The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys are an American rock band formed in Hawthorne, California, in 1961. The group's original lineup consisted of brothers Brian and Carl Wilson, their cousin Mike Love, their friend Al Jardine. Distinguished by their vocal harmonies and early surf songs, they are one of the most influential acts of the rock era; the band drew on the music of jazz-based vocal groups, 1950s rock and roll, black R&B to create their unique sound, with Brian as composer, producer, de facto leader, they incorporated classical elements and unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways. The Beach Boys began as an early garage band managed by the Wilsons' father Murry. In 1963, the band gained national prominence with a string of top-ten singles reflecting a southern California youth culture of surfing and romance dubbed the "California Sound". After 1964, they abandoned beachgoing themes for ambitious orchestrations. In 1966, the Pet Sounds album and "Good Vibrations" single raised the group's prestige as rock innovators and established the band as symbols of the nascent counterculture era.
Following the dissolution of the group's Smile project in 1967, Brian ceded production and songwriting duties to the rest of the band, reducing his input because of mental health and substance abuse issues. The group's commercial momentum subsequently faltered, despite efforts to maintain an experimental sound, they were dismissed by early rock critics as the archetypal "pop music cop-outs". Carl took over as the band's musical leader until the late 1970s, during which they rebounded as an successful live concert draw. Personal struggles, creative disagreements, the overshadowing success of the band's greatest hits albums precipitated their transition into an oldies act. Since the 1980s, much-publicized legal wrangling over royalties, songwriting credits and use of the band's name transpired. Dennis drowned in 1983 and Carl died of lung cancer in 1998. After Carl's death, the group and its corporation, Brother Records Inc, permitted Love to lead a touring band under the "Beach Boys" name. Though they have not performed together since their 2012 reunion tour, Brian and Love remain a part of BRI and as official members of the band.
The Beach Boys are one of the most critically acclaimed, commercially successful, influential bands of all time. They were one of the earliest self-contained rock bands and one of the few US bands who maintained their success before and after the 1964 British Invasion. Between the 1960s and 2010s, they had over eighty songs chart worldwide, thirty-six of them in the US Top 40, four reaching number-one on the Billboard Hot 100, they have sold in excess of 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the world's best-selling bands of all time, are ranked number 12 on Rolling Stone magazine's 2004 list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In 2017, a study of AllMusic's catalog indicated the Beach Boys as the sixth most cited artist influence in its database; the core quintet of the three Wilsons and Jardine was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988. At the time of his sixteenth birthday on June 20, 1958, Brian Wilson shared a bedroom with his brothers and Carl – aged thirteen and eleven – in their family home in Hawthorne.
He had watched his father, Murry Wilson, play piano, had listened intently to the harmonies of vocal groups such as the Four Freshmen. After dissecting songs such as "Ivory Tower" and "Good News", Brian would teach family members how to sing the background harmonies. For his birthday that year, Brian received a reel-to-reel tape recorder, he learned how to overdub, using those of Carl and their mother. Brian played piano with Carl and David Marks, an eleven-year-old longtime neighbor, playing guitars they had each received as Christmas presents. Soon Brian and Carl were avidly listening to Johnny Otis' KFOX radio show. Inspired by the simple structure and vocals of the rhythm and blues songs he heard, Brian changed his piano-playing style and started writing songs. Family gatherings brought the Wilsons in contact with cousin Mike Love. Brian taught a friend harmonies. Brian and two friends performed at Hawthorne High School. Brian knew Al Jardine, a high school classmate. Brian suggested to Jardine that they team up with his brother Carl.
Love gave the fledgling band its name: "The Pendletones", a pun on "Pendleton", a style of woolen shirt popular at the time. Dennis was the only avid surfer in the group, he suggested that the group write songs that celebrated the sport and the lifestyle that it had inspired in Southern California. Brian finished the song, titled "Surfin'", with Mike Love, wrote "Surfin' Safari". Murry recalled, "They had written a song called'Surfin',' which I never did like and still don't like, it was so rude and crude."Murry Wilson, a sometime songwriter, arranged for the Pendletones to meet his publisher Hite Morgan. He said: "Finally, agreed to hear it, Mrs. Morgan said'Drop everything, we're going to record your song. I think it's good.' And she's the one responsible." On September 15, 1961, the band recorded a demo of "Surfin'" with the Morgans. A more professional recording was made at World Pacific Studio in Hollywood. David Marks was not present at the session. Murry brought the demos to Herb Newman, owner of Candix Records and Era Records, he signed the group on December 8.
