Sidney Clopton Lanier was an American musician and author. He served in the Confederate States Army as a private, worked on a blockade-running ship for which he was imprisoned, worked at a hotel where he gave musical performances, was a church organist, worked as a lawyer; as a poet he sometimes, though not used dialects. Many of his poems are written in heightened, but archaic, American English, he sold poems to publications. He became a professor of literature at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, is known for his adaptation of musical meter to poetry. Many schools, other structures and two lakes are named for him, he became hailed in the South as the "poet of the Confederacy". Sidney Clopton Lanier was born February 3, 1842, in Macon, Georgia, to parents Robert Sampson Lanier and Mary Jane Anderson, his distant French Huguenot ancestors immigrated to England in the 16th century, fleeing religious persecution. He began playing the flute at an early age, his love of that musical instrument continued throughout his life.
He attended Oglethorpe University, which at the time was near Milledgeville, he was a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He graduated first in his class shortly before the outbreak of the American Civil War, he fought in the American Civil War in the tidewater region of Virginia, where he served in the Confederate signal corps. He and his brother Clifford served as pilots aboard English blockade runners, his ship was boarded on one of these voyages. Refusing to take the advice of the British officers on board to don one of their uniforms and pretend to be one of them, he was captured, he was incarcerated in a military prison at Point Lookout in Maryland, where he contracted tuberculosis. He suffered from this disease incurable and fatal, for the rest of his life. Shortly after the war, he taught school then moved to Montgomery, where he worked as a desk clerk at The Exchange Hotel and performed as a musician, he was the regular organist at The First Presbyterian Church in nearby Prattville.
He wrote his only novel, Tiger Lilies while in Alabama. This novel was autobiographical, describing a stay in 1860 at his grandfather's Montvale Springs resort hotel near Knoxville, Tennessee. In 1867, he moved to Prattville, at that time a small town just north of Montgomery, where he taught and served as principal of a school, he married Mary Day of Macon in 1867 and moved back to his hometown, where he began working in his father's law office. After passing the Georgia bar, Lanier practiced as a lawyer for several years. During this period he wrote a number of lesser poems, using the "cracker" and "negro" dialects of his day, about poor white and black farmers in the Reconstruction South, he traveled extensively through southern and eastern portions of the United States in search of a cure for his tuberculosis. While on one such journey in Texas, he rediscovered his native and untutored talent for the flute and decided to travel to the northeast in hopes of finding employment as a musician in an orchestra.
Unable to find work in New York City, Philadelphia, or Boston, he signed on to play flute for the Peabody Orchestra in Baltimore, shortly after its organization. He taught himself musical notation and rose to the position of first flautist, he was famous in his day for his performances of a personal composition for the flute called "Black Birds", which mimics the song of that species. In an effort to support Mary and their three sons, he wrote poetry for magazines, his most famous poems were "Corn", "The Symphony", "Centennial Meditation", "The Song of the Chattahoochee", "The Marshes of Glynn", "Sunrise". The latter two poems are considered his greatest works, they are part of an unfinished set of lyrical nature poems known as the "Hymns of the Marshes", which describe the vast, open salt marshes of Glynn County on the coast of Georgia. Late in his life, he became a student, a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, specializing in the works of the English novelists, the Elizabethan sonneteers and the Old English poets.
He published a series of lectures entitled The English Novel and a book entitled The Science of English Verse, in which he developed a novel theory exploring the connections between musical notation and meter in poetry. Lanier succumbed to complications caused by his tuberculosis on September 7, 1881, while convalescing with his family near Lynn, North Carolina, he was 39. Lanier is buried in Green Mount Cemetery in Baltimore. With his theory connecting musical notation with poetic meter, being described as a deft metrical technical, in his own words'daring with his poem'Special Pleading' to give myself such freedom as I desired, in my own style' and by developing a unique style of poetry written in logaoedic dactyls, influenced by the works of his beloved Anglo-Saxon poets, he wrote several of his greatest poems in this meter, including "Revenge of Hamish", "The Marshes of Glynn" and "Sunrise". In Lanier's hands, the logaoedic dactylic meter led to a free-form prose-like style of poetry, admired by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Bayard Taylor, Charlotte Cushman, other leading poets and critics of the day.
A similar poetical meter was independently developed by Gerard Manley Hopkins
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Historic house museum
A historic house museum is a house, transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way that reflects their original placement and usage in a home. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums; the International Council of Museums defines a museum as: "A museum as a non profit-making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits, for purpose of study and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment." Houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of famous writers are turned into writer's home museums to support literary tourism. Known as a ‘memory museum’, a term used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there, it is made up of the inhabitants’ belongings and objects – this approach is concerned with authenticity.
Some museums are organised around the social role the house had. Other historic house museums may be or reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, social-class or historical period; the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, dictates the manner in which it is completed. In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History; the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History, based on people and their way of living. It became popular in the mid-twentieth century among scholars who were interested in the history of people, as opposed to political and economical issues. Social history remains an influential branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history and its relationship to locations by saying – "All human action takes and makes place; the past is the set of places made by human action.
