A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
Jai Singh II
Jai Singh was the Hindu Rajput ruler of the kingdom of Amber. He was born at the capital of the Kachwahas, he became ruler of Amber at the age of 11 after his father Maharaja Bishan Singh died on 31 December 1699. Jai Singh served as a Mughal vassal, he was given title of Sawai by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in the year 1699, who had summoned him to Delhi, impressed by his wit. On 21 April 1721, the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah bestowed upon him the title of Saramad-i-Rajaha-i-Hind and on 2 June 1723, the emperor further bestowed him the titles of Raj Rajeshvar, Shri shantanu ji and Maharaja Sawai. "Sawai" means one and a quarter times superior to his contemporaries. In the part of his life, Jai Singh broke free from the Mughal hegemony, to assert his sovereignty, performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice, an ancient rite, abandoned for several centuries, he moved his kingdom's capital from Amber to the newly-established city of Jaipur in 1727, performed two Ashvamedha sacrifices, once in 1734, again in 1741.
Jai Singh had a great interest in mathematics and astronomy. He commissioned the Jantar Mantar observatories at multiple places in India, including his capital Jaipur; when Sawai Jai Singh acceded to the ancestral throne at Amber, he had enough resources to pay for the support of 1000 cavalry—this abysmal situation had arisen in the past 96 years, coinciding with the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The Jaipur kings had always preferred diplomacy to arms in their dealings with the Mughals, since their kingdom was located so close to the Mughal power centers of Delhi and Agra. Under Aurangzeb, successive Kachawaha Rajas from the time of Ramsingh I were deprived of their rank and pay despite years of close alliance with the Emperors of Delhi. Two of their chiefs, Jai Singh I and Kunwar Kishan Singh, died in mysterious circumstances while campaigning in the Deccan. Six months after his accession, Jai Singh was ordered by Aurangzeb to serve in his ruinous Deccan Wars, but there was a delay of about one year in his responding to the call.
One of the reason for this was that he was ordered to recruit a large force, in excess of the contingent required by his mansab. He had to conclude his marriage with the daughter of Udit Singh, the nephew of Raja Uttam Ram Gaur of Sheopur in March, 1701. Jai Singh reached Burhanpur on 3 August 1701 but he could not proceed further due to heavy rains. On 13 September 1701 an additional cut in his pay was made, his feat of arms at the siege of Khelna was rewarded by the mere restoration of his earlier rank and the title of Sawai. When Aurangzeb's grandson Bidar bakht deputed Sawai Jai Singh to govern the province of Malwa, Aurangzeb angrily revoked this appointment as jaiz nist; the death of Aurangzeb at first only increased Jai Singh's troubles. His patrons Bidar Bakht and his father Azam were on the losing side in the Mughal war of succession—the victorious Bahadur Shah continued Aurangzeb's hostile and bigoted policy towards the Rajputs by attempting to occupy their lands. Sawai Jai Singh formed an alliance with the Rajput states of Mewar and Marwar, which defeated and expelled the Mughals from Rajputana.
Aurangzeb's rule of excluding Rajputs from the administration was now abandoned by the Mughals—Jai Singh was appointed to govern the important provinces of Agra and Malwa. In Agra he came into conflict with the sturdy Jat peasantry. While Aurangzeb was sinking deeper into the morass of his Deccan Wars, the Jats overthrew the Mughal administration in Agra province. Sawai Raja Jai Singh received large funds from the Mughal courts and with the support of Bhim Singh Hada, of Kotah, Gaj Raj Singh of Narwar, Budh Singh Hada of Bundi, besieged the fort of Thun in 1716. Churaman's nephew Thakur Badan Singh came over to Jai Singh and provided him with vital information on the weak points of Thun. After its conquest Jai Singh captured and demolished other smaller forts and dispersed the Jat confederacies for a short period; the Kachwaha ruler was appointed to govern Malwa three times between 1714 and 1737. In Jai Singh's first viceroyalty of Malwa, isolated Maratha war-bands that entered the province from the south were defeated and repulsed by Jai Singh.
