China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
At the Badalona Museum, opened in 1966, one can visit the remains of the Roman city of Baetulo underneath the building, where there are baths, part of a road and a group of shops. In 2010, the decumanus site, with remains from the Cardo Maximus and the Decumanus Maximus, diverse shops or tavernae and three insulae, became part of the visit, along with the permanent exhibition which describes the first settlements recorded in Badalona and the history and characteristics of Roman Baetulo, with noteworthy pieces; the Museum has a collection rich in archaeological materials from the excavations it carries out, conserves a great variety of objects from other eras, which give testimony to the history of the city. Official site
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Trambesòs is a tram–light rail system in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia that links the Barcelona district of Sant Martí with Badalona and Sant Adrià de Besòs. Its name comes from the union of the words "tram", an abbreviation of the Catalan word for "tram", "Besòs", the name of an area in the north of the Barcelonès region dominated by the Besòs River; the first section of Trambesòs was opened on 8 May 2004 as part of route T4 and since its opening it has undergone several extensions, the last of which took place on 15 June 2008 with the creation of route T6 between Sant Adrià de Besòs railway station and Gorg metro station in Badalona. Trambesòs is operated by TRAM, it complements the Trambaix. Both networks will be interconnected through Avinguda Diagonal in the next construction phase; the system comprises 27 stops and has a total length of 14 kilometres whereby three different routes are run. The network is configured as a double-track electrified tramline built to the standard track gauge that starts near Parc de la Ciutadella in the Barcelona district of Sant Martí and continues towards Badalona and Sant Adrià de Besòs through Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes and Avinguda Diagonal, the system's two main arterial corridors to enter Barcelona.
There is another branch that crosses the La Rambla de la Mina street in Sant Adrià and connects the Gran Via section with the Avinguda Diagonal one. Trambesòs uses exclusive infrastructure such as a reserved platform for its circulation along all its route and dedicated signaling; the exclusive use of the reserved platform by the tram is meant to provide greater regularity and safety, it only has contact with other vehicles at several existing at-grade intersections with the local street system. These intersections are regulated by traffic lights, which do not have the traffic signal preemption system operational, what would allow the tram to reach 20 km/h; the reserved platform houses the tracks, the overhead contact system, the dedicated signaling and the railway platforms. In addition, it is level with the sidewalks in most of its path and is sometimes grass-covered or covered in concrete or asphalt concrete like the road surface. In order to supply electric power to the overhead line, six substations were built along the line, providing a voltage of 750 V DC.
The contact wire has a cross-section of 150 mm2 supported by several metallic utility poles positioned along the railway tracks. The rolling stock operated on the network is composed of 18 Citadis 302 low-floor trams built in its variation "Barcelona" by Alstom at its manufacturing plant in Santa Perpètua de Mogoda. Tram units are parked and maintained at the only depot of Trambesòs located next to Central Tèrmica del Besòs stop, on a triangular piece of land between the Ronda Litoral coastal beltway and the Barcelona–Mataró–Maçanet-Massanes railway. Autoritat del Transport Metropolità is the transport authority responsible for fares and ticketing, for marketing the network. Trambesòs is part of the integrated fare system within Barcelona metropolitan area and is within ATM fare zone 1. Fares are the same as the ones applied on Trambaix as well as the ticket system. Single tickets can be purchased at stops by using ticket machines and allow you to transfer between other Trambesòs routes for 30 minutes without having to buy another ticket.
All tickets or other transportation cards must be validated in a machine by the door of the tram although underground stops have ticket barriers so there is no need to validate the ticket on the tram. The system comprises 27 stops, each following the same design and technical characteristics as Trambaix stops. All stops have 60-metre-long low platforms with a 6-metre-long ramp at each end of the platform; this allows wheelchairs, prams and the elderly to board the tram with no steps. The stops have different platform layouts depending on the street section where they are located. There are 8 stops with 1 island platform and 19 stops with 2 side platforms, three of which are located underground in the Gran Via section. There are 8 stops that offer a transfer to Barcelona Metro network while only Estació de Sant Adrià stop offers a transfer to Rodalies de Catalunya commuter rail services, becoming the only stop of the whole network that offers a transfer to some kind of heavy rail services. Design and facilities of the stops are meant to provide universal access as one of the goals of the network since its planning.
