Moses Michael Levi Barrow, is a Belizean rapper better known by his stage name Shyne. Barrow was born in Belize, but moved to New York as a child to live with his mother, began his music career in the United States, his father is attorney and politician Dean Barrow, Prime Minister of Belize since 2008. Shyne and his mother lived in the Brooklyn neighborhood of East Flatbush, where he became a musician and rapper after being discovered in a barbershop by Imani Hayley. On the verge of releasing his debut album, he was involved in a nightclub shooting incident on December 27, 1999, in June 2001 he was convicted of assault and sentenced to 10 years in prison, his 2000 debut album was still a success, he continued to record music while incarcerated. While serving his prison sentence, Shyne became interested in Judaism, became observant, practicing Orthodox Judaism changing his name to Moses Michael Levi Barrow in 2006. After being released from prison in 2009, he was deported to Belize as a non-citizen felon.
He has since performed in Jerusalem and Ukraine, continued to release albums. Shyne was born Jamal Michael Barrow on November 8, 1979, in Belize City to Frances Imeon Myvette and Dean Barrow, who were not married. Barrow divided his time between his mother in Brooklyn and his politician father, elected in 2008 as the Prime Minister of Belize, making him the first black leader of the country. Shyne's mother is the sister of Michael Myvett, now going by the surname Finnegan, one of Dean Barrow's long-time political colleagues in Belize. Barrow's middle name comes from his uncle. Barrow's mother moved to the United States when he was three years old, leaving her son with his father, busy with politics which left him between the care of his mother's brother Michael and father's sister Denise in Belize City; when he was 8 years old, Barrow moved to Brooklyn to live with his mother in East Flatbush, while spending summers in Belize with his father. After he moved to New York, he began to develop a strong interest in the hip-hop culture of the 1980s and 1990s.
In 1998, while Barrow was freestyling in a barbershop, he was discovered by hip hop producer DJ Clark Kent, working on The Notorious B. I. G.'s first posthumous album, Born Again. He took Barrow to Bad Boy Studios, where Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs signed him on the spot, it was reported that Shyne received millions of dollars, 3 cars of his choice and 2 homes just for signing. The contract included a 5 studio album deal; this event caused a small media shockwave. Not long after, Shyne began making appearances on recordings made by his Bad Boy Entertainment label-mates, he was notably featured on Mase's second album, Double Up, on a remix of Total's "Sittin At Home" single. In the same year he featured on chief executive Sean Combs' debut album Forever. On December 27, 1999, along with Combs and his girlfriend, Jennifer Lopez, were involved in a high-profile incident at a Manhattan club. Three people were injured. Shyne was charged with attempted murder and reckless endangerment. Shyne released Shyne in September 2000.
The album featured guest appearances from Barrington Levy and 112's Slim, as well as production from Bad Boy's in house producers The Hitmen. Shyne's self-titled debut album was recorded prior to the rapper's arrest, it sold more than 900,000 copies. In June 2001, Shyne was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Combs was acquitted of weapons charges in the case. While many labels met with Shyne while he was at the Clinton Correctional Facility, the rapper signed with Def Jam Records for a $3 million contract. In 2004, Shyne released his second album Godfather Buried Alive; the album, recorded prior to imprisonment and over the phone, sold 434,000 copies and hit No. 1 on Billboard's Top R&B/Hip-Hop chart. Upon his early release in 2009 from his 10-year prison sentence, the Belize native was deported to his homeland as a non-citizen felon, he was represented by Harvard professor and attorney Charles Ogletree in his attempt to forestall deportation and to regain entry. On February 16, 2010, Shyne signed a seven-figure deal with Def Jam Records.