When the single was released a few weeks the band found that they had been renamed "the Beach Boys". Candix wanted to name the group the Surfers until Ru
A bassist or bass player, is a musician who plays a bass instrument such as a double bass, bass guitar, keyboard bass or a low brass instrument such as a tuba or sousaphone. Different musical genres tend to be associated with one or more of these instruments. Since the 1960s, the electric bass has been the standard bass instrument for funk, R&B, soul music and roll, jazz fusion, heavy metal and pop music; the double bass is the standard bass instrument for classical music, bluegrass and most genres of jazz. Low brass instruments such as the tuba or sousaphone are the standard bass instrument in Dixieland and New Orleans-style jazz bands. Despite the associations of different bass instruments with certain genres, there are exceptions; some 1990s and 2000s rock and pop bands use a double bass, such as both Andrew Jackson Jihad, Barenaked Ladies. Some fusion jazz groups use a lightweight, stripped-down electric upright bass rather than a double bass; some composers of modern art music use the electric bass in a chamber music setting.
Some jazz big bands use electric bass. Some funk, R&B and jazz, fusion groups use synth keyboard bass rather than electric bass. Bootsy Collins and Stevie Wonder used synth bass; some Dixieland bands use double bass or electric bass instead of a tuba. In some jazz groups and jam bands, the basslines are played by a Hammond organ player, who uses the bass pedal keyboard or the lower manual for the low notes. Electric bassists play the bass guitar. In most rock, pop and country genres, the bass line outlines the harmony of the music being performed, while indicating the rhythmic pulse. In addition, there are many different standard bass line types for different genres and types of song. Bass lines emphasize the root note, with a secondary role for the third, fifth of each chord being used in a given song. In addition, pedal tones and bass riffs are used as bass lines. While most electric bass players play chords, chords are used in some styles funk, R&B, soul music, jazz and heavy metal music. A short list of notable bassists includes: Mark Adams Jeff Ament Victor Bailey Steve Bailey Ronnie Baker Michael "Flea" Balzary Robert "Kool" Bell Rex Brown Jack Bruce Jean-Jacques Burnel Cliff Burton Geezer Butler Tony Campos Alain Caron Liam Carey Stanley Clarke Adam Clayton Tommy Cogbill Bootsy Collins Melvin Lee Davis John Deacon Steve Di Giorgio Mike Dirnt Donald'Duck' Dunn Jimmy Earl Nathan East Bernard Edwards David Ellefson John Entwistle Andy Fraser (Free Billy Gould Roger Glover Simon Gallup Colin Greenwood Kim Gordon Larry Graham Stuart Hamm Jimmy Haslip Steve Harris Marco Hietala Peter Hook Anthony Jackson James Jamerson Jerry Jemmott Darryl Jones John Paul Jones Mick Karn Carol Kaye Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister Mark King Abraham Laboriel Geddy Lee Ryan Martinie Paul McCartney Marcus Miller Monk Montgomery John Myung Jason Newsted Pino Palladino Jaco Pastorius John Patitucci Wayne Pedzwater Guy Pratt Pino Presti Chuck Rainey Mel Schacher Steven Severin Billy Sheehan Ben Shepherd Paul Simonon Chris Squire Sting Jeroen Paul Thesseling Robert Trujillo Sid Vicious Roger Waters Tina Weymouth Nicky Wire Justin Chancellor Christopher Wolstenholme Victor Wooten Bill Wyman Joseph Karnes For a long list, see the List of contemporary classical double bass players.
A shortlist of notable double bass players includes: Johannes Matthias Sperger bassist, composer Domenico Dragonetti bassist, conductor Giovanni Bottesini bassist, conductor Franz Simandl bassist, pedagogue Edouard Nanny bassist, pedagogue Serge Koussevitzky bassist, composer Gary Karr
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Crosby, Stills & Nash is a vocal folk rock supergroup made up of American singer-songwriters David Crosby and Stephen Stills and English singer-songwriter Graham Nash. They are known as Crosby, Nash & Young when joined by Canadian singer-songwriter Neil Young, an occasional fourth member, they are noted for their intricate vocal harmonies tumultuous interpersonal relationships, political activism, lasting influence on American music and culture. Crosby, Stills & Nash were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and all three members were inducted for their work in other groups. Neil Young has been inducted as a solo artist and as a member of Buffalo Springfield. Prior to the formation of CSN, each member of the band had belonged to another prominent group. David Crosby played guitar and wrote songs with the Byrds. Due to internal friction, Crosby was dismissed from the Byrds in late 1967. By early 1968, Buffalo Springfield had disintegrated, after aiding in putting together the band's final album, Stills was unemployed.