The stops follow a common design that has a discrete look to them, dominated by metallic materials and panes of glass. Facilities for passengers include one or two shelters equipped with an intercom, a PA system, a passenger information display, a CCTV system, a noticeboard and ticket vending machines; the shelters were designed by architects Antoni Roselló and Rafael Cáceres, who were awarded in the design section of the 2004 City of Barcelona Awards for this design. Three east–west routes make up the Trambesòs system; the Gran Via section is used by both routes T5 and T6, while the Avinguda Diagonal section and the branch in the La Mina neighbourhood are only used by routes T4 and T6, respectively. All routes converge at Plaça de les Glòries Catalanes, becoming the only stop of the whole network that provides a transfer to all Trambesòs routes. Routes are displayed by a teal square with a white "T" followed by the route number in it. Trambaix routes are displayed with a "T" to stand out those are tram services so the difference between the two networks is on the numbering: Tr
Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
Ranked lists of Spanish municipalities
This article includes several ranked indicators for Spain's municipalities. Spanish municipalities by population. Spanish municipalities by population density. Spanish municipalities by area. Demographics of Spain List of municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain Ranked lists of Spanish autonomous communities National Institute of Statistics
Blanes is a town and municipality in the comarca of Selva in Girona, Spain. During the Roman rule it was named Blandae, it is known as the "Gateway to the Costa Brava". Its coast is part of the Costa Brava; the township is 18.29 km². Blanes is a popular tourist town, it is known for the Concurs de Focs d'Artifici during the Santa Anna festival. Other places of interest include a botanical gardens, such as the Cala Bona, beaches which are surrounded by mountains; the population in 2017 was 38,813. The history of Blanes predates the Roman conquest. Iberian activity has been attested in the area. Romanization of Blanes and its surroundings began around the 3rd century BC. Roman remains of the Blandae site lie nearby. After the rule of the Romans the area shared the fate of much of the Peninsula, being conquered successively by the Goths, the Moors and the Christians shortly after. In the 13th century, after the Christians regained the power, important architectural developments took place in Blanes; some examples are Palau Vescomtal, the Església Parroquial church and the city walls.
In the 17th century, during the Catalan Revolt, Blanes was burned to ashes. The Palau Vescomtal was destroyed. Another event that affected Blanes was the War of the Spanish Succession. Afterwards the reconstruction of the town and the expansion of agriculture started. One of the botanical gardens in Blanes is the Marimurtra, which covers 15 hectares, it is visited by 300,000 people every year. Another garden is the Pinya de Rosa; the Festa major or feast of Santa Anna and Sant Joaquim are celebrated in the 3rd or 4th week of July, between the 21st and 27th annually. During the eight days, the major feasts are celebrated as well as the European Concurs de Focs d'Artifici which attracts more than 500,000 visitors; this is an international competition. Over 500,000 kg of fireworks are used at each event. Most people watch the fireworks from the beach; the fireworks competition nearly always runs in the last full week of July. 2018 marks the 48th edition of the competition, which will take place Saturday July 21 through Thursday July 26According to a local radio station, Radio Marina, nearly 1 million people visited the fireworks competition during its 5-day course.
Prior to 2012 the competition ran for five consecutive days. At the height of Spain's financial crisis it was decided to drop to four days as a money-saving measure. In 2016 enough sponsors were found to restore the fifth day of the event. In 2017; the Festa menor or the feast of the co-patrons, is traditionally celebrated on the la Nit de la Caminada Popular in mid-August and has been around for 25 years as of 2012. This is a wholly family-oriented trek which many people walk accompanied by their children, pets etc, it is 8 km long. The reward is a slice of watermelon. In December 2008 an unusually strong storm struck Blanes' beach; the port of Blanes was hit hardest. The old seawall was not capable of holding off a storm of that magnitude. Many pleasure boats, fishing vessels and tourist ferries were smashed onto the beach. Before the storm, plans had been made to upgrade the harbor but the repairs were delayed; the poor state of the harbor made it more vulnerable to the storm surges and resulted in the heavy loss in the Boxing Day storm.
This storm has been referred to by locals as the worst storm Blanes had seen since the 1950s. The festival lasts eight days; this week the competition is held every year Fireworks of the Costa Brava, one of the largest in Europe. The first documented date of the launch of a firework in Blanes 1906. Has knowledge of other date but it was not until 1962 that the launch will begin to once a year; the year 1971 marks the first Fireworks Competition while the people become three nights launch fireworks. This number has fluctuated over the years. From 1958 releases have always made from Sa Palomera the big rock that separates the two parts blanenca coast and is considered symbolically the beginning of the Costa Brava; every night of celebration contest a different firework company presents its work to the public who come to the beach, with a duration of between 20 and 24 minutes. This is assessed by the Popular Jury is designated each year and is responsible for choosing the winners. Blames is home to the Club de Futbol Obispado.
The city has a roller hockey team, Blanes Hoquei Club, dispute the main League OK Liga. Blanes is home to one of the most important tournaments of roller hockey, the Golden Cup. Mamadou Tounkara, footballer Rubén Yáñez, footballer Roberto Bolaño, poet, essayist Ardales, Spain Villenave-d'Ornon, France Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Official website Official Blanes tourist guide Independent Blanes Tourist Guide Government data pages