click links in text for more info


A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays. As LCDs do not produce light by themselves—unlike, for example, cathode ray tube displays—they need illumination to produce a visible image. Backlights illuminate the LCD from the side or back of the display panel, unlike frontlights, which are placed in front of the LCD. Backlights are used in small displays to increase readability in low light conditions such as in wristwatches, are used in smart phones, computer displays and LCD televisions to produce light in a manner similar to a CRT display. A review of some early backlighting schemes for LCDs is given in a report Engineering and Technology History by Peter J. Wild. Simple types of LCDs such as in pocket calculators are built without an internal light source, requiring external light sources to convey the display image to the user. Most LCD screens, are built with an internal light source; such screens consist of several layers. The backlight is the first layer from the back.

Light valves vary the amount of light reaching the eye, by blocking its passage in some way. Most use a switching one, to block the undesired light; the light source can be made up of: Light-emitting diodes An electroluminescent panel Cold cathode fluorescent lamps Hot cathode fluorescent lamps External electrode fluorescent lamps Formerly, incandescent lightbulbsAn ELP gives off uniform light over its entire surface, but other backlights employ a diffuser to provide lighting from an uneven source. Backlights come in many colors. Monochrome LCDs have yellow, blue, or white backlights, while color displays use white backlights that cover most of the color spectrum. Colored LED backlighting is most used in small, inexpensive LCD panels. White LED backlighting is becoming dominant. ELP backlighting is used for larger displays or when backlighting is important. An ELP must be driven by high voltage AC power, provided by an inverter circuit. CCFL backlights are used on larger displays such as computer monitors, are white in color.

Incandescent backlighting was used by early LCD panels to achieve high brightness, but the limited life and excess heat produced by incandescent bulbs were severe limitations. The heat generated by incandescent bulbs requires the bulbs to be mounted away from the display to prevent damage. For several years, the preferred backlight for matrix-addressed large LCD panels such as in monitors and TVs was based on a cold-cathode fluorescent lamp by using two CCFLs at opposite edges of the LCD or by an array of CCFLs behind the LCD. Due to the disadvantages in comparison with LED illumination, LED backlighting is becoming more popular. LED backlighting in color screens comes in two varieties: white LED backlights and RGB LED backlights. White LEDs are used most in notebooks and desktop screens, make up all mobile LCD screens. A white LED is a blue LED with broad spectrum yellow phosphor to result in the emission of white light. However, because the spectral curve peaks at yellow, it is a poor match to the transmission peaks of the red and green color filters of the LCD.

This causes the red and green primaries to shift toward yellow, reducing the color gamut of the display. RGB LEDs consist of a red, a blue, a green LED and can be controlled to produce different color temperatures of white. RGB LEDs for backlighting are found in high end color proofing displays such as the HP DreamColor LP2480zx monitor or selected HP EliteBook notebooks, as well as more recent consumer-grade displays such as Dell's Studio series laptops which have an optional RGB LED display. RGB LEDs can deliver an enormous color gamut to screens; when using three separate LEDs the backlight can produce a color spectrum that matches the color filters in the LCD pixels themselves. In this way, the filter passband can be narrowed so that each color component lets only a narrow band of spectrum through the LCD; this improves the efficiency of the display. The actual red and blue points can be moved farther out so that the display is capable of reproducing more vivid colors. A new method to further improve the color gamut of LED-backlit LCD panels is based on blue LEDs illuminating a layer of nanocrystal phosphors, so-called Quantum Dots, which convert the blue wavelengths to the desired longer wavelengths as narrow-bandwidth green and red colors for optimal illumination of the LCD from behind.

The manufacturer, claims that the color output of the dots can be tuned by controlling the size of the nanocrystals. Other companies pursuing this method are Nanoco Group PLC, QD Vision, 3M a licensee of Nanosys and Avantama of Switzerland. Sony has adapted Quantum Dot technology from the US company QD Vision to introduce LCD TVs with an improved edge-lit LED backlight marketed under the term Triluminos in 2013. With a blue LED and optimized nanocrystals for green and red colors in front of it, the resulting combined white light allows for an equivalent or better color gamut than that emitted by a more expensive set of three RGB LEDs. At the Consumer Electronics Show 2015, Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, the Chinese TCL Corporation and Sony showed QD-enhanced LED-backlighting of LCD TVs. CCFL backlighting has improved in t

Toto Seeks Peace

Toto Seeks Peace is a 1954 Italian comedy film directed by Mario Mattoli and starring Totò. Two widowers decide to get married but their decision is continually hampered by their grandchildren, who are just interested in their inheritance. Totò as Gennaro Piselli Ave Ninchi as Gemma Torresi Piselli Enzo Turco as Pasquale Paolo Ferrari as Cousin Celestino Isa Barzizza as Cousin Nella Caporali Nino Vingelli as the waiter Vincenzo Talarico as the lawyer Gina Amendola: Adele Ughetto Bertucci as a witness Mario Castellani as a witness Renzo Biagiotti as Oscar Salvo Libassi as the anonymous phone caller Aprà, Adriano; the Fabulous Thirties: Italian cinema 1929-1944. Electa International, 1979. Toto Seeks Peace on IMDb

