Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent.
The end of the Dark Ages is dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field.
Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, cytosine, the advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography, following the development of fluorescence-based sequencing methods with a DNA sequencer, DNA sequencing has become easier and orders of magnitude faster. DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of genes, larger genetic regions, full chromosomes or entire genomes. DNA sequencing is the most efficient way to sequence RNA or proteins, in fact, DNA sequencing has become a key technology in many areas of biology and other sciences such as medicine, forensics, or anthropology. Sequencing is used in biology to study genomes and the proteins they encode.
Information obtained using sequencing allows researchers to identify changes in genes, associations with diseases and phenotypes, the field of metagenomics involves identification of organisms present in a body of water, dirt, debris filtered from the air, or swab samples from organisms. Knowing which organisms are present in an environment is critical to research in ecology, microbiology. Sequencing enables researchers to determine which types of microbes may be present in a microbiome, medical technicians may sequence genes from patients to determine if there is risk of genetic diseases. This is a form of testing, though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing may be used along with DNA profiling methods for forensic identification, the canonical structure of DNA has four bases, adenine and guanine. DNA sequencing is the determination of the order of these bases in a molecule of DNA. However, there are other bases that may be present in a molecule. In some viruses, cytosine may be replaced by hydroxy methyl or hydroxy methyl glucose cytosine, in mammalian DNA, variant bases with methyl groups or phosphosulfate may be found.
Depending on the technique, a particular modification, e. g. the 5mC common in humans. This situation changed after 1944 as a result of experiments by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod. This was the first time that DNA was shown capable of transforming the properties of cells, in 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick put forward their double-helix model of DNA, based on crystallized X-ray structures being studied by Rosalind Franklin. According to the model, DNA is composed of two strands of nucleotides coiled around each other, linked together by bonds and running in opposite directions
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, died when Aristotle was a child, at seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Platos Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books and he believed all peoples concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotles views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works, Aristotles views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, some of Aristotles zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as The First Teacher and his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotles philosophy continue to be the object of academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his style as a river of gold – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived. Aristotle, whose means the best purpose, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus was the physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was orphaned at a young age, although there is little information on Aristotles childhood, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Platos Academy and he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC.
Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor, there, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermiass adoptive daughter or niece and she bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC, Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave not only to Alexander
Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda. The extant members of group are, dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, wild Bactrian camels, alpacas, vicuñas. Camelids are even-toed ungulates classified in the order Cetartiodactyla, along with pigs, whales, giraffes, goats, Camelids are large, strictly herbivorous animals with slender necks and long legs. They differ from ruminants in a number of ways and their dentition show traces of vestigial central incisors in the upper jaw, and the third incisors have developed into canine-like tusks. Camelids have canine teeth and tusk-like premolars, which are separated from the molars by a gap. Because of this, camelids have to lie down by resting on their knees with their legs tucked underneath their bodies and they have a unique type of antibodies which lack the light chain, in addition to the normal antibodies found in other mammals. These so-called heavy-chain antibodies are being used to develop single-domain antibodies with potential pharmaceutical applications, Camelids do not have hooves, rather they have two-toed feet with toenails and soft foot pads.
Most of the weight of the animal rests on these tough, the South American camelids, adapted to steep and rocky terrain, can move the pads on their toes to maintain grip. Many fossil camelids were unguligrade and probably hooved, in contrast to all living species, Camelids are behaviorally similar in many ways, including their walking gait, in which both legs on the same side are moved simultaneously. Consequently, camelids large enough for human beings to ride have a typical swaying motion, dromedary camels, bactrian camels and alpacas are all induced ovulators. The three Afro-Asian camel species have developed adaptations to their lives in harsh, near-waterless environments. Wild populations of the Bactrian camel are even able to drink brackish water, comparative table of the seven extant species in the family Camelidae, Camelids are unusual in that their modern distribution is almost the inverse of their area of origin. Camelids first appeared early in the evolution of the even-toed ungulates, around 45 million years ago during the middle Eocene.
