Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone, it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms, which are carved into the surface, which are painted onto the surface. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having found in Europe, Asia. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance, Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony. Such archaeological sites are significant sources of cultural tourism, and have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities.
Normally found in cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or living rock such as a cliff. They are a category of art, and sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, a few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, and were important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are generally large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, and in many the figures are multiples of life-size, the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are found. The term typically excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded.
Reliefs on large boulders left in their location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included. The term rock art appears in the literature as early as the 1940s. It has described as rock carvings, rock drawings, rock engravings, rock inscriptions, rock paintings, rock pictures. The defining characteristic of rock art is that it is placed on natural rock surfaces, as such, rock art is a form of landscape art, and includes designs that have been placed on boulder and cliff faces, cave walls and ceilings, and on the ground surface
The Buna river is a short river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and it is a left bank tributary of the Neretva river. Its source is a karstic spring, emerging from a huge karstic cavern beneath a high vertical cliff. This region is specific for the diversity of its above-ground and underground hydrography, the source of the Buna river is the finest example of an underground karst river. Its one of the largest and most beautiful springs in Europe,30 m3/s with extremely cold and clean water. Blagaj is one of the most valuable urban-cum-rural structures in Bosnia, Blagaj reached its peak of development in the 15th and 16th centuries, building in stone reached its greatest extent. The first stone-built houses were the privilege of the class, but later. The natural and architectural ensemble of Blagaj forms a spatially and topographically self-contained ensemble, the region is known for the diversity of its flora and a number of endemic species. At lower altitudes there are many plant and deciduous thicket species.
Fertile cultivable land is suitable for the typical of the Mediterranean climate. The architectural ensemble of the Blagaj Tekke stands by the source of the Buna river, the musafirhana and türbe are tucked into the natural surroundings, constituting a single entity with the cliffs, source of the Buna river and mills. The musafirhana of the Blagaj tekke and the türbe have been preserved to this day, the musafirhana was built before 1664, and rebuilt in 1851 - its original appearance is not known. The building was repaired on several occasions. The ensemble of the Blagaj Tekke was presumably built very soon after Ottoman rule was established in Herzegovina, there were four bridges over the 9 km of the Buna river, two in Blagaj, one in Kosor and one in Buna village. Blagajs bridges, the Karađoz-beg bridge and Leho bridge, differ in features from the typological form of 16th century Ottoman architecture. The Karađoz-beg bridge was endowed by Zaim hajji Mehmed-beg, known as Karađoz, the bridge has five arches, of increasing span towards the centre.
The Leho bridge or Lehina ćuprija in Donja Mahala was built before 1664 It is assumed to have been commission by Haseći Ali-aga Kolaković and it had three arches, considerably wider than those of the Karađoz-beg bridige. Mill buildings on the Buna river are simple structures with gabled roofs clad with stone slabs. Very close to the source of the Buna river, channels branch off leading water to power the mills, several mills, one stamping and two fulling mills were built
A karst spring is a spring that is part of a karst system. That includes the drainage of a much larger area, which means that karst springs often have a very large discharge. Because of their conical or bowl shape, such water sources are known in German-speaking lands as a Topf which is reflected in names such as Aachtopf or Blautopf. Karst springs are usually the end of a system at the place where a river cave reaches the Earths surface. Thus, it is possible to enter the caves at a karst spring. An estavelle or inversac is a ground orifice which, depending on conditions and season. It is a type of sinkhole, a Vauclusian spring is a spring that originates from a shaft or a cave system, with the water surging upwards under relatively high pressure. It is named after the Fontaine de Vaucluse in southern France, submarine karst springs, known as vruljas, occur worldwide, and are most numerous in shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The main feature of karst springs results from the fact that water is transported by underground caverns.
This means that there is minimal filtering of the water and little separation of different sediments, groundwater emerges at the spring within a few days. Storms and general changes in rainfall have a very noticeable. Many karst springs dry up during the driest part of the year and are known as intermittent springs. Still others are dry most of the round and only flow after heavy rain. Sources that only flow during wet years are known in German as Hungerbrunnen. It is however more of a culturally related superstition, scientific studies on various Hungerbrunnen have not confirmed such a relationship. An example is the Hungerbrunnen in the parish of Heuchlingen near Gerstetten, the properties of karst springs make them unsuitable for the supply of drinking water. Their uneven flow rate does not support steady rates of consumption, especially in summer there is lower discharge. In addition, poor filtering and high hardness mean that the quality is poor
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
The Tischofer Cave is a cave in the Kaisertal valley in the Kaisergebirge mountains in Austria. It was important locally as a place and weapons cache for local rebels during the Napoleonic Wars. The roughly 40 m long cave, which is about 8.5 m high at the entrance, was used during the Stone Age by bears and other predators as shelter and that makes the Tischofer Cave the oldest proven site of human occupation in Tyrol. Discoveries of human skeletons and tools indicate that the cave acted as a copper smithy, the Tischofer Cave may be reached on foot via the Kaiser Path in the Kaisertal valley, a pathway secured with cable railings. It is recorded in the Tyrolean Cave Register as number 1312/001, article from Hofmann, Wege im Inntal with comprehensive description Die Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal bei Kufstein at www. tirol-infos. at. Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal at www. kaisergebirge-online. de
It is located in the Popovo field in Ravno, West Herzegovina in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vjetrenica is located in Popovo Polje, which is located in a southernmost regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, West Herzegovina. Its entrance is near the village of Zavala, in west - south-western corner of polje, in the warmer parts of the year a strong blast of cold air blows from its entrance, which is very attractive in the middle of the rocky and waterless terrain. The cave has been explored and described to a total of 7,014 m in length, along with the hydrological arguments, this assumption is supported by the unnatural end of Vjetrenica in the form of a huge heap of stone blocks that have caved in. Vjetrenica cave is considered to have richest cave fauna, with highest rate of endemism, livanjsko field Trebišnjica Herzegovina Trebinje Saint Basil of Ostrog http, //www. vjetrenica. ba/