History is a map of these places." Following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras, which would be performed to modern audiences, they occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is sometimes used in the resurrection of historic house museums; the notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, in ‘La memoire collective’. This extended thesis examines the role of people and place, how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience, it focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, as a way of continuing socialisation by producing memory as collective experience. "Each aspect, each detail, of this place has a meaning intelligent only to members of the group, for each portion of its space corresponds to various and different aspects of the structure and life of their society, at least of what is stable in it."An example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan.
It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, however it has the inclusion of joyous festivals to mask the turmoil. The ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place. Thus, collective memory does not only reside in a house or building, but it resonates in outdoor space – when a monumental event has occurred, such as war. "The taming of memory that can be observed in the city’s redevelopment projects reveals local mediations and manifestations of transnational as well as national structural forces."Problematic creation of collective memory occurs within historic house museums when the narrative of non-family members is dismissed, ignored, or rejected. Within the Southern United States, Plantation Museums constitute a significant portion of the museum community and contribute to the racialized collective memory of the United States; because museums are responsible for “the building of identity, cultural memory and community,” neglecting to include the narrative of ALL people who lived there is dangerous.
While some Plantation museum narratives have changed following an outcry from the public and the academy, “plantation museums reflect and contribute to racialized ways of understanding and organizing the world,” by eliminating and limiting the narrative of the enslaved inhabitants. A degree of authenticity is to be considered in the restoration and creation of a historic house museum; the space must be authentic in terms of replicating and representing the way it once stood in its original form and appear to be untouched and left in time. There are three steps when declaring if a space is authentic: Proof of identity must be presented and certified by a credible individual The attributes of the object or person must be compared to the existing knowledge about it Documentation and credentials must be used to support it and thus declare if it is authentic. There are a number of Organizations around the world that dedicate themselves to the preservation, resurrection or promotion of historic house museums.
They include: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Historic Houses Association The Historic House Trust
The Jacobean style is the second phase of Renaissance architecture in England, following the Elizabethan style. It is named after King James I of England. At the start of James' reign there was little stylistic break in architecture, as Elizabethan trends continued their development; however his death in 1625 came as a decisive change towards more classical architecture, with Italian influence, was in progress, led by Inigo Jones. Courtiers continued to build large prodigy houses though James spent less time on summer progresses round his realm than Elizabeth had; the influence of Flemish and German Northern Mannerism increased, now executed by immigrant craftsmen and artists, rather than obtained from books as in the previous reign. There continued to be little building of new churches, though a considerable amount of modifications to old ones, but a great deal of secular building; the reign of James VI of Scotland, a disciple of the new scholarship, saw the first decisive adoption of Renaissance motifs in a free form communicated to England through German and Flemish carvers rather than directly from Italy.
Although the general lines of Elizabethan design remained, there was a more consistent and unified application of formal design, both in plan and elevation. Much use was made of columns and pilasters, round-arch arcades, flat roofs with openwork parapets; these and other classical elements appeared in a free and fanciful vernacular rather than with any true classical purity. With them were mixed the prismatic rustications and ornamental detail of scrolls and lozenges characteristic of Elizabethan design; the style influenced other decorative arts. Reproductions of the classic orders had found their way into English architecture during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I based upon John Shute's The First and Chief Grounds of Architecture, published in 1563, with two other editions in 1579 and 1584. In 1577, three years before the commencement of Wollaton Hall, a copybook of the orders was brought out in Antwerp by Hans Vredeman de Vries. Although nominally based on the description of the orders by Vitruvius, the author indulged not only in his rendering of them, but in suggestions of his own, showing how the orders might be employed in various buildings.
Those suggestions were of a most decadent type, so that the author deemed it advisable to publish a letter from a canon of the Church, stating that there was nothing in his architectural designs, contrary to religion. It is to publications of this kind that Jacobean architecture owes the perversion of its forms and the introduction of strap work and pierced crestings, which appear for the first time at Wollaton Hall. Hatfield House, built in its entirety by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, between 1607 and 1611, is an example of the extension of the Elizabethan prodigy house, with turreted Tudor-style wings at each end with their mullioned windows but the two wings linked by an Italianate Renaissance facade; this central facade an open loggia, has been attributed to Inigo Jones himself. Inside the house, the elaborately carved staircase demonstrates the Renaissance influence on English ornament. Other Jacobean buildings of note are Cheshire. Although the term is employed of the style which prevailed in England during the first quarter of the 17th century, its peculiar decadent detail will be found nearly twenty years earlier at Wollaton Hall, in Oxford and Cambridge examples exist up to 1660, notwithstanding the introduction of the purer Italian style by Inigo Jones in 1619 at Whitehall.