Stills and Crosby began meeting jamming. The result of one encounter in Florida on Crosby's schooner was the song "Wooden Ships", composed in collaboration with another guest, Jefferson Airplane's Paul Kantner. Graham Nash had been introduced to Crosby when the Byrds had toured the United Kingdom in 1966, when the Hollies ventured to California in 1968, Nash resumed his acquaintance with him. At a party in July 1968 at Joni Mitchell's house, Nash asked Stills and Crosby to repeat their performance of a new song by Stills, "You Don't Have To Cry", with Nash improvising a third part harmony; the vocals gelled, the three realized that they had a good vocal chemistry. It is disputed by members of the group whether it was at the house of Cass Elliot. Stephen Stills recalls that it was at the house of Cass Elliot - he would have been too intimidated to sing as a group in front of Joni Mitchell for the first time. Nash and Crosby insist. Creatively frustrated with the Hollies, Nash decided to quit the band and work with Crosby and Stills.
After an unsuccessful audition with The Beatles' Apple Records, they were signed to Atlantic Records by Ahmet Ertegün, a fan of Buffalo Springfield and was disappointed by that band's demise. From the outset, given their previous experiences, the trio decided not to be locked into a group structure, they used their surnames as identification to ensure independence and a guarantee that the band could not continue without one of them, unlike both the Byrds and the Hollies. They picked up a management team in Elliot Roberts and David Geffen, who got them signed to Atlantic and would help to gain clout for the group in the industry. Roberts kept the band focused and dealt with egos, while Geffen handled the business deals, since, in Crosby's words, they needed a "shark" and Geffen was it. Stills was signed to Atlantic Records through his Buffalo Springfield contract. Crosby had been released from his Byrds deal with Columbia, as he was considered to be unimportant and too difficult to work with.
Nash, was still signed to Epic Records through The Hollies. Ertegun worked out a deal with Clive Davis to trade Nash to Atlantic in exchange for Richie Furay and Poco, his new band; the trio's first album, Stills & Nash, was released in May 1969. The eponymously titled album was a major hit in the United States, peaking at #6 on the Billboard album chart during a 107-week stay that spawned two Top 40 hits and significant airplay on FM radio; the album earned a RIAA triple platinum certification in 1999 and quadruple platinum certification in 2001. With the exceptions of drummer Dallas Taylor and a handful of rhythm and acoustic guitar parts from Crosby and Nash, Stills handled most of the instrumentation on the album, which left the band in need of additional personnel to be able to tour, a necessity given the debut album's commercial impact. Retaining Taylor, the band tried to hire a keyboard player. Stills approached virtuoso multi-instrumentalist Steve Winwood, occupied with the newly formed group Blind Faith.
Ertegün suggested former Buffalo Springfield member Neil Young managed by Elliot Roberts, as a obvious choice. Stills and Nash held reservations, but after several meetings, the trio expanded to a quartet with Young a full partner. The terms of the contract allowed Young full freedom to maintain a parallel career with his new band, Crazy Horse, they completed the rhythm section with former Buffalo Springfield bassist Bruce Palmer. However, Palmer was let go due to his persistent personal problems following rehearsals at the Cafe au Go Go in New York City's Greenwich Village. Teenaged Motown session bassist Greg Reeves joined in Palmer's place at t
Avenged Sevenfold is an American heavy metal band from Huntington Beach, formed in 1999. The band's current lineup consists of lead vocalist M. Shadows, rhythm guitarist and backing vocalist Zacky Vengeance, lead guitarist and backing vocalist Synyster Gates and backing vocalist Johnny Christ, drummer Brooks Wackerman. Avenged Sevenfold is known for its diverse rock sound and dramatic imagery in album covers and merchandise. Avenged Sevenfold emerged with a metalcore sound on the band's debut Sounding the Seventh Trumpet and continued this sound through their second album Waking the Fallen. However, Avenged Sevenfold's style had evolved by the band's third album and first major label release, City of Evil, into a heavy metal and hard rock style; the band continued to explore new sounds with its self-titled release and enjoyed continued mainstream success before their drummer, James "The Rev" Sullivan, died in 2009. Despite his death, Avenged Sevenfold continued on with the help of drummer Mike Portnoy, released and toured in support of its fifth album Nightmare in 2010, which debuted on the top spot of the Billboard 200, Avenged Sevenfold's first number one debut.
