Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic, spore forming bacterium found in soil and food. The specific name, meaning "waxy" in Latin, refers to the appearance of colonies grown on blood agar; some strains are harmful to humans and cause foodborne illness, while other strains can be beneficial as probiotics for animals. The bacteria is classically contracted from fried rice dishes that have been sitting at room temperature for hours. B. cereus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, like other members of the genus Bacillus, can produce protective endospores. Its virulence factors include cereolysin and phospholipase C; the Bacillus cereus group comprises seven related species: B. cereus sensu stricto, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. cytotoxicus. B. cereus competes with other microorganisms such as Campylobacter in the gut. In food animals such as chickens and pigs, some harmless strains of B. cereus are used as a probiotic feed additive to reduce Salmonella in the animals' intestines and cecum.
This improves the animals' growth, as well as food safety for humans. B. cereus can parasitize codling moth larvae. B. Cereus and other members of Bacillus are not killed by alcohol; some strains of B. cereus produce cereins, bacteriocins active against different B. cereus strains or other Gram-positive bacteria. At 30 °C, a population of B. cereus can double in as little as 20 minutes or as long as 3 hours, depending on the food product. B. cereus is responsible for a minority of foodborne illnesses, causing severe nausea and diarrhea. Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to survival of the bacterial endospores when infected food is not, or inadequately, cooked. Cooking temperatures less than or equal to 100 °C allow some B. cereus spores to survive. This problem is compounded when food is improperly refrigerated, allowing the endospores to germinate. Cooked foods not meant for either immediate consumption or rapid cooling and refrigeration should be kept at temperatures below 10 °C or above 50 °C.
Germination and growth occur between 10 °C and 50 °C, though some strains can grow at low temperatures. Bacterial growth results in production of enterotoxins, one of, resistant to heat and acids; the diarrheal type is associated with a wide range of foods, has an 8.0- to 16-hour incubation time, is associated with diarrhea and gastrointestinal pain. Known as the'long-incubation' form of B. cereus food poisoning, it might be difficult to differentiate from poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens. Enterotoxin can be inactivated after heating at 56 °C for 5 minutes, but whether its presence in food causes the symptom is unclear, since it degrades in stomach enzymes. The'emetic' form is caused by rice cooked for a time and temperature insufficient to kill any spores present improperly refrigerated, it can produce a toxin, not inactivated by reheating. This form leads to vomiting 1 -- 5 hours after consumption. Distinguishing from other short-term bacterial foodborne intoxications such as by Staphylococcus aureus can be difficult.
Emetic toxin can withstand 121 °C for 90 minutes. The diarrhetic syndromes observed in patients are thought to stem from the three toxins: hemolysin BL, nonhemolytic enterotoxin, cytotoxin K; the nhe/hbl/cytK genes are located on the chromosome of the bacteria. Transcription of these genes is controlled by PlcR; these genes occur in the taxonomically related B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis, as well. These enterotoxins are all produced in the small intestine of the host, thus thwarting digestion by host endogenous enzymes; the Hbl and Nhe toxins are pore-forming toxins related to ClyA of E. coli. The proteins exhibit a conformation known as "beta-barrel" that can insert into cellular membranes due to a hydrophobic exterior, thus creating pores with hydrophilic interiors; the effect is loss of cellular membrane potential and cell death. CytK is a pore-forming protein more related to other hemolysins; the timing of the toxin production was thought to be responsible for the two different courses of disease, but in fact the emetic syndrome is caused by a toxin, found only in emetic strains and is not part of the "standard toolbox" of B. cereus.
Cereulide is a cyclic polypeptide containing three repeats of four amino acids: D-oxy-Leu—D-Ala—L-oxy-Val—L-Val produced by nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Cereulide is believed to bind to 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 serotonin receptors, activating them and leading to increased afferent vagus nerve stimulation, it was shown independently by two research groups to be encoded on multiple plasmids: pCERE01 or pBCE4810. Plasmid pBCE4810 shares homology with the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1, which encodes the anthrax toxin. Periodontal isolates of B. cereus possess distinct pXO1-like plasmids. Like most of cyclic peptides containing nonproteogenic amino acids, cereulid is resistant to heat and acid conditions. B. Cereus is known to cause difficult-to-eradicate chronic skin infections, though less aggressive than necrotizing fascii
I Am Pilgrim is the debut novel by former journalist and screenwriter, Terry Hayes. It was published on 18 July 2013 in the United Kingdom. "Pilgrim" is an American former intelligence agent known as the "Rider of the Blue" who writes a book on forensic pathology. Pilgrim becomes involved in a case in New York City where a mysterious woman uses his book to commit untraceable murders in the aftermath of 9/11; the "Saracen" is a Saudi. He trains as a doctor and fights in the Soviet–Afghan War. Pilgrim is recalled to the intelligence community who have detected a threat involving the Saracen, who has created a vaccine-resistant strain of the variola major virus. 2014 Specsavers National Book Awards "Thriller & Crime Novel of the Year" In July 2014, MGM bought the movie rights for the book and are set to target a series of films, similar to the Bond franchise, with Matthew Vaughn directing. In April 2018, James Gray was set to direct. I Am Pilgrim Facebook page
Suffer Time is an album by country music singer, Dottie West, released in 1966. This album was Dottie West's most successful album in her whole 20-year career of releasing albums; the album peaked all the way at #3 on Billboard's "Top Country Albums" list in 1966. The album featured West's biggest hit so far during her career, the #5 hit "Would You Hold It Against Me", as well as the #17 hit "What's Come Over My Baby", it included the #22 hit "Before the Ring on Your Finger Turns Green", as well as the #24 hit "Mommy Can I Still Call Him Daddy". Both "Would You Hold It Against Me" and "Before the Ring on Your Finger Turns Green" was nominated for a Grammy award for Best Female Country Vocal Performance. Seven of the dozen songs on the album, including the two biggest hits, were written by West and her husband Bill. Suffer Time is one of West's best-known albums. All tracks composed by Bill West.