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Backpacking (hiking)

Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on one's back, while hiking for more than a day. It is but not always an extended journey, may or may not involve camping outdoors. In North America tenting is common, where simple shelters and mountain huts found in Europe are rare. In New Zealand, tramping is the term applied though overnight huts are used. Hill walking is an equivalent in Britain, though backpackers make use of all kinds of accommodation, in addition to camping. Backpackers use simple huts in South Africa. Trekking and bushwalking are other word used to describe such multi-day trips. Backpacking as a method of travel is a different activity, which uses public transport during a journey which can last months. Backpacking is an outdoor recreation; this can include food, bedding, clothing and cooking kit. Weight is key. Backpacking trips range from one night to weeks or months, sometimes aided by planned resupply points or drops. Backpacking camps are more spartan than campsites where gear is transported by car or boat.

In areas with heavy backpacker traffic, a hike-in campsite might have a fire ring, an outhouse, a wooden bulletin board with a map and information about the trail and area. Many hike-in camps are no more than level patches of ground free of underbrush. In remote wilderness areas hikers must choose their own site. Established camps are rare and the ethos is to "leave no trace" when gone. In some regions, varying forms of accommodation exist, from simple log lean-to's to staffed facilities offering escalating degrees of service. Beds and drinks may be had at Alpine huts scattered among well-traveled European mountains. Backpackers there can walk from hut-to-hut without leaving the mountains, while in places like the Lake District or Yorkshire Dales in England hill-walkers descend to stay in Youth hostels, farmhouses or guest houses. In the more remote parts of Great Britain Scotland, bothies exist to provide simple accommodation for backpackers. On the French system of long distance trails, Grande Randonnées, backpackers can stay in gîtes d'etapes, which are simple hostels provided for walkers and cyclists.

There are some simple shelters and occasional mountain hut provided in North America, including on the Appalachian trail. Another example is the High Sierra Camps in the Yosemite National Park. Long distance backpacking trails with huts exist in South Africa, including the 100 km plus Amatola Trail, in the Eastern Cape Province. Backpacking is popular in the Himalayas, where porters and pack animals are used. Backpacking gear proper both in size and fit. Backpacks in general fall into one of four categories: frameless, external frame, internal frame, bodypack. Clothing and footwear appropriate for expected conditions. Adequate food; some form of sleep system such as a sleeping bag and a foam pad. Survival gear. A shelter appropriate to expected conditions is next. Practical items not mentioned - cook kit, container for water, a means of purifying it - are characteristically but not always taken in some form. Depending on the trip ready-to-eat foods may suffice and suitable water be found along the way.

More minimalist backpackers find ways to do with less. Weight is always critical. A rule of thumb suggests a loaded backpack should weigh no more than 25% of a person's weight; every single item is scrutinized, many removed the first time. Lightweight gear is available, which may or may not sacrifice utility and durability but will always cost more. A wide variety of items utilizing carbon fiber, lightweight alloys, specialty plastics, impregnated fabrics are available. Proper hydration is critical to successful backpacking. Depending on conditions - which include weather, terrain and the hiker's age and fitness - a backpacker needs anywhere from 1/2 to 2 gallons, or more, per day. At 1 kilogram per 1 litre water is exceptionally heavy, it is impossible to carry more than a few days' supply. Thus provisions for adequate water on a backpacking trip must be made in advance, which means filtering or purifying natural water supplies. In most pristine areas water needs treatment before consumption to protect against waterborne diseases carried by bacteria and protozoa.

The chief treatment methods include: Boiling over fire, stove, or other heat source Treatment with chemicals such as chlorine or iodine Filtering Treatment with ultraviolet lightWater may be stored in appropriate bottles or collapsible plastic bladders. Hydration packs are popular. Backpacking is energy intensive, it is essential enough food is taken to maintain both health. As with gear, weight is critical. Items with high food energy, long shelf life, low mass and volume deliver the most utility. Satisfaction is another consideration, of lesser importance to all hikers. Only they can decide whether it's worth the effort to carry heavy, or luxury food items; the shorter the trip and easier the conditions the more feasible such treats become. In all cases, both kit and fuel necessary to prepare and serve foodstuffs selected is part of the equation. Small liquid and gas fueled. Campfires are prohibited. While most backpackers consume at least some specially prepared foods, many rely on ordinary low moisture household items, such as co

Jamaal Lascelles

Jamaal Lascelles is an English professional footballer who plays as a centre-back for Premier League club Newcastle United, where he is captain. Lascelles was born in Derbyshire, he began his career at Nottingham Forest. In January 2011, the club rejected a £5 million offer from Arsenal for him, he signed his first professional contract in March 2011. Lascelles made his first-team debut on 31 January 2012, starting in a 2–0 defeat to Burnley. In March 2012, Lascelles joined League One club Stevenage, on loan until the end of the 2011–12 season, he made his debut for Stevenage on 13 March 2012, coming on as a 69th-minute substitute in a 1–0 home win over Oldham Athletic, playing in the right-back position. He made his first starting appearance in Stevenage's 6–0 away victory at Yeovil Town on 14 April 2012, scoring the club's fourth goal with a header from Luke Freeman's cross. Lascelles provided the assist for Patrick Agyemang's goal in the same game, he remained as a first-team regular from onwards, playing the remaining four games of the regular season as Stevenage secured a League One play-off spot.

