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Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification and characterization of bacterial species; because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa and viruses, there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. The terms were often used interchangeably. However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. Bacteriology is their relation to medicine. Bacteriology evolved from physicians needing to apply the germ theory to test the concerns relating to the spoilage of foods and wines in the 19th century. Identification and characterizing of bacteria being associated to diseases led to advances in pathogenic bacteriology. Koch's postulates played a role into identifying the relationships between bacteria and specific diseases. Since bacteriology has had many successful advances like effective vaccines, for example, diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid.

There have been some vaccines that were not as effective and have side effects for example, typhoid vaccine. Bacteriology has provided discovery of antibiotics; the discovery of the connection of microorganisms to disease can be dated back to the nineteenth century, when German physician Robert Koch introduced the science of microorganisms to the medical field. He identified bacteria as process of fermentation in diseases. French scientist Louis Pasteur developed techniques to produce vaccines. Both Koch and Pasteur played a role in improving antisepsis in medical treatment; this had an enormous positive effect on public health and gave a better understanding of the body and diseases. In 1870-1885 the modern methods of bacteriology technique were introduced by the use of stains and by the method of separating mixtures of organisms on plates of nutrient media. Between 1880 and 1881 Pasteur produced two successful vaccinations for animals against diseases caused by bacteria and it was successful.

The importance of bacteria was recognized as it led to a study of disease prevention and treatment of diseases by vaccines. Bacteriology has developed and can be studied in agriculture, marine biology, water pollution, bacterial genetics and biotechnology. Biology Bacteria Microbiology McGrew, Roderick. Encyclopedia of Medical History, brief history pp 25–30

Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase

Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase is a protein consisting of an adenylyl cyclase enzyme domain directly linked to a BLUF type light sensor domain. When illuminated with blue light, the enzyme domain becomes active and converts ATP to cAMP, an important second messenger in many cells. In the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis, PACα and PACβ serve as a photoreceptor complex that senses light for photophobic responses and phototaxis. Small but potent PACs were identified in the genome of the bacteria Beggiatoa and Oscillatoria acuminata; as PACs consist of a light sensor and an enzyme in a single protein, they can be expressed in other species and cell types to manipulate cAMP levels with light. When bPAC is expressed in mouse sperm, blue light illumination speeds up the swimming of transgenic sperm cells and aids fertilization; when expressed in neurons, illumination changes the branching pattern of growing axons. It has been shown that expression of PAC together with K+-specific cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels can be used to hyperpolarize neurons at low light levels.

Photoactivated guanylyl cyclases have been discovered in the aquatic fungi Blastocladiella emersonii and Catenaria anguillulae. Unlike PACs, these light-activated cyclases use retinal as their light sensor and are therefore rhodopsin guanylyl cyclases; when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian neurons, RhGCs generate cGMP in response to green light. Therefore, they are considered useful optogenetic tools to investigate cGMP signaling

Mike Testwuide

Mike Testwuide is an American-born South Korean professional ice hockey right winger for the Daemyung Killer Whales. He was a member of South Korea's 2018 Winter Olympics Ice Hockey team that competed in Pyeongchang as the host nation. Testwuide, not drafted by an NHL team, signed a two-year entry level contract with the Philadelphia Flyers on March 19, 2010 after playing four seasons of collegiate hockey with Colorado College. Midway through his third season with the Adirondack Phantoms he was traded to the Calgary Flames for Mitch Wahl. In the 2013–14 season, Testwuide signed with Anyang Halla of the Asia League Ice Hockey. With the help of Jim Paek and the Korean Olympic Committee, he was granted citizenship of South Korea via an expedited process due to his exemplary athletic ability. In 2015, Testwuide played for the South Korean national team at the IIHF World Championship Division I. Testwuide went on to captain the South Korean national ice hockey team at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang.

Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or The Internet Hockey Database, or Mike Testwuide's profile at

New Korea and Democratic Party

The New Korea and Democratic Party was a political party of South Korea from 1984 to 1988. The party was formed by the notable figures of New Democratic Party and Council for the Promotion of Democracy. Most of NDP politicians including Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung were banned by New Military of Chun Doo-hwan in 1980. There were 2 opposition parties formed at this time ― Democratic Korea Party and National Party of Korea. Both were regarded as satellite parties of the ruling Democratic Justice Party. Many of the former NDP and CPD members formed New Korea and Democratic Party, in a purpose of the "real opposition", after their political bans were lifted in December 1984, they intended to re-establish the NDP, but impossible because the name "NDP" was prohibited. Instead, they opted "New Korea and Democratic Party" that can be abbreviated as "New Democratic Party"; the party was founded on 18 January 1985, elected Lee Min-woo as the Chairman. The party, faced the general election on 12 February, shortly after the formation.

Due to the short preparation time along with the government's election fraud, the party was expected to be defeated. The Agency for National Security Planning analysed that NKDP would win around 20 seats, in addition, Chairman Lee running for Jongro & Central District of Seoul, would be lost in the constituency; the party shockingly won in the election, receiving 29.3% and won 67 out of 276 seats, made it as the main opposition in the National Assembly. Furthermore, who received 31.63% won in his constituency. Their seats were increased up to 103, after some MPs from DKP and Nat'l defected to NKDP, which occurred serious conflicts between the government and the opposition. This, however boosted the government's repression that reached its zenith when the party's MP Yoo Sung-hwan was arrested after his parliamentary speech on 14 October 1986; the party faced an internal conflict after Lee announced his own plan, named "Lee Min-woo Plan", which supported parliamentary system. This was objected by Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung, who advocated to maintain the incumbent presidential system but sought for direct election of the President.

Both pro-YS and pro-DJ factions broke the party out and founded United Democratic Party on 21 April 1987. Since 74 MPs defected to UDP, the seats were plummeted up to 26. Although the minor People's Democratic Party merged itself with NKDP in April 1987, the party never revived, didn't put a candidate for upcoming presidential election. Lee resigned his chairmanship and retired from the politics on 6 November. On 15 January 1988, the acting Shin Do-hwan was elected as the new Chairman. However, the party lost all seats in 1988 election, was subsequently deregistered on 28 April

Korla Pandit

Korla Pandit, born John Roland Redd, was an American musician, pianist and television pioneer of national notability. After moving to California in the late 1940s and getting involved in show business, Redd became known as "Korla Pandit", a French-Indian musician from New Delhi, India. However, Redd was a light-skinned African-American man from Missouri who passed as Indian. A pathbreaking musical performer in the early days of television, Redd is known for Korla Pandit's Adventures In Music, he performed live and on radio and made various film appearances, becoming known as the "Godfather of Exotica". Redd maintained the Korla Pandit persona—both in public and in private—until the end of his life. In 1921, John Roland Redd was born in Missouri as one of seven children, his father, Ernest Redd, was an African-American Baptist pastor. Redd's mother, Doshia O'Nina Johnson, had African ancestry. Both parents were descended from African-American enslaved persons. Redd had straight hair. In 1922, Redd's family moved to Hannibal, where they lived for nine years.

In 1931, they moved to Columbia, where Redd's father was pastor of the second-largest Baptist church in town. Given the Jim Crow restrictions in the state and his siblings attended racially segregated public schools for children of color, he learned to play piano. A contemporary of Redd's, the jazz pianist called "Sir" Charles Thompson, knew Redd from Columbia. In life, Thompson remembered Redd, saying that he was the much better piano player of the two; the Redd family was musically talented: his two sisters sang, one played piano. John's older brother, Ernest Redd, Jr. became a jazz pianist, John played with him and his eldest brother, Harry. Speck became a band leader in Des Moines, Iowa. By the 1940s, Redd had moved from the Midwest to Los Angeles for more opportunity, his older sisters and Frances, had moved there by 1939. Redd used the name "Juan Rolando" to gain a job playing the organ on the Los Angeles radio station KMPC. Passing as a Mexican allowed him to join the Musicians Union and opened up additional opportunities for studio and club work.