In 2011 drummer Arin Ilejay joined the band on tours and recording. Avenged Sevenfold's sixth studio album Hail to the King, released in 2013, marked the only Avenged Sevenfold album featuring Arin Ilejay. Hail to the King charted as number 1 on the Billboard 200, the UK Albums chart, as well as the Finnish, Brazilian and Irish charts. In late 2014, Ilejay left the band, was replaced by former Bad Religion drummer Brooks Wackerman, but the lineup change wasn't announced to the public until 2015; the band surprise-released their seventh studio album titled The Stage on October 28, 2016, which debuted as number 4 on the Billboard 200 chart in the US. The Stage is their first conceptual album and it marked another stylistic change for the band, moving towards the progressive metal sound. To date, Avenged Sevenfold has released seven studio albums, one live album/DVD, two compilation albums and eighteen singles and have sold over 8 million albums worldwide. Avenged Sevenfold was ranked No. 47 on Loudwire's list of Top 50 Metal Bands of All Time.
Avenged Sevenfold have released an original song for each game in the Call of Duty: Black Ops series. The band was formed in March 1999 in Huntington Beach, California by Matt Sanders, The Rev and Matt Wendt. Although they are not a religious band, Sanders came up with the name as a reference to the story of Cain and Abel from the Bible, which can be found in Genesis 4:24. Shortly after their formation, they were joined by an acquaintance from high school, Zachary Baker, who played in the punk-band MPA at the time. Avenged Sevenfold's first creative output was a three-track-demo, some months they were asked by Sadistic Records to contribute to two compilations. To that end, they recorded two new songs and released them along with the recorded songs on a second demo in early 2000, they were subsequently signed. Shortly afterward, Matt Wendt left for college and Justin Meacham, the previous bassist of Suburban Legends joined Avenged Sevenfold. In late 2000, the foursome took on their initial stage names and recorded their debut album, Sounding the Seventh Trumpet.
In early 2001, lead guitarist and old friend Synyster Gates joined the band and they re-recorded the introductory track "To End the Rapture" for the album's lead-single/EP, Warmness on the Soul, released in April. Although their debut album was planned for a late April release, it was pushed back multiple times and released in June or July 2001 on Good Life Recordings. Around August 2001, Meacham attempted suicide by drinking excessive amounts of cough syrup; the attempt was the reason for Avenged Sevenfold to join the Take Action Tour in 2003. During Meacham's hospitalization, he had to leave the band. In an interview, lead singer M. Shadows said of Meacham that "he perma-fried his brain and was in a mental institution for a long time, when you have someone in your band who does that, it ruins everything that's going on all around you, it makes you want to do something to prevent it from happening to other people." His replacement was Dameon Ash, who performed with the band for the following months, but does not appear on any releases.
On January 18, 2002, Avenged Sevenfold signed with Hopeless Records. They re-released their debut album on March 19 and appeared on the Hopelessly Devoted To You Vol. 4 sampler in April. The band started to receive recognition, performing with bands such as Mushroomhead and Shadows Fall, they spent the year touring in support of their debut album and participated in the Vans Warped and Take Action tours. Towards the end of the year, Dameon Ash left Avenged Sevenfold and in November, their current bassist Johnny Christ joined them, completing their best known line-up. Having found a new bassist, the group released their second studio album titled Waking the Fallen on Hopeless Records in August 2003; the album featured a more mature sound production in comparison to their previous album. The band received profiles in Billboard and The Boston Globe, again played on the Vans Warped and Take Action tours. In 2004, Avenged Sevenfold toured again on the Vans Warped Tour and recorded a video for their song "Unholy Confessions" which went into rotation on MTV2's Headbanger's Ball.