In 1728, Peshwa Baji Rao defeated the Nizam of part of the Mughal Deccan. With an agreement from Baji Rao to spare the Nizam's own domains, the Nizam allowed the Marathas a free passage through Berar and Khandesh, the gateway into Hindustan; the Marathas were able to plant a permanent camp beyond the southern frontier of Malwa. Following the victory of the Peshwa’s brother, Chimaji Appa, over the governor of Malwa Girdhar Bahadur on 29 November 1728, the Marathas were able to convulse much of the country beyond the Southern borders of the Narmada. Upon Sawai Jai Singh's second appointment to Malwa, as a far-sighted statesmen, Jai Singh was able to perceive a complete change in the political situation, during the twelve years which had passed since his first viceroyalty there. Imperial power had by been crippled by the rebellion of the Nizam of Hyderabad as well as the ability of Peshwa Baji Rao to stabilize the internal situation of the Marathas, which resulted in their occupation of Gujarat and an immense increase of their forces.
Nonetheless, in the name of the friendship between their royal ancestors, Sawai Jai Singh II, was able to appeal to Shahu to restore to the imperialist, the great fortress of Mandu which the Marathas had occupied a few weeks earlier. By May, Jai S
Bharatpur State known as Bharatpore State, was a Hindu princely state in the Indian subcontinent. It was ruled by a Hindu Jats of Sinsinwar dynasty; the Royal House of Bharatpur traces their history to the 11th Century AD. They claim to be the descendants of Lord Krishna; the descendants of Bal Chand became leaders of the Jat caste and rose to considerable power during the Mughal decline in the late seventeenth century. Raja Ram Jat who faught against the Aurangzeb and ruined the remains of Akbar is known for setting up small fort at Sinsini, it was the key foundation of this kingdom. History of Jat Bharatpur state begins with the rebellion of Rajaam Jat who faught against the Aurangzeb and ruined the remains of Akbar is known for setting up small fort at Sinsini, it was the key foundation of this kingdom. At the end of the 17th century, Jat Baija, head of the village of Sansani, eliminated the Mughal Empire from this area to enlarge his territory, his descendents, Thakur Churaman Singh Singh, continued the expansion, the latter being the founder of the fortress of Bharatpur in 1724.
He is known as the first king of Bharatpur. His son Badan Singh received enhanced titles and honours, he was succeeded by Maharaja Surajmal. Maharaja Surajmal conquered a vast territory in north central India, including the Imperial cities of Agra and Delhi. Thereafter his son Maharaja Jawahar Singh conquered Delhi. After Jawahar Singh, his brother Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur defeated British for 13 times at Lohagarh. So Lohagarh Fort is the only fort of India, never won by Mughals or British; the Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana occupied the Gwalior Fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured the Mughal stronghold Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. In August 1947 the state acceded to the newly independent Dominion of India.
In 1948 in became part of the Matsya Union and in 1949 was absorbed into Rajasthan. Members of the ruling family continue to be active in regional affairs. Several members of the family have served in the state legislature; the chronology of Sinsinwar Jat clan rulers of Bharatpur is: Gokula,? - 1670 Raja Ram, 1670–1688 Churaman, 1695–1721 Khanu Chand, Chief of the Sinsinwar Jats. His son Bhav Singh, married a daughter of Achal Singh of Sogharaia, had a son, Raja Badan Singh. Badan Singh, 1722–1756. 1st Raja of Bharatpur 1722/1756, of Deeg and founder of Bharatpur. He died 7 June 1756 at Deeg. Maharaja Brajendra Suraj Mal, 1756–1767. 2nd Maharaja of Bharatpur 1756/1763, born about 13 February 1707, created Raja Brajendra Bahadur, he took a large part in the numerous struggles of the first half of the 18th century between the Mughals, Marathas and Afghans and extended his borders until they included. Maharaja Jawahir Singh, 1763–1768, 3rd Maharaja of Bharatpur 1763/1768, he defeated the Raja of Jaipur in a war and was murdered at Agra in 1768 during hunting.
Maharaja Ratan Singh, 1768–1769 son of Maharaja Brajendra Surajmal Bahadur by Rani Ganga), 4th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1768/1771 or 1768/1769, married and had issue. He too was murdered after a short reign. Maharaja Keshri Singh, 1769–1771, 5th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1771 or 1769/1776, died 1776. Maharaja Nawal Singh, 1771–1776, Regent of Bharatpur 1771/1776, died 1776. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1776–1805, 6th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1776/1805, during his reign, Najaf Khan, stripped the Jats of all their possessions leaving only the fort of Bharatpur and territory of nine lakhs in value, he died in 1805. Maharaja Randhir Singh, 1805–1823, 7th Maharaja of Bharatpur, died 1823. An 1805 siege by the British ended in the latter's withdrawal. Maharaja Baldeo Singh, 1823–1825, 8th Maharaja of Bharatpur and had issue, he died in 1825. Maharaja Durjan Sal, 1825–1826, 9th Maharaja of Bharatpur, opposed his cousin's accession and imprisoned him. British forces laid siege to Bharatpur for three weeks and on 18 January 1826, the fort was stormed by troops under Lord Combermere and dismantled, the Maharaja was imprisoned at Allahabad.
Maharaja Balwant Singh, 1825–1853, 10th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1826/1853, born 1819, he was
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named; as of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is known as the Pink City, due to the dominant color scheme of its buildings, it is located 268 km from the national capital New Delhi. Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra, it serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur, Jaisalmer Udaipur and Mount Abu. Jaipur is located 616 km from Shimla. Jaipur is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Amer Fort; the city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1699 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 kilometres from Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water.
Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra; the construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were pierced by seven fortified gates. Jaipur is a standout amongst the most rich legacy urban areas in India. Established in the year 1727, the city is named after Maharaja Jai Singh II, the primary organizer of this city, he was a Kachhwaha Rajput and ruled the region in the vicinity of 1699 and 1744. During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh I, the city was painted pink to welcome H. R. H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in 1876. Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.
In the 19th century, the city grew and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868; the city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college and a girls' school opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II. Large areas of the city including the airport were flooded in August 1981, resulting in the death of eight people and much damage to the city's Dravyavati River; the floods were caused by three days of cloud burst. Jaipur has a hot semi-arid climate under Koppen's climate classification, it receives over 63 cm of rainfall annually. But most rains occur in the monsoon months between September. Temperatures remain high during summer from April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 27.6' C. During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms; the winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 18' C and with high humidity, but with occasional cold waves.
Jaipur is a high urban heat island zone with surrounding rural temperatures falling below freezing in winters. According to provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350; the overall literacy rate for the city is 84.34%. 90.61% males and 77.41% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males; the child sex ratio stood at 854. According to the 2011 census, Hindus form the majority religious group comprising 77.9% of the city's population, followed by Muslims and others. Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for maintaining the city's civic infrastructure and carrying out associated administrative duties; the Municipal Corporation is headed by a mayor. There are 91 wards and each ward is represented by an elected member. Jaipur Development Authority is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur. Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur Rural. In January 2019 Vishnu Laata was elected Mayor of Jaipur.
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia. According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destinations for the year; the Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012. Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre is exhibition centre, it is famous for organising events such as Vastara, Jaipur Jewellery Show, Stonemart 2015 and Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Summit 2015. Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Birla Mandir, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Moti Dungri Ganesh Temple, Royal Gaitor cenotaphs, Sanghiji Jain temple and the Jaipur Zoo; the Jantar Mantar observatory and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites.
Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows that rises 15 metres from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur. Raj Mandir is a notable cinema hall in Jaipur. J