Among the earliest camelids was the rabbit-sized Protylopus, which still had four toes on each foot, by the late Eocene, around 35 million years ago, camelids such as Poebrotherium had lost the two lateral toes, and were about the size of a modern goat. The family diversified and prospered, but remained confined to the North American continent until only two or three million years ago, when representatives arrived in Asia, and South America. A high arctic camel from this period has been documented in the far northern reaches of Canada. Fossil camelids show a wider variety than their modern counterparts, one North American genus, stood 3.5 m at the shoulder, compared with the about 2 m of the largest modern camelids. Other extinct camelids included small, gazelle-like animals, such as Stenomylus, finally, a number of very tall, giraffe-like camelids were adapted to feeding on leaves from high trees, including such genera as Aepycamelus, and Oxydactylus
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which biological populations evolve to become distinct species. The biologist Orator F. Cook coined the term speciation in 1906 for the splitting of lineages or cladogenesis, Charles Darwin was the first to describe the role of natural selection in speciation in his 1859 book The Origin of Species. He identified sexual selection as a mechanism, but found it problematic. There are four modes of speciation in nature, based on the extent to which speciating populations are isolated from one another, peripatric, parapatric. Speciation may be induced artificially, through animal husbandry, whether genetic drift is a minor or major contributor to speciation is the subject matter of much ongoing discussion. All forms of speciation have taken place over the course of evolution, however. During allopatric speciation, a population splits into two isolated populations. When the populations come back into contact, they have evolved such that they are isolated and are no longer capable of exchanging genes.
Island genetics is the associated with the tendency of small. Examples include insular dwarfism and the changes among certain famous island chains. The Galápagos Islands are particularly famous for their influence on Charles Darwin, though the finches were less important for Darwin, more recent research has shown the birds now known as Darwins finches to be a classic case of adaptive evolutionary radiation. In peripatric speciation, a subform of allopatric speciation, new species are formed in isolated and it is related to the concept of a founder effect, since small populations often undergo bottlenecks. Genetic drift is often proposed to play a significant role in peripatric speciation, parapatric speciation may be associated with differential landscape-dependent selection. Even if there is a gene flow between two populations, strong differential selection may impede assimilation and different species may eventually develop, habitat differences may be more important in the development of reproductive isolation than the isolation time.
Ecologists refer to parapatric and peripatric speciation in terms of ecological niches, a niche must be available in order for a new species to be successful. Ring species such as Larus gulls have been claimed to illustrate speciation in progress, the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum may be starting parapatric speciation in areas of mine contamination. Sympatric speciation refers to the formation of two or more descendant species from an ancestral species all occupying the same geographic location. Often-cited examples of sympatric speciation are found in insects that become dependent on different host plants in the same area, the existence of sympatric speciation as a mechanism of speciation remains highly debated
History of Animals
History of Animals is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Platos Academy in Athens. It was written in the fourth century BC, Aristotle died in 322 BC, generally seen as a pioneering work of zoology, Aristotle frames his text by explaining that he is investigating the what prior to establishing the why. The book is thus an attempt to apply philosophy to part of the natural world, throughout the work, Aristotle seeks to identify differences, both between individuals and between groups. A group is established when it is seen all members have the same set of distinguishing features, for example, that all birds have feathers, wings. This relationship between the birds and their features is recognized as a universal, some of these were long considered fanciful before being rediscovered in the nineteenth century. Aristotle has been accused of making errors, but some are due to misinterpretation of his text and he did however make somewhat uncritical use of evidence from other people, such as travellers and beekeepers.
The History of Animals had a influence on zoology for some two thousand years. It continued to be a source of knowledge until in the sixteenth century zoologists including Conrad Gessner, all influenced by Aristotle. Aristotle studied at Platos Academy in Athens, remaining there for some 17 years and this study made him the earliest natural historian whose written work survives. No similarly detailed work on zoology was attempted until the sixteenth century and his writings on zoology form about a quarter of his surviving work. Aristotles pupil Theophrastus wrote a book on botany, Enquiry into Plants. In the History of Animals, Aristotle sets out to investigate the existing facts, the book is thus a defence of his method of investigating zoology. Aristotle investigates four types of differences between animals, differences in body parts, differences in ways of life and types of activity. On the other hand, some animals that have red blood have lungs, here one can rightly conclude that if something has lungs, it has red blood, but Aristotle is careful not to imply that all red-blooded animals have lungs, so the reasoning here is not bidirectional.
Book I The grouping of animals and the parts of the human body. Aristotle describes the parts that the body is made of, such as the skull, face, ears, tongue, belly, viscera, genitalia. Book II The different parts of red-blooded animals, Book III The internal organs, including generative system, sinews, bone etc. He moves on to the blood, bone marrow, milk including rennet and cheese, Book IV Animals without blood – cephalopods, etc
Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. The word taxonomy was introduced in 1813 by Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, the term alpha taxonomy is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa, particularly species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology.
He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species. While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.