Shortly after the release of Waking the Fallen, Avenged Sevenfold left Hopeless Records and were signed to Warner Bros. Records on November 1, 2003. City of Evil, the band's third album and major label debut, was released on June 7
Alan Charles Jardine is an American musician and songwriter who co-founded the Beach Boys. He is best known as the band's rhythm guitarist and for singing lead vocals on songs such as "Help Me, Rhonda", "Then I Kissed Her", "Come Go with Me", he has released A Postcard from California. In 1988, Jardine was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Beach Boys. Alan Charles Jardine was born in Lima, but his family moved to San Francisco and to Hawthorne, California. At Hawthorne High School, he befriended fellow football player Brian Wilson and watched Brian and brother Carl Wilson singing at a school assembly. After attending Ferris State University during the 1960-61 academic year, Jardine registered as a student at El Camino College in 1961. There, he was reunited with Brian and first presented the idea of forming a band as the two worked through harmony ideas together in the college's music room. Jardine's primary musical interest was folk and he learned banjo and guitar to play folk music.
When the Beach Boys formed at Wilson's home, he first tried to push the band toward folk but was overruled in favor of rock'n' roll. An all-rounder on string instruments, Jardine played stand-up bass on the Beach Boys' first recording, the song "Surfin'". Following his brief departure from the band in early 1962, he dabbled with a career in the aerospace industry in Los Angeles. Jardine rejoined the Beach Boys in the summer of 1963 at Brian Wilson's request and worked alongside guitarist David Marks with the band until October 1963, when Marks quit the Beach Boys after an altercation with the band's manager, Murry Wilson. Jardine played bass on the Beach Boys' first record for Candix Records. Although he left in 1961 to pursue a career in dentistry, Jardine filled in on bass for Brian during concerts and returned full-time in 1963 following David Marks' departure after an argument with Murry Wilson. Jardine is middle-range harmony vocalist, he first sang lead on "Christmas Day," on 1964's The Beach Boys' Christmas Album and followed shortly after with the Number 1 hit "Help Me, Rhonda".
Thereafter he sang leads on tracks. Beginning with his contributions to the Friends album, Jardine wrote or co-wrote a number of songs for the Beach Boys. "California Saga: California" from the Holland album, charted in early 1973. Jardine's song for his first wife, "Lady Lynda", scored a Top Ten chart entry in the UK. From the time of the Surf's Up album, Al became involved alongside Carl Wilson in production duties for the Beach Boys, he shared production credits with Ron Altbach on M. I. U. Album and was a significant architect of the album's content; as with "Lady Lynda" and his 1969 rewrite of Lead Belly's "Cotton Fields," "Come Go with Me" and "Peggy Sue" on the M. I. U. Album were Jardine productions, the first being a measurable hit in the UK. Jardine instigated the Beach Boys' recording of a remake of the Mamas and the Papas' song "California Dreamin'", reaching No. 8 on the Billboard adult contemporary chart in 1986. The associated music video featured in heavy rotation on MTV and secured extensive international airplay.
The video featured all the surviving Beach Boys and two of the three surviving members of the Mamas and the Papas, John Phillips and Michelle Phillips, along with former Byrds guitarist Roger McGuinn. Following Carl Wilson's death in 1998, Jardine left the touring version of The Beach Boys, leaving Love as the only original member in the group playing live concerts. Jardine continued to tour and recorded with his Endless Summer Band, in a line-up that comprised several musicians who toured with the Beach Boys, including Billy Hinsche of Dino and Billy. In 2001, Jardine's band released Live in Las Vegas. In late 2006, Jardine joined Brian Wilson's band for a short tour celebrating the 40th anniversary of Pet Sounds. In March 2008, Jardine settled a lawsuit brought against him by Love and the estate of Carl Wilson regarding use of the "Beach Boys" name. Love had leased the Beach Boys' name, it was deemed that Jardine's newly formed band, called the Beach Boys Family & Friends, was a breach of title use.
In 2009, Jardine's lead vocal on "Big Sur Christmas" was released on MP3 download, produced by longtime Red Barn Studios engineer Stevie Heger under Heger's band's name, Hey Stevie. The track was released on the Hey Stevie album, Eloquence. Jardine released A Postcard from California, his solo debut, in June 2010; the album features contributions from Beach Boys Brian Wilson, Carl Wilson, Bruce Johnston, David Marks and Mike Love. There are guest appearances from Glen Campbell, Neil Young, Steve Miller, Scott Mathews, Gerry Beckley and Dewey Bunnell and Flea. A spoken intermission written by Stephen Kalinich, called "Tidepool Interlude", features actor Alec Baldwin. Jardine made his first appearance with the Beach Boys in more than 10 years in 2011 at a tribute concert for Ronald Reagan's 100th birthday, where he sang "Help Me, Rhonda" and "Sloop John B". In December 2011, it was announced that Brian Wilson, Mike Love, Al Jardine, Bruce Johnston and David Marks would reunite for a new Beach Boys album and The Beach Boys 50th Anniversary Reunion Tour in 2012.