Squeeze Me! (album)

Squeeze Me! called The Clark Terry Spacemen, is an album by trumpeter/bandleader Clark Terry, recorded in 1989 and released by the Chiaroscuro label. Scott Yanow of AllMusic stated, "This underrated. Flügelhornist Clark Terry is teamed with an unusually talented group of all-stars, filled with distinctive and colorful swing stylists; the standards and riff tunes give all of the horn players solo space... After 55 minutes of music Clark Terry is heard on the 19-minute "Jazzspeak," verbally telling informative stories about his lengthy career, some of which are quite humorous. Recommended". All compositions by Clark Terry except where noted "Blues for Gypsy" – 9:53 "Swingin' the Blues" – 5:02 "Corner Pocket" – 8:49 "Primpin' at the Prom" – 3:55 "For Dancers Only" – 7:24 "Spacemen" – 6:22 "Just Squeeze Me" – 7:01 "Jones" – 6:56 Jazzspeak – 19:00 Clark Terry, Virgil Jonestrumpet Al Grey, Britt Woodmantrombone Haywood Henry, Phil Woods, Red Holloway – saxophones John Campbell – piano Marcus McLaurinebass Butch Ballarddrums

Crescent Electric Supply Co.

Crescent Electric Supply Company is an American electrical hardware supplier. It was founded in 1919 in Dubuque, but is headquartered in East Dubuque, Illinois. One of the largest companies of its kind, Crescent Electric Supply was ranked by Forbes as the 435th largest held company in the United States in 2008. Electric contractor Titus B. Schmid founded Crescent Electric Supply in Dubuque, Iowa, in April 1919. Schmid believed that he could deliver goods through the river from St. Louis or Minneapolis to Dubuque faster than existing electronics manufacturers. A 1957 article in BusinessWeek said that the company was the biggest electrical distributor in the Midwest, with eighteen warehouses in seven states. Crescent Electric Supply became a distributor for General Electric in 1925 and in 1957 was GE's "largest independent full-line distributor"; the company grew through mergers and acquisitions in the 1970s

Constanța metropolitan area

The Constanța metropolitan area, is a metropolitan area, established in 2007, that includes the municipality of Constanța, the towns of Năvodari, Eforie, Techirghiol and 8 communes: Mihail Kogălniceanu, Cumpăna, Valu lui Traian, Tuzla, Agigea and Poarta Albă. It has a population of 425,916, in an area consisting of 16% of Constanța County; as defined by Eurostat, with 420,241 residents, the Constanța functional urban area is the third most populous in Romania. Such administrative arrangement existed in an approximative similarity before 1989, when Constanța Municipality included the city of Mangalia and the communes 23 August and Limanu, together with all the summer resorts located between 23 August and Mangalia; however this administrative reform exists only on paper, nothing being done so far to put this decision into practice. "Anuarul statistic al județului Constanța" - 1986, Direcția Județeana de Statistică Constanța


Phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 known as PACS-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PACS1 gene. The PACS-1 protein has a putative role in the localization of trans-Golgi network membrane proteins. Mouse and rat homologs have been identified and studies of the homologous rat protein indicate a role in directing TGN localization of furin by binding to the protease's phosphorylated cytosolic domain. In addition, the human protein plays a role in HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of cell surface MHC-I molecules to the TGN, thereby enabling HIV-1 to escape immune surveillance. PACS1 has been shown to interact with Furin. A de novo mutation c.607C>T in the PACS1 gene has been shown to result in a syndromic phenotype, characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, specific facial features. The first two cases were identified in early 2011 by doctors in the Netherlands; as of late 2014, there were 20 cases identified worldwide. Diagnosis is done using full genome or exome sequencing.

There are several more cases that will be reported as knowledge of the mutation spreads and testing becomes more accessible. Individuals with the mutation have been reported to have similar facial features, such as: Widely spaced eyes and low-set ears Down-slanting eye corners and mild uni-brow Highly arched eyebrows and long eyelashes Rounded “button” nose with a flat bridge Wide mouth with down-turned corners Thin upper lip and spaced teethOther common traits reported by care givers of affected individuals are: Low muscle tone Seizures Repetitive self-stimulatory behavior Sensory processing disorder Delayed development of gross motor skills and fine motor skills Delayed cognitive development Chewing and swallowing difficulties Digestion or bowel problems Slow growth resulting in below average height and weight In combination, these traits affect walking, talking and learning skills. No impact on life expectancy has been found; as with many developmental disabilities, there is no "cure".

In order to improve quality of life and enhance life skills of affected individuals, care givers have found a number of tools and strategies. It is important to note that all of these may not be applicable to a particular individual, reported effectiveness has varied, it is recommended to consult with a physician prior to initiating any form of treatment. Physiotherapy occupational therapy speech therapy behavioural therapy discrete trial teaching early intervention programs massage therapy and pediatric massage feeding therapy music therapy hippotherapy hydrotherapy