"We are excited about working with Shyne, he's a revered Hip Hop Star and we want to give him the attention he deserves." Said Steven "Steve-O" Carless, national lifestyle director of Def Jam, in a call from his New York Office. After a trip to Jerusalem in 2010, where he converted to Orthodox Judaism, Shyne collaborated with Jewish American reggae and rock musician Matisyahu on his single "Messiah", released in April 2010, he released "Roller Song" in 2010. He announced that he was recording two LPs for release in 2010. Messiah was set to be the first of his 2010 release schedule, while Gangland, was set to be his second. In October 2010, Shyne criticized Def Jam and announced hopes of signing to Cash Money Records: "I'm trying to get with Cash Money…. I'm not signed to Def Jam anyway, I just need to find another distributor. I might just have Cash Money do everything. Who knows? That's the beauty about being in the business for yourself. You can decide where you want to go and what you want to do."Although he blamed Def Jam CEO L.
A. Reid for his frustration that month Shyne issued an apology. In November 2010, Birdman said that Shyne's deportation had stalled his Cash Money deal, as it would prevent him from appearing in the US. In November 2010, Shyne was living in Jerusalem, where he underwent a formal conversion to Orthodox Judaism and arranged further studies with rabbis, he had studied with rabbis while in prison and adopted the Jewish laws to
Hit 'Em Up
"Hit'Em Up" is a diss song by hip hop artist 2Pac featuring the Outlawz, a group associated with him. It is the B-side to the single "How Do U Want It", released on June 4, 1996; the song's lyrics contain vicious insults to several East Coast rappers, chief among them, Shakur's former-friend-turned-rival, the Notorious B. I. G. known as Biggie Smalls. The song was recorded in Los Angeles, California at Can Am Studios in May 1996. Reporter Chuck Philips, who interviewed Shakur at Can Am, described the song as "a caustic anti-East Coast crusade in which the rapper threatens to eliminate Biggie, Sean Combs, a slew of Bad Boy artists and other New York acts." The song was produced by long-time collaborator Johnny "J" and samples the bassline from "Don't Look Any Further" by Dennis Edwards and interpolates "10% Dis" by MC Lyte, "Get Money" by The Notorious B. I. G.'s group Junior M. A. F. I. A. Which used the Dennis Edwards sample as well; the video, itself described as infamous, includes impersonations of Biggie, Puffy and M.
A. F. I. A. Member Lil' Kim. "Hit'Em Up" had a large role in exacerbating the East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry. Following its release, the East Coast rappers insulted in the song responded through tracks of their own; the controversy surrounding the song is due in part to Shakur's murder only three months after its release. The song is considered by the American hip hop community as one of the greatest diss tracks recorded due to its explicit lyrical content and the seriousness of violent intent by Shakur and his colleagues towards their competitors. "Hit'Em Up" was written and recorded at Can-Am studios in May 1996. For the song, Tupac Shakur recruited the members of the former group Dramacydal whom he had worked with and was eager to work with again. Together, the rappers formed the original lineup of the Outlawz; the first and third verses are performed by Shakur, while the second verse is performed by Hussein Fatal, the fourth by Yaki Kadafi and the fifth by E. D. I. Mean; the ferocity of Shakur's raging vocals, as said by long-time collaborator and producer of "Hit'Em Up" Johnny "J", was authentic.
He explained that Shakur was fueled by his anger against Biggie and Bad Boy Records for the belief that they had a role in the November 30, 1994 ambush and attack on Shakur. He claimed that his crew knew of his shooting and wanted him dead. Shakur used this fury, which Johnny "J" described as "superhuman", to attack Biggie and other East Coast rappers. Johnny "J" stated that he had never seen Shakur so angry and that the words he rapped were in no way an act, describing the recording process as the most "hard-core he had done." Although he was happy with the work he had put into it and the resulting song, Johnny "J" went on to say that he had no desire to work on anything of that magnitude again. Shakur was enraged by Biggie's release of "Who Shot Ya?" Provocatively only months after the shooting incident, although it did not directly involve Shakur's name, he believed it was directed towards him. Shakur admitted to releasing "Hit'Em Up" as a response to "Who Shot Ya?" In a Vibe interview, the rapper called out Sean "Puffy" Combs and Biggie Smalls and accused both of them of setting him up, or of having knowledge of the attack and not warning him.