In September 2012, it was announced that Jardine and Marks would no longer tour with the band. Love returned the lineup to
Multitrack recording —also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole. Multitracking became possible in the mid-1950s when the idea of recording different audio channels to separate discrete "tracks" on the same reel-to-reel tape was developed. A "track" was a different channel recorded to its own discrete area on the tape whereby their relative sequence of recorded events would be preserved, playback would be simultaneous or synchronized. Prior to the development of multitracking, the sound recording process required all of the singers, band instrumentalists, and/or orchestra accompanists to perform at the same time in the same space. Multitrack recording was a significant technical improvement as it allowed studio engineers to record all of the instruments and vocals for a piece of music separately.
Multitracking allowed the engineer to adjust the levels and tone of each individual track, if necessary, redo certain tracks or overdub parts of the track to correct errors or get a better "take." As well, different electronic effects such as reverb could be applied to specific tracks, such as the lead vocals, while not being applied to other tracks where this effect would not be desirable. Multitrack recording was much more than a technical innovation. In the 1980s and 1990s, computers provided means by which both sound recording and reproduction could be digitized, revolutionizing audio recording and distribution. In the 2000s, multitracking hardware and software for computers was of sufficient quality to be used for high-end audio recordings by both professional sound engineers and by bands recording without studios using available programs, which can be used on a high-end laptop computer. Though magnetic tape has not been replaced as a recording medium, the advantages of non-linear editing and recording have resulted in digital systems superseding tape.
In the 2010s, with digital multitracking being the dominant technology, the original word "track" is still used by audio engineers. Multi-tracking can be achieved with analogue recording, tape-based equipment, digital equipment that relies on tape storage of recorded digital data and hard disk-based systems employing a computer and audio recording software. Multi-track recording devices vary in their specifications, such as the number of simultaneous tracks available for recording at any one time. With the introduction of SMPTE timecode in the early 1970s, engineers began to use computers to synchronize separate audio and video playback, or multiple audio tape machines. In this system, one track of each machine carried the timecode signal, while the remaining tracks were available for sound recording; some large studios were able to link multiple 24-track machines together. An extreme example of this occurred in 1982, when the rock group Toto recorded parts of Toto IV on three synchronized 24-track machines.
This setup theoretically provided for up to 69 audio tracks, far more than necessary for most recording projects. For computer-based systems, the trend in the 2000s is towards unlimited numbers of record/playback tracks, although issues such as RAM memory and CPU available do limit this from machine to machine. Moreover, on computer-based systems, the number of available recording tracks is limited by the number of sound card discrete analog or digital inputs; when recording, audio engineers can select which track on the device will be used for each instrument, voice, or other input and can blend one track with two instruments to vary the music and sound options available. At any given point on the tape, any of the tracks on the recording device can be recording or playing back using sel-sync or Selective Synchronous recording; this allows an artist to be able to record onto track 2 and listen to track 1, 3 and 7, allowing them to sing or to play an accompaniment to the performance recorded on these tracks.
They might record an alternate version on track 4 while listening to the other tracks. All the tracks can be played back in perfect synchrony, as if they had been played and recorded together; this can be repeated until all of the available tracks have been in some cases, reused. During mix down a separate set of playback heads with higher fidelity are used. Before all tracks are filled, any number of existing tracks can be "bounced" into one or two tracks, the original tracks erased, making more room for more tracks to be reused for fresh recording. In 1963, The Beatles were using twin track for Please Please Me; the Beatles' producer George Martin used this technique extensively to achieve multiple track results, while still being limited to using only multiple four-track machines, until an eight-track machine became available during the recording of the Beatles' White Album. The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds made innovative use of multitracking with 8-tra
Michael Edward Love is an American singer and songwriter who co-founded the Beach Boys. Characterized by his nasal and sometimes baritone singing, Love has been one of the band's vocalists and lyricists for their entire career, contributing to each of their studio albums and serving as their frontman for live performances, he is the cousin of Brian and Dennis Wilson, is regarded as a malign figure in the band's history, a reputation he acknowledges: "For those who believe that Brian walks on water, I will always be the Antichrist."Love was one of Wilson's collaborators during the Beach Boys' peak in the 1960s. Among the band's US Top 10 hits were the Wilson–Love songs "Fun, Fun", "California Girls", "Good Vibrations". Love's lyrics reflected the youth culture of surfing and romance, which helped fashion pop culture's perception of the "California Dream". Starting in 1968, Love was a student of Transcendental Meditation under Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, became a TM teacher in 1971; the experience influenced his lyrics to take on themes of astrology, meditation and ecology.
