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Algol (rocket stage)

The Algol family of solid-fuel rocket stages and boosters built by Aerojet and used on a variety of launch vehicles. It was developed by Aerojet from the Navy Polaris programs. Upgrades to the Algol motor occurred from 1960 till the retirement of the Scout launch vehicle in 1994. Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,705 kg. Thrust 470.93 kN Vacuum Specific Impulse 236 secs Variations Algol I, I-D, II, II-A, II-BA popular rating was 40KS-115,000 known as Senior. They were developed as the first-stage motor of the Scout rocket; the design was based on the UGM-27 Polaris, a submarine-launched ballistic missile developed for the United States Navy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Algol 1 This rocket design started as the Polaris test motor, 31 feet in length with a 40 inches diameter steel case, 86,000 lb. of thrust. The eventual UGM-27 Polaris A-1 was larger, 28.5 feet in 54 inches in diameter. The Algol 1 was first used for a successful suborbital launch of a Scout X-1 rocket on September 2, 1960.

This rocket started as a UGM-27 Polaris test motor with a 40-inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor tested. It had a nominal performance rating of 45 seconds duration and 45,000 kgf thrust, it was 19.42 feet long, 2.6 feet in diameter, had a burn time of 27 seconds. Scaled up to 1.02 m diameter. Versions for Scout D scaled to 1.14 m Algol 1-AUsed on the Scout X test flight flown April 18, 1960. Served as prototype vehicle for eventual Scout rocket. Algol 1-BUsed on Scout X-1, RM-89 Blue Scout I, RM-90 Blue Scout II. Algol 1-CUsed on the Scout X-1A. After this single flight, the Scout X-2 with Algol 1-D replaced this prototype. Algol 1-DUsed with Scout X-2, Scout X-2M and Little Joe II. Solid rocket stage. 440.00 kN thrust. Mass 10,700 kg, it was first used on the Scout X-2 on March 29, 1962. It continued to be used on Scout X-2 and Scout X-2M launches until 1963. Algol 1-D was first used on the Little Joe II Qualification Test Vehicle in 1963. May 13, 1964 – Algol Boosts Little Joe II A-001 flight.

An Aerojet-built Algol 1D heavy-duty rocket motor performed for the 36th consecutive time on May 13, 1964, as it carried a NASA Little Joe II spacecraft on the Apollo program A-001 test flight. Averaging 96,650 pounds thrust, the Algol 1D was the largest solid rocket motor flying in non-military space programs. Test hardware on May's successful Apollo test flight included: an unmanned instrumented command module, service module, launch escape system and the Little Joe II launch system. Algol engine used on Little Joe II Thrust: 465 kN each Length: 9.1 m Diameter: 1 m Weight full: 10,180 kg Weight empty: 1,900 kg Fuel: solid Burn time: 40 s Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 10,700 kg. Unfuelled mass: 1,200 kg. Height: 9.40 m. Diameter: 1.02 m. Thrust: 440.00 kN. Burn time: 44 s. Number: 20; the Algol 2 series was first flown in 1962. It was used a first stage on Scout A, Scout B, Scout X-3, Scout X-4, it was proposed for the Athena RTX program in 1969, losing to Thikol.<GAO> B-165488, JAN. 17, 1969 Thrust: 513.300 kN.

The 3BAS2 configuration of Titan 3B rocket proposed by Martin in the mid-1960s would have been used for deep space missions with a Centaur upper stage, Algol strap-on for liftoff thrust augmentation. It was never flown. CSD solid rocket engine. 564.2 kN. Isp=255s. Gross mass: 11,600 kg. Unfuelled mass: 1,650 kg. Height: 9.09 m. Diameter: 1.01 m. Thrust: 564.20 kN. Specific impulse: 255 s. Specific impulse sea level: 232 s; the Algol II-A was introduced in 1963 using the Aerojet 40 KS motor. It first flew on Scout-X3 in 1963; the Algol II-B was created after an Algol II-A flight failure, the nozzle was designed and designate the II-B model. It first flew on Scout-X4 The Algol II-C flew on Scout A1 and B1. Scout-A2, -B2, -C and -2 versions planned for Algol II-C were never used. In 1972, the Algol III was developed by the Chemical Systems Division of United Technologies; the Algol III was a new high-performance solid rocket motor developed for use as the first stage of the NASA SCOUT-D and -E launch vehicles.

It was first flown on Scout D-1 in 1972. The motor diameter was increased 45 inches; this was a 30% improvement of lifting capacity versus the Algol II-B. The motor delivers a 30% gain in total impulse over its predecessor and provides a 35-45% gain in payload mass capability at a fractional increase in cost. Algol III has completed development and qualification at United Technology Center under contract to LTV Aerospace Corp.'s Vought Missiles and Space Co. the SCOUT prime contractor for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Scout X-2 which in 1962 introduced the Antares IIB stage upgrade. On 1962-08-23 a Scout X-2 was used for the first successful launch of a DMSP satellite, lifting off from Point Arguello near Vandenberg Air Force Base; the Scout X-3 which in 1963 introduced the Algol IIA upgrade. The Scout A-1 and B-1 which in 1965 introduced the Castor IIA and Altair III upgrades, respectively; the Scout D-1 which in 1972 introduced the Algol III upgrade. The Scout G flew from 1974 until the Scout's retirement in 1994.