Redd performed under the Rolando name in various lounges. In the early 1940s, Redd met his sister Frances's white friend and roommate, Beryl June DeBeeson, a Disney artist and former dancer; the two fell in love. They married in Tijuana, Mexico, as interracial marriages were prohibited in California. Redd and his wife created a new entertainment persona for Redd's use, they thought Redd could have exotic appeal by passing as an Indian because most Americans did not know much about people from India. Beryl designed the makeup and clothing Redd used, Redd took the name "Korla Pandit", he continued to add to it during his career. He stated that he had been born in New Delhi, India, to a French opera singer and an Indian Brahmin government official. Raised in an upper-class Indian household, Redd claimed to have studied music in England as a child, arrived in the United States at age 12, studied at the University of Chicago. Redd used the Korla Pandit persona -- in private -- for the rest of his life.

In 1948, Redd created and played background music as Korla Pandit for the revival of radio's occult adventure series, Chandu the Magician, achieving atmospheric effects on the Novachord and the Hammond CV electronic organ. In 1949, he became a regular organist on Hollywood Holiday, a show, broadcast from a Los Angeles restaurant. Redd and his wife had two sons and Koram Pandit. In 1948, while performing as Korla Pandit in Hollywood at a furrier's fashion show and his wife Beryl met television pioneer Klaus Landsberg, he offered Redd a television show with the stipulation that the musician would provide accompaniment for Time for Beany, Bob Clampett's popular puppet show. Korla Pandit's Adventures In Music was first telecast on Los Angeles station KTLA in February 1949. Viewers soon became familiar with the musical opening, "The Magnetic Theme." Landsberg insisted that Redd refrain from speaking and gaze into the camera as he played the Hammond organ and Steinway grand piano simultaneously. "Not once in 900 performances did he speak on camera, preferring instead to communicate with viewers via that hypnotic gaze."Redd—known to the public as Korla Pandit—became an overnight star and one of early television's pioneering musical artists.

He popularized its use. While never dropping his Indian persona, Redd acquired notable friends such as actor Errol Flynn, comedian Bob Hope, Sabu Dastagir, known for his roles in the documentary Elephant Boy and the feature Thief of Baghdad. Redd kept in touch with his family of origin, but he wore his turban and did not bring his sons when visiting with them. According to Redd's nephew, Ernest Redd, "'Among the family we knew what he was doing and little was said about it. There was times when he would come by, it was kind of like a sneak visit, he might be gone before we got up. He had to separate himself from the family to a certain extent, they would go to see him play. They would go to his show and they would leave, the family would greet him at a time'". Allyson Hobbs, assistant professor of history at Stanford University, wrote A Chosen Exile: A History of Racial Passin

I See the Want To in Your Eyes

"I See the Want To in Your Eyes" is a song written by Mischa Scorer and Wayne Carson. The song was first recorded by honky-tonk singer Gary Stewart and appeared on his 1975 album Out of Hand. American country music artist Conway Twitty heard Stewart's version on the radio and decided to record it. Twitty's version was released in July 1974 as the second single from the album I'm Not Through Loving You Yet; the song was Twitty's 11th number one on the country chart. The single spent a total of 13 weeks on the chart. A filmed performance of Twitty on That Good Ole Nashville Music singing the song is featured in "The Juice Is Loose", an episode of Family Guy; the song was aired in its entirety. Conway Twitty — vocals Harold Bradley6-string electric bass guitar Ray Edenton — acoustic guitar John Hughey — steel guitar Tommy "Porkchop" Markhamdrums Grady Martin — electric guitar Bob Moorebass Hargus "Pig" Robbinspiano