SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Baden-Baden

Baden-Baden is a spa town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, ten kilometres east of the Rhine, the border with France, forty kilometres north-east of Strasbourg, France. The springs at Baden-Baden were known to the Romans as Aquae and Aurelia Aquensis after M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus. In modern German, Baden is a noun meaning "bathing" but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad; as with the English placename "Bath", various other Badens are at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland; the name Baden-Baden is a reference to the Margraviate of a territory named after the town. Baden-Baden thus means the town of Baden in the territory of Baden. Baden-Baden got its formal name in 1931. Baden-Baden lies in a valley of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany.

The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe, part of the Black Forest National Park; the old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from 46 to 67 °C; the water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m under Florentine Hill at a rate of 341 litres per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths. Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority; the known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 and date to the reign of Caracalla, who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg; the town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden.

The Lichtenthal Convent was founded in 1254. The margraves used Hohenbaden Castle, whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle in 1479. Baden suffered during the Thirty Years' War at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643, they returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706; the Stiftskirche houses the tombs of several of the margraves. The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution; the town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99 and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, paralysis, skin disorders, stones; the Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development.

The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, horse races, the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, Berlioz; the pumproom was completed in 1842. The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845. Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and'60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". With a population of around 10 000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British and Americans all well represented; the theater was completed in 1861 and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the prince of Moldavia Mihail Sturdza after he died during a family vacation. A Russian Orthodox church was subsequently erected; the casino was closed for a time in the 1870s. Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70 000 visitors each year..

During the Second World War, 3.1% of the houses in Baden-Baden were destroyed by bombs and 125 civilians were killed. 5.77% of the houses were damaged by bombs. Lichtenthal, a residential area in the southwest of the town, was hit by bombs and Saint Bonifatius Church was damaged on 11 March 1943. Balg, a residential area in the northeast of Baden-Baden, was hit by bombs on 17 December 1944. On 30 December 1944 one third of the buildings of Oos, a residential area in the north of the town, was destroyed or damaged by bombs and Saint Dionysius Church was damaged as well. On 2 January 1945 the railway station of Oos and various barracks on Schwarzwald Road were damaged by bombs. After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's Kurhaus; the Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998.

CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a c

Knut Frydenlund

Knut Frydenlund was a Norwegian diplomat and politician for the Labour Party who served as foreign minister from 1973-1981 and again from 1986-1987. Frydenlund was born in Drammen and began his diplomatic career in the 1950s serving at the Norwegian embassy in Bonn, served in various diplomatic positions during the 1950s and the 1960s. In 1969 he was elected to parliament as a member of the Norwegian Labour Party, he became foreign minister in the Labour government in 1973. While Labour was out of power from 1981 to 1986, he was replaced as foreign minister by Svenn Thorkild Stray, but returned to the office in May 1986. In February 1987, following his return from a Nordic Council meeting in Helsinki, he collapsed at Oslo's Fornebu Airport due to a cerebral hemorrhage and died soon afterwards at Ullevaal Hospital in Oslo. Associated Press, "Norway's Foreign Minister Dies", February 26, 1987

Limbones Island

Limbones Island is an island located at the southern entrance of Manila Bay. It is the farthest island from Metro Manila, it is under the jurisdiction of Cavite. Limbones Island and the other islands of Manila Bay fall under the jurisdiction of the Cavite province, it has a rocky landscape with the highest elevation located at the island's center. It has an estimated area of 22.4 hectares. Due to the fact that it is the farthest island from Metro Manila, it is the only island at the bay, not turned into a fort by the Americans. Instead of fortifying the island, they built fire control stations, docking areas, concrete staircases, a cable system. During World War II, the island served as the “eye” of the Filipino and American forces guarding Manila Bay so it can see 3.9 kilometres further out into the mouth of Manila Bay from Fort Frank. This is because it is situated at the bay's entrance, making any ship coming from the South China Sea visible from anyone standing on the island; the island endured multiple bombings by the Japanese forces during the height of the war.

However, no one was permanently stationed on the island during the time of the bombings. The sea floor 15 feet below is dotted with healthy corals, it has many coral varieties, fish species, amazing crustaceans, including the mantis shrimp, a type of shrimp that possesses a set of multi-colored exoskeleton. List of islands in the Greater Manila Area Manila Bay