Lascelles played in both play-off matches, as Stevenage lost 1–0 on aggregate to Sheffield United. He made nine appearances during his two-month loan spell, scoring once. On 7 August 2012, Lascelles signed a new four-year contract with Nottingham Forest, he made a total of three appearances in all competitions in the 2012–13 season. Lascelles broke into the starting line-up in the 2013–14 season, forming a central defensive partnership with Jack Hobbs and making a total of 29 league appearances. On 22 January 2014, Everton were fined £45,000 by the FA over an "unauthorised approach" to Lascelles in 2010 while he was still a youth player at Nottingham Forest. Lascelles was warned as to his future conduct. On 18 March, Lascelles extended his contract in a new four-and-a-half-year deal. A reported £4 million bid from Queens Park Rangers was rejected by the club in July. On 9 August 2014, Lascelles signed a contract with Premier League club Newcastle United, joining on the same day as Forest teammate Karl Darlow.

As part of the deal, both players were loaned back to Nottingham Forest for the 2014–15 season. Lascelles returned to Newcastle for the 2015–16 season and made his debut for the club on 25 August 2015, against Northampton Town in the League Cup, he made his league debut on 3 October, as a substitute in a 6–1 defeat at Manchester City. Lascelles found first-team football hard to come by and did not make his first league start for Newcastle until 23 January 2016, when he played in the 2–1 defeat to Watford, capping his performance with a goal. Lascelles publicly criticised the mentality of his teammates after a 3–1 loss to Southampton on 11 April 2016, questioning their character and desire. Following injuries to first choice centre-backs Chancel Mbemba and Fabricio Coloccini, Lascelles was given regular minutes under new manager Rafael Benítez and stepped up his game, grabbing his second goal for the club in the 3–0 win over Swansea City on 16 April. Lascelles totalled 18 appearances in his first Premier League season, but could not prevent the club getting relegated.

On 4 August 2016, Lascelles was chosen by Benítez to become the new Newcastle United team captain, succeeding the departed Fabricio Coloccini. Benítez had been impressed by Lascelles' willingness to speak up in the dressing room, in particular his criticism of more senior players in the defeat to Southampton. Despite requiring a double hernia operation, Lascelles played through the pain barrier for the last four months of the 2016–17 season, determined to see the campaign out and captaining the club to promotion back to the Premier League, his solid performances at the beginning of the 2017–18 season led to him being nominated for the September Premier League Player of the Month award, won by Harry Kane. On 6 October 2017, he signed a new six-year contract with Newcastle, keeping him at the club until 2023. In October 2017, he had a training ground fight with teammate Mohamed Diamé; the two players apologised and offered to take the entire first-team squad and staff out for lunch. In October 2018 he signed a new contract until 2024.

In November 2019 he suffered a knee injury. Lascelles has represented England at all youth international levels from under-18 to under-21. On 28 May 2013, he was named in manager Peter Taylor's 21-man squad for the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup, he made his debut on 16 June, in a 3–0 win in a warm-up game against Uruguay. On 27 February 2014, Lascelles received his first under-21 call-up for the 2015 UEFA European Under-21 Championship qualifying match against Wales, he made his debut, only under-21 appearance, starting in the qualifying match against Moldova on 9 September 2014. As of match played 27 April 2019 Newcastle United EFL Championship: 2016–17Individual PFA Team of the Year: 2016–17 Championship Jamaal Lascelles profile at the Newcastle United F. C. website Jamaal Lascelles at Soccerbase

Lego RoboRiders

The RoboRiders was a short-lived series launched in 2000 by LEGO after the Slizers. A total of seven official sets and four promotional sets were released. Special cans, when exposed to cold temperatures, would reveal codes used to play an online game. RoboRiders is known to be the last line of action toys created in the Lego Technic line before Bionicle existed. Power's City-Realm is not a safe place to be; this world is a huge city with acid rain, toxic fumes and several highways with broken paths that are hard to cross. Power has giant cranes for his enemies. Power is armed with a wheel launcher, he has the element of energy and his color is yellow. Frost's Ice-Realm is known for temperatures far below frost temperatures, it has dangerous wind-ice storms and is filled with frozen obstacles. Ice caves and monsters are everywhere, as well as ice monsters. Frost can shoot ice-spears and has a wheel launcher, he has the element of ice and his color is white. Lava's Magma-Realm is filled extreme heat, molten lava spewing out of volcanoes as well as constant rains of fire.

Lava monsters are his main enemy. He is capable of swinging his dual axes, is armed with a wheel launcher as well, he has the element of fire and his color is red. Swamp searches for the virus in the murky Swamp-Realm, filled with deep holes, slippery pathways, a jungle full of entangled vines. Swamp's enemies are large blue blobs, he is armed with twin Katanas to cut through thick vegetation, is additionally armed with a wheel launcher. He has the element of flora and his color is lime. Onyx stays in his Rock-Realm where he searches in the large mountain caverns and caves, but this is not a safe place since there is total darkness and Onyx is the only one known to be able to see well in this realm, his adversaries are giant rock monsters. His weapons are a wheel launcher, he has the element of earth and his color is black. Dust searches for the enemies in the much-dreaded Desert-Realm. There are howling sandstorms that are difficult to navigate through, the terrain is tough to drive in, there is always a danger of drowning in quicksand or monster sandstorms.

Dust's main enemies are the sand pits. Dust is armed with two spears, is armed with a wheel launcher, he has the element of sand and his color is tan. No description has been given so it will remain unknown if he is the evil RoboRider that launched the virus or if he is the commander of the other RoboRiders; the Desert-Realm and the Ice-Realm are pictured on the packaging for the set. His elements are unknown and his color is orange. Two unique wheels were released on each set, a different color each time, Lego said these wheels had special powers, however no information was released on what powers these wheels had, only names: Axer, Chain-Saw, Dynamite, Fuel, Laser, Rope, Skeleton, Stunner and Twin-Saw. Four promotional sets were given out by the Kabaya Candy Corp based on four of the RoboRiders. Swamp Craft Ice Explorer Volcano Climber Dirt Bike