In 1607 and 1620, England founded her first successful colonies: Jamestown and Plymouth, Massachusetts. As with other settlers in the New World, the men and women that built the homes and buildings that formed the infrastructure of these towns and the others that followed over the coming century built edifices that were consistent with Jacobean vernacular architecture in the portion of England that they originated from: for example, the clapboard common to houses in New England and Nova Scotia to this day are derived from a local style of architecture popular in Northeast England in the early to mid 17th century. Historians classify this architecture as a subtype of colonial American architecture, called First Period architecture, however there is an enormous amount of overlap between the architecture of the commoner class in early 17th century England and colonial America architecture, where some of the key features of the Jacobean era outlived James I and VI owing to less contact between the American colonists and the fashions of England.
When the Puritans arrived in the winter of 1620 in New England, there was little time to waste owing to the bitterly cold weather and the fact that many of the occupants of the ship that brought them, the Mayflower, were ill and needed to get into housing before circumstances could allow the diseases on board to spread further. Those that were still able bodied had
William Berkeley (governor)
Sir William Berkeley was a colonial governor of Virginia, one of the Lords Proprietors of the Colony of Carolina. As proprietor of Green Spring Plantation in James City County, he experimented with activities such as growing silkworms as part of his efforts to expand the tobacco-based economy. Berkeley enacted friendly policies toward the Native Americans that led to the revolt by some of the planters in 1676 which became known as Bacon's Rebellion. In the aftermath, King Charles II was angered by the retribution exacted against the rebels by Berkeley, recalled him to England. Berkeley was born in 1605 in Bruton, Somersetshire to Sir Maurice and Elizabeth Berkeley, of the Bruton branch of the Berkeley family, both of whom held stock in the Virginia Company of London. Referred to as "Will" by his family and friends, he was born in the winter of 1605 into landed gentry, his father died. His elder brother was John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. Young Berkeley showed signs of broad learning.
His informal education consisted of observing his elders. As part of the English country gentry, he was aware of agricultural practices, knowledge which would influence his actions as governor of Virginia. Though his father died in debt, Berkeley secured a proper education, he entered grammar school at about six or seven years old where he became literate in Latin and English. At eighteen, like the other Berkeley men, he entered Oxford, he began his studies at Queen's College in the footsteps of his forebears, but transferred to St. Edmund Hall, a "throwback to medieval times", he received, though not completed, a B. A. in fifteen months of his arrival at the Hall. All undergraduates at St. Edmund Hall received a personal tutor. While the identity of Berkeley's tutor is unsure, his effect upon the boy showed through William's "disciplined intellect and steady appetite for knowledge". In 1632, he gained a place in the household of Charles I; that position gave him entré into a court literary circle known as "The Wits".
Berkeley wrote several plays, one of which—The Lost Lady: A Tragy Comedy—was performed for Charles I and Henrietta Maria and was published in 1638. It is included in the first and fourth editions of Dodsley's Old Plays, A Description of Virginia. Soldiering in the First and Second Bishops' Wars gained Berkeley a knighthood. Berkeley replaced Sir Francis Wyatt as governor of Virginia in 1641, he was governor of the colony of Virginia from 1641–1652 and 1660–1677. Berkeley's main initiative when he first became governor was to encourage diversification of Virginia's agricultural products, he accomplished this by setting himself up as an example for planters. Arriving at Jamestown in 1642, Berkeley erected Green Spring House on a tract of land west of the capital, where he experimented with alternatives to tobacco, it was at Green Spring that he planted such diverse crops as corn, barley, rape, oranges, grapes and silk. Berkeley devoted much of his time as a planter to experimenting with alternatives to tobacco.
As a planter, with Virginia in mind, Berkeley attempted to determine the best crops for the state through trial and error. Berkeley produced flax, potash and spirits which he exported through a commercial network that joined Green Spring to markets in North America, the West Indies, Great Britain, Holland. Upon the recommendation of several of his slaves, Berkeley became a successful rice farmer, they were familiar with its cultivation from their native West Africa. He owned Boldrup Plantation; when the parliamentarians were successful, Berkeley offered an asylum in Virginia to gentlemen of the royalist side. At the Restoration, Berkeley was reappointed governor. For Berkeley, the path towards Virginia's prosperity was fourfold: a diverse economy, he proceeded to turn this thought into action in various ways. In order to support a diversified economy and free trade, for instance, he used his own plantation as an example. Virginia's autonomy from London was supported in the General Assembly's role in the colony's governance.
The Assembly was, in effect, a "miniature Parliament." The colony's autonomy from London was advocated by Berkeley in his efforts against the revival of the Virginia Company of London. Berkeley was "bitterly hostile" to Virginia's Quakers. In an attempt to oppress them, Berkeley helped enact a law to "preserve the Established Church's Unity and purity of doctrine." It punished any minister who preached outside the teachings and doctrine of this church, thus oppressing Puritans and any other religious minority. Berkeley opposed public education. Though he was unable to foresee the eventual establishment of such schools, he held that they would bring "disobedience and sects into the world," and were for such reasons destructive to society, he held printing at the same level as public education. Berkeley's downfall came with the advent of his second term, he returned from retirement in 1660 due to the early death of Governor Samuel Mathews. At his return, Berkeley appealed to Engla
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups