and approved training period, the final thesis of the course, in some BSc programs, the final exam test; the final exam is required so far. To be a professor, a Bachelor of Sciences is required t

Federalist No. 77

Federalist No. 77 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the seventy-seventh of The Federalist Papers. It was published on April 2, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all The Federalist papers were published; the title is "The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered", it is the last in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive Branch. In this paper, Hamilton discusses the power of the Senate to approve a President's appointments, the Executive’s ability to call Congress together to give the State of the Union, shares his concluding thoughts on the President’s powers discussed throughout all of the Federalist Papers’ previous commentary. Hamilton opens by acknowledging the counterarguments that oppose the "Union of the Senate with the President," established by both branches of government playing a role in the nomination process, he writes that some say it would result in the President having "undue influence" over the Senate and that others say it would have the opposite tendency.

In response, Hamilton argues that the idea that this provision would create presidential power over the Senate when the concept of a confirmation process is restraining executive power is "an absurdity in terms." To argue against the idea that requiring Senate confirmation is problematic because it will give the Senate influence over the President, he argues that the power of influence equates "conferring a benefit" and since the "power of nomination is unequivocally vested in the Executive" and the Senate can only "obstruct their course," the Senate cannot confer a benefit from the Executive. Thus, Hamilton reasons; when advocating for the nomination process outlined in the Constitution, Hamilton argues that having a Senate confirmation process would turn presidential appointments into "matters of notoriety" and that the public "would be at no loss" to form opinions on the nominees compared to the traditional "shut up" small group that appointed positions at the State level during his time.

By doing this, Hamilton chose to criticize his own state of New York's method and makes the point of how a public, large scale process would increase accountability for both the President and the Senate compared to the current norm. He adds that it is far easier to manipulate a small group than a big group like the Senate. Again, he juxtaposes what is outlined in the Constitution with New York's appointment process at the time, that 3-5 men, including the governor, would make these decisions behind closed doors. Hamilton moves on from discussion of Senate confirmations to defend the Executive's constitutional power to give information to Congress on the State of the Union, he acknowledges that those who criticize the extent of this power only question the President's ability to convene each branch separately. Hamilton argues that since the Executive branch has "concurrent power" with the Senate, only the Senate, to form treaties that it would be "unnecessary and improper" to convene the House of Representatives as well.

Jeremy D. Bailey, The Traditional View of Hamilton’s Federalist No. 77 and an Unexpected Challenge, 33 Harvard J. L. & Pub. Policy 169; the Puzzle of Hamilton's Federalist No. 77, 33 Harvard J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 149. Dietze, Gottfried; the Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1960. Epstein, David F; the Political Theory of the Federalist, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1984. Gray and Wynell Burroughs. "Teaching With Documents: Ratification of the Constitution," Social Education, 51: 322-324. Kesler, Charles R. Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding, New York: 1987. Patrick, John J. and Clair W. Keller. Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History and Civics, Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS, 1987. ED 280 764. Schechter, Stephen L. Teaching about American Federal Democracy, Philadelphia: Center for the Study of Federalism at Temple University, 1984.

ED 248 161. Sunstein, Cass R; the Enlarged Republic—Then and Now, New York Review of Books,: Volume LVI, Number 5, 45. Http:// Webster, Mary E. The Federalist Papers: In Modern Language Indexed for Today's Political Issues. Bellevue, WA.: Merril Press, 1999. White, Morton. Philosophy, The Federalist, the Constitution, New York: 1987. Yarbrough, Jean. "The Federalist". This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, 16: 4-9. SO 018 489 Zebra Edition; the Federalist Papers:, Edited for Readability. Oakesdale, WA: Lucky Zebra Press, 2007. Text of The Federalist No. 77: Federalist No. 77 Text

Capernaum Church

Capernaum Church is one of the two places of worship of the Lutheran Capernaum Congregation, a member of the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia, an umbrella comprising Lutheran and united Protestant congregations. The church is located on Seestraße No. 34 in Berlin's borough of Mitte. The church was named after Capernaum, today Kfar Nachum כפר נחום in today's Israel. Christians revere the town of Capernaum, since on Sabbaths Jesus of Nazareth used to teach in the local synagogue; the synagogue where Jesus taught is a handsome, standing ruin open to visitors. Therefore, it is that the town has been the home of Jesus, at least for some time. In Capernaum Jesus healed a man, a fever in Simon Peter's mother-in-law; the area belonged to the Nazareth Congregation, the oldest in Wedding. Due to the high number of new parishioners moving in at the end of the 19th century the Nazareth Church grew too small. Count Eduard Karl von Oppersdorf, who purchased many grounds along Seestraße in order to develop them as building land, offered to donate a site for a new church and a considerable sum of money to build it.

He considered a prestigious site on a square to be developed in Antwerpener Straße, but Berlin's planning and zoning board refused to approve that. Thus he offered the site on the crossroads of Seestraße #34/35 with Antwerpener Straße No. 50 on the condition of starting the constructions until a certain date, otherwise the tendered money would be forfeited. Oppersdorf speculated for a rise of land prices by the establishment of a church in the area, thus in 1896 the presbytery of Nazareth Congregation, presided by Pastor Ludwig Diestelkamp, commissioned the architect Baurat. Carl Siebold from Bethel leading the construction department of the Bethel Institution, to build an additional church in the undeveloped area. Diestelkamp knew Siebold through his friend Friedrich von Bodelschwingh. On 30 September 1897 the cornerstone was hastily laid. Effective constructions were only started in 1900. Siebold, who built 80 churches, many of them in Westphalia, recycled his design for Christ Church in Hagen-Eilpe, which he adapted to the site on Seestraße.

On 22 July 1902 the church was finished. The Evangelical Association for the Construction of Churches, a charitable organisation headed by the Prussian Queen Augusta Victoria, co-financed the constructions. On 26 August the same year she, her son Crown Prince Frederick William and her husband King William II attended the inauguration of Capernaum Church, the latter in his function as summus episcopus. In the following year the Capernaum Congregation was constituted as independent legal entity, within the Protestant umbrella Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces; the new congregation took over the northwestern part of the parish of the Nazareth Congregation, the northwestern part of the locality of Wedding, including the African Quarter north of the church building and the Schillerhöhe northeast of the church building. Due to the location of the site the church directed to the southeast; the building consists of three longish naves on an asymmetric ground plan. While the northeastern nave is large and harbours a loft, in order to place more seats, the southwestern nave to Antwerpener Straße is narrow, rather resembling an aisle.

The outside structure of Romanesque Revivalism, built from red brick, with its Lombard bands and the entrance hall to Antwerpener Straße rather resembles a basilica. Siebold's design is inspired by Romanesque architecture of Rhenish churches such as St. Apostles, Great St. Martin Church; the quire is highlighted by two octagonal towers, which are connected by a columned gallery of arcades. The room underneath the elevated quire was designed for the instruction of confirmands, thus being an early example of a structure combining church and community centre functions; the tower at the crossroads of Seestraße with Antwerpener Straße, topped by a typical Rhenish steep rhombohedral spire, was built to form a landmark. Siebold designed it after the towers of St Mary's Assumption Church; the façade to Seestraße showed. A second smaller tower connects the church building to the alignment of houses in Seestraße. In 1909 August Dinklage, Olaf Lilloe, Ernst Paulus added a rectory in Rundbogenstil with round-arched windows in Seestraße #35, finished on 1 April 1911, thus inseriating the church with the alignment of houses.

The rear wing of the rectory confines the backyard of rectory as a semi-closed court. The Allied bombing of Berlin in World War II inflicted severe damages on Capernaum Church. In May 1944 the church burnt out to the outside walls, in February 1945 the main tower was hit and burnt out. Starting in 1952 the architect Fritz Berndt began the reconstructions, accomplished by architect Günter Behrmann until 1959; the structures were simplified, the rose window was replaced by three biforium windows, while the main tower now bears a steep gable roof. The gable towards Seestraße was simplified due to the new simple gable roof, covering the main nave, the side naves carry catslide roofs, thus the nave to Antwerpener Straße lost its spire lights; the church was re-inaugurated on the occasion of the feast of Evange