He singled out businessmen James Rosemond, Jacques Agnant of orchestrating the assault. Shakur announced the names of his ostensible conspirators to a journalist for Vibe. Persons familiar with the interview say they used different names after the magazine received threats from Henchman. A former Vibe editor denied receiving threats, but neglected to explain why the magazine substituted aliases for Henchman and Haitian Jack. Henchman promised Shakur $7,000 to duo with Lil Shawn, a rapper whom the businessman represented at that time. In a 2008 article by Philips, Henchman was implicated in organizing the assault, was further implicated in 2012 by his long-time friend Dexter Isaac, who confessed to attacking Shakur on Henchman's orders. Isaac was confirmed as a source in Philip's earlier story as well as in Henchman's own confession, according to prosecutors at his 2012 trial; the lyrics in "Hit'Em Up" were aimed at Biggie and Puffy. Shakur viciously insults Biggie throughout — the first line by Shakur is "That's why I fucked your bitch, you fat motherfucker" — and threatens retaliation in the songs hook, saying "Who shot me?/But you punks didn't finish/Now you're about to feel the wrath of a menace."
He used the song as a platform to express his belief that Biggie was guilty of stealing his style of rapping, was imitating his lifestyle. This notion is addressed in the verse in "Now it's all about Versace, you copied my style." He touches topically on their early friendship with the line "Biggie, remember when I used to let you sleep on the couch?" and their subsequent fallout. Towards the end of the song Tupac disses Mobb Deep, saying "Don't one of you niggas got sickle cell or something? You fucking with me, nigga you fuck around and get a seizure or a heart attack", referring to Prodigy, a member of Mobb Deep who suffered from sickle cell disease Mobb Deep responded by releasing "Drop a Gem on'em", released shortly before Tupac's death. "Hit'Em Up" features much profanity, using the words "fuck" or "motherfucker" at least 35 times in the song, was issued a Parental Advisory label. The bassline in "Hit'Em Up" is taken from the 1984 Dennis Edwards song "Don't Lo
It's All About the Benjamins
"It's All About the Benjamins" is a song by American rapper and producer Puff Daddy. It was released as the third single from his debut studio album No Way Out. "Benjamins" is slang for a reference to Benjamin Franklin's image on the bills. The Notorious B. I. G. Used the slang on his debut album "Ready To Die"; the song featured an uncredited vocal arrangement by Missy "Misdemeanor" Elliott, featured a signature guitar hook played by Marc Solomon. The song debuted in 1996 on DJ Clue's Holiday Holdup mixtape; this version of the song only featured Puff Daddy and the rap act The LOX. The song was added to Puffy's debut album, No Way Out, in a remix, "It's All About the Benjamins", which added two new verses by Lil' Kim and Notorious B. I. G. Missy Elliot provided the song with a chorus which the original version lacked; this version of the song omitted the word "Hebrews" out of Jadakiss' verse. Subsequent pressings removed the word. Additionally, when it was released on the Bad Boy's Greatest Hits Vol.
I album, it retained the word. This single made it to #1 on the Hot 100 Airplay chart and its video won a Viewer's Choice award at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards show. Due to the rarity of the obscure mixtape version, the remix featured on No Way Out is considered the song's definitive version to avoid confusion; the song samples two pieces of music. The first sample heard up to the end of Lil' Kim's verse is taken from the song "I Did It for Love" performed by the Love Unlimited written by Linda Laurie and Terry Etlinger; the verse performed by Notorious B. I. G. Contains a sample from The Jackson 5 song "It's Great to Be Here." This latter sample is exclusive to the No Way Out remix. After the final verse, the song ends shortly after. In 2008, it was ranked number 32 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop. Puffy released a rock version of the song, "It's All About the Benjamins"; this collaboration known as "Shot-Caller Rock Remix" and "Rock Remix I", featured Tommy Stinson, Rob Zombie and Dave Grohl on drums.
This remix added guitar riffs and live drums, as well as a more "in your face" approach to the song's chorus. This version had its own music video, directed by Spike Jonze, nominated for Best Video of the Year on MTV Video Music Awards in 1998, won by Madonna with "Ray of Light". In 1999, Puffy performed this remix with a live band at Giants Stadium for the NetAid benefit concert; this performance featured Slash on guitar as well as Lil' Kim on vocals. There is a different alternative to this remix called, "It's All About the Benjamins." This lesser known version adds Size 14 to the song's long collaboration line-up. Both rock remixes of the song were released as edited versions. Three music videos were released for two of its remixes; the first music video was directed by Paul Hunter. It featured Puff Daddy, the LOX, Lil' Kim and Biggie and took place in a dimply-lit concert venue and in a forest where the rappers are either running or rapping; the second music video is the same than the first one, but Biggie's verse and appearances are removed, replaced by a tap dancing battle between Puff Daddy and Savion Glover, with the latter winning.
The third music video is different. Puff Daddy arrives at a high school prom to see a lackluster band performing for a bored audience, he sings a rock version of his song to the pleasure of the audience. He is joined by the Lox. Biggie doesn't appear in the video. During his verse, the rappers and the audience are seen running in the high school. In 1999, "Weird Al" Yankovic performed a parody of the rock remix of "It's All About the Benjamins", his version, "It's All About the Pentiums", features himself boasting about the superiority of his computer hardware. Diddy sampled the song in the remix to "Shot Caller" by French Montana; the song has been covered by the Ballas Hough Band who performed the song with rapper Lil' Kim in 2009. U. S. Congresswoman Ilhan Omar from CD MN-5 quoted the song in a February 2019 tweet, subsequently criticized as antisemitic.'Its All About The Benjamins' was sold as a maxi-single with the Mase and Notorious B. I. G collab'Been Around The World'.'Its All About The Benjamins' reached it peaks of #2 on the Billboard hot 100 on January 3, 1998 and its peak of number 1 on the Hot Rap charts on December 3, 1997.
Been Around the World Been Around the World It's All About the Benjamins Been Around the World Been Around the World It's All About the Benjamins It's All About the Benjamins It's All About the Benjamins Single It's All About the Benjamins It's All About the Benjamins It's All About the Benjamins It's All About the Benjamins Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry
The East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry was a feud between artists and fans of the East Coast hip hop and West Coast hip hop scenes in the United States from 1994 to 1997. Focal points of the feud were East Coast–based rapper The Notorious B. I. G. and West Coast -- based rapper Tupac Shakur. Orlando Anderson is believed to be the person responsible for the murder of Shakur; the person responsible for the murder of The Notorious B. I. G. remains unknown. Hip hop emerged in the 1970s on the streets of the South Bronx. Hip Hop was powered by DJs such as Kool Herc, who many consider its founding father, Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa; the new musical style became popular throughout the city's neighborhoods. MCs, Hip Hop were huge cultural influences at this time; the New York City area remained the forefront for rap music throughout the mid-'80s, becoming home to numerous stars such as Run-DMC, A Tribe Called Quest, LL Cool J, KRS-One, Doug E. Fresh, Big Daddy Kane, Biz Markie, Slick Rick, The Beastie Boys, Salt-n-Pepa, others.
In the early 1990s hip hop functioned to give the black community a voice in the public sphere, had spread from New York to across the country in the East Coast as well as worldwide. Hip hop gained appeal among African-Americans because of the "authentic" nature of the lyrical content, it transitioned into gangsta rap in the 1990s, which involved rapping about drugs and sexualizing women. In 1986, Crenshaw–based Ice T released the song "6 in the Mornin'." It is considered by many critics as the first gangsta rap song. The LA gangsta rap scene exploded afterwards; this rap style represented the life of gangsters day to day. With the help of friend Jerry Heller, Eazy-E founded Ruthless Records on March 3, 1986. Shortly afterwards, his group N. W. A released the Panic Zone EP, it contained the title track, "8 Ball", the well-known "Dope Man". The group's debut album was released in the year, it featured the Fila Fresh Crew and a young The D. O. C; the most popular song on the release was the famous track "Boyz-n-the-Hood".
Although the track was written by Ice Cube, Eazy-E handled the vocals. Eazy E began as a solo artist but joined the group. A disagreement over money saw Arabian Prince leave N. W. A just before the release of their ground-breaking Straight Outta Compton. Eazy-E's friend MC Ren filled his place. Backed by hit singles such as "Straight Outta Compton", "Fuck tha Police" and "Gangsta Gangsta", the album redefined the genre and cemented the West Coast's presence in the nation's rap scene. Financial issues led to the break up of the group. Eazy-E remained the wealthy owner/manager of his Ruthless label. Ice Cube released a string of successful albums that included AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted and Death Certificate. Dr Dre would go on to co-own Death Row Records with Suge Knight. At Death Row, Dr Dre released one of the most influential hip hop albums of all time in The Chronic, it revolutionized the G-Funk movement. Other successful stars on the label included Snoop Doggy Dogg, Tupac Shakur, Warren G, The Lady of Rage, Nate Dogg, Daz Dillinger, Kurupt of Tha Dogg Pound.
By the mid 1990s the West Coast had separated itself as the dominant region in hip hop. New York group The Wu-Tang Clan's 1993 debut album Enter the Wu-Tang led to a revival of public interest in East Coast hip-hop, due in part to its lo-fi sound quality and its technical and wordy lyricism. In April 1994, 20-year-old Queens-based MC Nas released Illmatic, five of whose ten tracks were released as singles and which received a coveted five-mic rating from The Source; the release of these two albums was vital to renewing interest in East Coast hip-hop, facilitating the so-called East Coast Renaissance. A few months the 22-year-old Notorious B. I. G. Released Ready to Die, certified gold within two months of release and helped to establish Bad Boy Records as notable. On June 25, 1996, Brooklyn native Jay-Z released his debut album Reasonable Doubt, drawing further attention to the East Coast. In 1991, angry at record companies' rejections of East Coast artists and the growing popularity of West Coast hip hop, Bronx rapper Tim Dog decided to voice his anger on the notorious diss track "Fuck Compton".
It contained shots at the entire LA rap scene the members of NWA. The music video featured violent threats aimed at Eazy-E, Dr Dre and Michel'le look-a-likes, as well as DJ Quik and Ice Cube. There were several responses from numerous West Coast artists, including the "Fuck wit Dre Day" which featured Snoop Doggy Dogg dissing Tim Dog, a separate skit, "$20 Sack Pyramid". Both featured on Dr Dre's The Chronic album. Compton's Most Wanted responded with "Who's Fucking Who?" In 1993, fledgling A&R executive and record producer Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs founded the New York-centered hip-hop label, Bad Boy Records. The next year, the label's debut releases by Brooklyn-based rapper The Notorious B. I. G. and Long Island–based rapper Craig Mack became immediate critical and commercial successes, seemed to revitalize the East Coast hip-hop scene by 1995. New York born and California-based rapper Tupac Shakur publicly accused The Notorious B. I. G. Andre Harrell, Sean Combs of involvement in his shooting in the lobby of Quad Recording Studios in Manhattan on November 30, 1994.