The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from 1883 onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate
10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum, before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Names published before that date are unavailable, even if they would otherwise satisfy the rules, during Linnaeus lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. The Animal Kingdom, Animals enjoy sensation by means of an organization, animated by a medullary substance, perception by nerves. They have members for the different purposes of life, organs for their different senses and they all originate from an egg.
Their external and internal structure, their anatomy, instincts. The list has been broken down into the six classes Linnaeus described for animals, Aves, Pisces, Insecta. These classes were created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key. Warm, red blood Viviparous, Mammalia Oviparous, Aves Heart with 1 auricle,1 ventricle, red blood Lungs voluntary, Amphibia External gills, Pisces Heart with 1 auricle,0 ventricles. Linnaeus described mammals as, Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats, in external and internal structure they resemble man, most of them are quadrupeds, and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean and they are areal, vocal and light, and destitute of external ears, teeth, womb, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm. They breathe by means of gills, which are united by a bony arch, swim by means of radiate fins. Many of them are without a head, and most of them without feet.
They are principally distinguished by their tentacles, by the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, head and legs, and are therefore totally distinct from Insects. In addition to repeating the species he had listed in his Species Plantarum. The species from Species Plantarum were numbered sequentially, while the new species were labelled with letters, new plant species described in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae include, The original 1758 Systema Naturae Linnaeus 1758 Classification of Animals on the Taxonomicon
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in multicellular organisms may however lack them. A number of organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria, the word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, thread, and χονδρίον, granule or grain-like. Mitochondria generate most of the supply of adenosine triphosphate, used as a source of chemical energy. Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure, unless specifically stained, they are not visible. Mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular processes, Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure and autism. The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism, for instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000, The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions.
These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the space, the inner membrane. Although most of a cells DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans,615 distinct types of protein have been identified from cardiac mitochondria, the mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated. The first observations of structures that probably represented mitochondria were published in the 1840s. Richard Altmann, in 1890, established them as cell organelles, the term mitochondria was coined by Carl Benda in 1898. Leonor Michaelis discovered that Janus green can be used as a stain for mitochondria in 1900. Benjamin F. Kingsbury, in 1912, first related them with cell respiration, in 1913, particles from extracts of guinea-pig liver were linked to respiration by Otto Heinrich Warburg, which he called grana. Warburg and Heinrich Otto Wieland, who had postulated a similar particle mechanism. It was not until 1925, when David Keilin discovered cytochromes, in the following years, the mechanism behind cellular respiration was further elaborated, although its link to the mitochondria was not known.
The introduction of tissue fractionation by Albert Claude allowed mitochondria to be isolated from other cell fractions, in 1946, he concluded that cytochrome oxidase and other enzymes responsible for the respiratory chain were isolated to the mitchondria
A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. Bactrian camels take their name from the historical Bactria region of Central Asia, the term camel is derived via Latin and Greek from Hebrew or Phoenician gāmāl. Most of the camels are dromedaries while Bactrian camels and wild Bactrian camels make up only 6% of the total camel population. Camel may be used broadly to describe any of the seven camel-like mammals in the family Camelidae. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years, a full-grown adult camel stands 1.85 m at the shoulder and 2.15 m at the hump. Camels can run at up to 65 km/h in short bursts, Bactrian camels weigh 300 to 1,000 kg and dromedaries 300 to 600 kg. For instance, the speed for the one humped camel is about 40 km/hour while the two humped camel has around 27.2 km/hour. The male dromedary camel has in its throat an organ called a dulla and it resembles a long, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth.
Camels mate by having both male and female sitting on the ground, with the male mounting from behind, the male usually ejaculates three or four times within a single mating session. Camelids are the ungulates to mate in a sitting position. Camels do not directly store water in their humps as was commonly believed. In hot and dry environments, within 8 to 10 days only the dromedary camels might consume water which during this period the third of their bodys weight may be reduced due to the dehydration. When this tissue is metabolized, it more than one gram of water for every gram of fat processed. This fat metabolization, while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration, Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water. Unlike other mammals, their red cells are oval rather than circular in shape. Camels are able to withstand changes in temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals.