In the late 1970s, Love began working on solo albums, releasing his first in 1981: Looking Back with Love. In 1988, Love was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, along with the other founding members of the Beach Boys. In the same year, the song "Kokomo", co-written by Love, reached number one in the US and was nominated for a Grammy. Many of Love's contributions to the group's hits were not recognized until the 1990s, when he sued for writing credits on 35 songs, he remains uncredited for another 44 Beach Boys songs. In 1998, following the death of cousin Carl Wilson, Love was given an exclusive license to tour under the name the Beach Boys, his surviving bandmates, Brian Wilson and Al Jardine, embarked on solo endeavors. In 2011, the group reunited to embark on a tour for their 50th anniversary. Following the 50th anniversary reunion shows, Love resumed touring only with Bruce Johnston. Love's mother, Emily Wilson, was the sister of Mary and Murry Wilson, a family resident in Los Angeles since the early 1920s.
Glee married Edward Milton Love, the son of the founder of the Love Sheet Metal Company, in 1938. Michael Edward, the first of six children, was born in the Baldwin Hills district of Los Angeles, in 1941. Mike attended Dorsey High School and graduated in 1959. Unsure of a career direction, he pumped gas and joined his father's company, whose fortunes declined in the late 1950s. Both Milt and Glee Love were active in sports, Glee had a distinct interest in painting and the arts. Like her brother, however, she was strong-willed and, according to her husband, a dominant personality; the family was close-knit and socialized with Murry and Audree Wilson and their sons. Murry Wilson was a part-time songwriter. Mike Love sang at family get-togethers at his cousins, the Wilsons', home in nearby Hawthorne at Christmas, it was here, under the vocal harmony guidance of Brian Wilson, that the Beach Boys sound was established, predominantly influenced by Brian's devotion to the Four Freshmen's arrangements.
Musical accompaniment during this formative phase was Brian's self-taught piano, but this was expanded by the guitar contributions of Brian's college friend Al Jardine and Carl Wilson. With the failure of Love Sheet Metal, the family was forced to move to a modest two-bedroom house in Inglewood, closer to the Wilsons. Love played rudimentary saxophone in the first years of the fledgling garage band that evolved from the Pendletones to the Beach Boys, he established himself, along with neighbor Gary Usher, local DJ Roger Christian, others, as a collaborator with Brian Wilson in the band's original compositions. Carl Wilson commented that "It's not known, but Michael had a hand in a lot of the arrangements, he would bring out the funkier approaches, whether to go bom-bom-did-di-did-did. It makes a big difference, because it can change the whole rhythm, the whole color and tone of it." He credited Love, an avid fan of doo-wop combos, with influencing Brian to listen to black R&B records. Writer Geoffrey Himes stated that without "Mike's R&B influence...
Brian couldn’t have become'Brian Wilson.'" To write many of the Beach Boys songs, Love drew inspiration from the lyrics of Chuck Berry along with Felice and Boudleaux Bryant, who wrote many of the Everly Brothers' songs including "Devoted to You" and "All I Have to Do is Dream". He explained, "They were both the fun, descriptive pictorial vignettes as well as the more sweet and devotional lyrics.... Before that and more fundamental than that, I was always into poetry." In early 1964, Brian Wilson began shifting the Beach Boys away from beach-themed music. That November, Love told a Melody Maker reporter that he and his bandmates wanted to look beyond surf music and avoid living in the past or resting on the band's laurels. Love is credited with naming their album Pet Sounds. However, he has been reported as resisting the group's new direction. In a 1971 Rolling Stone article, business associate David Anderle quoted Love saying "don't fuck with the formula". Over the ensuing years, the quote was repeated in myriad books, articles and blogs.
In the description of music journalist Erik Hedegaard, Love gathered a reputation as "one of the biggest assholes in the history of rock & roll" due to such accusations. Anderle said that his statement about "the formula" had been misin