Shortly after the shooting, "Who Shot Ya?," a B-side track from Biggie's "Big Poppa" single was released. Although Combs and Wallace d
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. It stretches from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. Brightly adorned with billboards and advertisements, Times Square is sometimes referred to as "The Crossroads of the World", "The Center of the Universe", "the heart of The Great White Way", "the heart of the world". One of the world's busiest pedestrian areas, it is the hub of the Broadway Theater District and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. Times Square is one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, while over 460,000 pedestrians walk through Times Square on its busiest days. Known as Longacre Square, Times Square was renamed in 1904 after The New York Times moved its headquarters to the newly erected Times Building – now One Times Square – the site of the annual New Year's Eve ball drop which began on December 31, 1907, continues today, attracting over a million visitors to Times Square every year.
Times Square functions as a town square, but is not geometrically a square. Broadway runs diagonally, crossing through the horizontal and vertical street grid of Manhattan laid down by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, that intersection creates the "bowtie" shape of Times Square; the southern triangle of Times Square has no specific name, but the northern triangle is called Father Duffy Square. It was dedicated in 1937 to Chaplain Francis P. Duffy of New York City's U. S. 69th Infantry Regiment and is the site of a memorial to him, along with a statue of George M. Cohan, as well as the TKTS reduced-price ticket booth run by the Theatre Development Fund. Since 2008, the booth has been backed by a red, triangular set of bleacher-like stairs, used by people to sit, talk and take photographs; when Manhattan Island was first settled by the Dutch, three small streams united near what is now 10th Avenue and 40th Street. These three streams formed the "Great Kill". From there the Great Kill wound through the low-lying Reed Valley, known for fish and waterfowl and emptied into a deep bay in the Hudson River at the present 42nd Street.
The name was retained in a tiny hamlet, Great Kill, that became a center for carriage-making, as the upland to the south and east became known as Longacre. Before and after the American Revolution, the area belonged to John Morin Scott, a general of the New York militia, in which he served under George Washington. Scott's manor house was at what is 43rd Street, surrounded by countryside used for farming and breeding horses. In the first half of the 19th century, it became one of the prized possessions of John Jacob Astor, who made a second fortune selling off lots to hotels and other real estate concerns as the city spread uptown. By 1872, the area had become the center of New York's horse carriage industry; the locality had not been given a name, city authorities called it Longacre Square after Long Acre in London, where the horse and carriage trade was centered in that city. William Henry Vanderbilt ran the American Horse Exchange there. In 1910 it became the Winter Garden Theatre; as more profitable commerce and industrialization of Lower Manhattan pushed homes and prostitution northward from the Tenderloin District, Long Acre Square became nicknamed the Thieves Lair for its rollicking reputation as a low entertainment district.
The first theater on the square, the Olympia, was built by cigar manufacturer and impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. According to Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, "By the early 1890s this once sparsely settled stretch of Broadway was ablaze with electric light and thronged by crowds of middle- and upper-class theatre and cafe patrons." In 1904, New York Times publisher Adolph S. Ochs moved the newspaper's operations to a new skyscraper on 42nd Street at Longacre Square, on the site of the former Pabst Hotel, which had existed on the site for less than a decade since it opened in November 1899. Ochs persuaded Mayor George B. McClellan Jr. to construct a subway station there, the area was renamed "Times Square" on April 8, 1904. Just three weeks the first electrified advertisement appeared on the side of a bank at the corner of 46th Street and Broadway; the north end became Duffy Square, the former Horse Exchange became the Winter Garden Theatre, constructed in 1911. The New York Times moved to more spacious offices one block west of the square in 1913 and sold the building in 1961.
The old Times Building was named the Allied Chemical Building in 1963. Now known as One Times Square, it is famed for the Times Square Ball drop on its roof every New Year's Eve. In 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association, headed by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, chose the intersection of 42nd Street and Broadway to be the Eastern Terminus of the Lincoln Highway; this was the first road across the United States, which spanned 3,389 miles coast-to-coast through 13 states to its western terminus in Lincoln Park in San Francisco, California. Times Square grew after World War I, it became a cultural hub full of theatres, music halls, upscale hotels. Times Square became New York's agora, a place to gather to await great tidings and to celebrate them, whether a World Series or a presidential election. Advertising grew in the 1920s, growing