Their temperature ranges from 34 °C at dawn and steadily increases to 40 °C by sunset, in general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1. Camels rarely sweat, even when ambient temperatures reach 49 °C, any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat, the heat of vaporization therefore comes from body heat rather than ambient heat
Nubra is a tri-armed valley located to the north east of Ladakh valley. Diskit the capital of Nubra is about 150 km north from Leh town, local scholars say that its original name was Ldumra. The Shyok River meets the Nubra or Siachan River to form a valley that separates the Ladakh. The Shyok river is a tributary of the Indus river, the average altitude of the valley is about 10,000 ft. i. e.3048 metres above the sea level. The common way to access this valley is to travel over the Khardung La pass from Leh town, foreign nationals are required to get a Protected area permit to visit the Nubra Valley. Since 1 May 2014 Indian citizens are no longer required to get an Inner Line Permit to visit the valley, like the rest of the Tibetan Plateau, Nubra is a high altitude cold desert with rare precipitation and scant vegetation except along river beds. The villages are irrigated and fertile, producing wheat, peas, most of the Nubra Valley is inhabited by Nubra dialect or Nubra Skat speakers. Siachen Glacier lies to the north of the valley, the Sasser Pass and the famous Karakoram Pass lie to the northwest of the valley and connect Nubra with Uyghur.
Previously there was much trade passing through the area with western Chinas Xinjiang, the people of Baltistan used the Nubra valley for passage to Tibet. Diskit town in the valley have become the centre for people of the region. Diskit is the headquarters of the Nubra Valley and thus has lot of government offices with basic facilities and it is connected by road with Leh. The 32 metre Maitreya Buddha statue is the landmark of Nubra Valley and is maintained by the Diskit Monastery, along the Nubra or Siachan River lie the villages of Sumur, Tirith, Panamik and many others. Samstanling monastery is between Kyagar and Sumur villages, and Panamik is noted for its hot springs, across the Nubra or Siachan River at Panamik, is the isolated Ensa Gompa. On the Shyok River, the village, Diskit, is home to the dramatically positioned Diskit Monastery which is built in 1420 AD. Hundar was the capital of the erstwhile Nubra kingdom in the 17th century, between Hundar and Diskit lie several kilometres of sand dunes, and bactrian camels graze in the neighbouring forests of seabuckthorn.
Non-locals are not allowed below Hundar village into the Balti area, the beautiful village of Baigdandu is located in this area. There is a presence of people with startling blue eyes, auburn hair. Local lore has it that they were a Greek tribe who came in search of Jesus Christs tomb, Baigdandu is known for the goats that give you the famous Pashmina shawls
The llama is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era. The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is 1.7 to 1.8 m tall at the top of the head, at birth, a baby llama can weigh between 9 and 14 kg. Llamas typically live for 15 to 25 years, with some individuals surviving 30 years or more and they are very social animals and live with other llamas as a herd. The wool produced by a llama is very soft and lanolin-free, llamas are intelligent and can learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. When using a pack, they can carry about 25 to 30% of their weight for 8 to 13 km. The name llama was adopted by European settlers from native Peruvians, llamas appear to have originated from the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago. They migrated to South America about three years ago. By the end of the last ice age, camelids were extinct in North America, lamoids, or llamas, consist of the vicuña, Suri alpaca, and Huacaya alpaca, and the domestic llama.
Guanacos and vicuñas live in the wild, while alpacas – as well as llamas – exist only as domesticated animals, although early writers compared llamas to sheep, their similarity to the camel was soon recognized. They were included in the genus Camelus along with alpaca in the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus and they were, separated by Cuvier in 1800 under the name of lama along with the guanaco. Alpacas and vicuñas are in genus Vicugna, the Tylopoda consist of a single family, the Camelidae, and shares the order Artiodactyla with the Suina, the Tragulina, the Pecora, and the Whippomorpha. Llamas were not always confined to South America, abundant llama-like remains were found in Pleistocene deposits in the Rocky Mountains, some of the fossil llamas were much larger than current forms. Some species remained in North America during the last ice ages, North American llamas are categorized as a single extinct genus, Hemiauchenia. Llama-like animals would have been a common sight 25,000 years ago, in modern-day California, New Mexico, Missouri, the camelid lineage has a good fossil record.
Camel-like animals have been traced from the thoroughly differentiated, modern species back through early Miocene forms and their characteristics became more general, and they lost those that distinguished them as camelids, they were classified as ancestral artiodactyls. No fossils of these forms have been found in the Old World, indicating that North America was the original home of camelids. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama three million years ago allowed camelids to spread to South America as part of the Great American Interchange, North American camelids died out at the end of the Pleistocene. The following characteristics apply especially to llamas, dentition of adults, -incisors 1/3 canines 1/1, premolars 2/2, molars 3/2, total 32