It was rated to orbit a 210 kg payload. UGM-27 Polaris Graphite-Epoxy Motor Little Joe Scout Vega

Arthur Young (colonial administrator)

Captain Sir Arthur Henderson Young was a British colonial administrator. He was the son of Colonel Keith Young. On 5 November 1885, he married Lady Evelyn Anne Kennedy, a daughter of Archibald Kennedy, 2nd Marquess of Ailsa, Julia Jephson. Young was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Young joined the 27th Inniskillings as a sub-lieutenant, entered the Colonial Service in 1878, he was first appointed to command a Military Police unit in Cyprus. The next 27 years he spent in the colony, holding successively the positions of Assistant Commissioner at Paphos Commissioner at Paphos, Commissioner at Famagusta Director of Survey and Forest Officer and Chief Secretary to the Government of Cyprus. In 1883 he contested the first elections to the new Legislative Council, but finished last in the Larnaca–Famagusta constituency with only 43 votes of the 6,899 cast. Young ran again in the 1891 elections. Although he failed to be elected, he appealed to the Supreme Court to have the election results annulled on the basis of intimidation and corruption due to attempts by the priesthood to dissuade people from voting for him.

However, he did not contest the subsequent by-election for the vacant seats. For six months in 1895, for lesser periods in 1898, 1900, 1904, Young administered the Government of Cyprus. In 1902, he went on a special mission to St. Vincent in the West Indies, he was posted as the Colonial Secretary of the Straits Settlements on 29 June 1906 until 1911. He became the British High Commissioner in Malaya and Governor of the Straits Settlements from 1911 to 1920. In 1897, Young was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George and Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in November 1908. In 1916, Young was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George and Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1918. FMS KL No 3663/1917 From E L Brockman to Chung Thye Phin on Appointment to Federal Council Appointment of Chung Thye Phin to the Federal Council of the FMS by Arthur Henderson Young SourcesArnold Wright, Twientieth Century Impressions of British Malaya, 1908 Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes, volume 1, page 42


Distortion is the alteration of the original shape of something. In communications and electronics it means the alteration of the waveform of an information-bearing signal, such as an audio signal representing sound or a video signal representing images, in an electronic device or communication channel. Distortion is unwanted, so engineers strive to eliminate or minimize it. In some situations, distortion may be desirable. For example, in FM broadcasting and noise reduction systems like the Dolby system, an audio signal is deliberately distorted in ways that emphasize aspects of the signal that are subject to electrical noise it is symmetrically "undistorted" after passing through a noisy communication channel, reducing the noise in the signal. Distortion is used as a musical effect with electric guitars; the addition of noise or other outside signals is not considered distortion, though the effects of quantization distortion are sometimes included in noise. Quality measures that reflect both noise and distortion include the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio and total harmonic distortion plus noise.

In telecommunication and signal processing, a noise-free system can be characterised by a transfer function, such that the output y can be written as a function of the input x as y = F When the transfer function comprises only a perfect gain constant A and perfect delay T y = A ⋅ x the output is undistorted. Distortion occurs. If F is a linear function, for instance a filter whose gain and/or delay varies with frequency, the signal suffers linear distortion. Linear distortion does not introduce new frequency components to a signal but does alter the balance of existing ones; this diagram shows the behaviour of a signal. The first trace shows the input, it shows the output from a non-distorting transfer function. A high-pass filter distorts the shape of a square wave by reducing its low frequency components; this is the cause of the "droop" seen on the top of the pulses. This "pulse distortion" can be significant when a train of pulses must pass through an AC-coupled amplifier; as the sine wave contains only one frequency, its shape is unaltered.

A low-pass filter rounds the pulses by removing the high frequency components. All systems are low. Note that the phase of the sine wave is different for the lowpass and the highpass cases, due to the phase distortion of the filters. A non-linear transfer function, this one compresses the peaks of the sine wave, as may be typical of a tube audio amplifier; this generates small amounts of low order harmonics. A hard-clipping transfer function generates high order harmonics. Parts of the transfer function are flat, which indicates that all information about the input signal has been lost in this region; the transfer function of an ideal amplifier, with perfect gain and delay, is only an approximation. The true behavior of the system is different. Nonlinearities in the transfer function of an active device are a common source of non-linear distortion. Amplitude distortion is distortion occurring in a system, subsystem, or device when the output amplitude is not a linear function of the input amplitude under specified conditions.

Harmonic distortion adds overtones. Nonlinearities that give rise to amplitude distortion in audio systems are most measured in terms of the harmonics added to a pure sinewave fed to the system. Harmonic distortion may be expressed in terms of the relative strength of individual components, in decibels, or the root mean square of all harmonic components: Total harmonic distortion, as a percentage; the level at which harmonic distortion becomes audible depends on the exact nature of the distortion. Different types of distortion are more audible than others if the THD measurements are identical. Harmonic distortion in radio frequency applications is expressed as THD. Non-flat frequency response is a form of distortion that occurs when different frequencies are amplified by different amounts in a filter. For example, the non-uniform frequency response curve of AC-coupled cascade amplifier is an example of frequency distortion. In the audio case, this is caused by room acoustics, poor loudspeakers and microphones, long loudspeaker cables in combination with frequency dependent loudspeaker impedance, etc.

This form of distortion occurs due to electrical reactance. Here, all the components of the input signal are not amplified with the same phase shift, hence making some parts of the output signal out of phase with the rest of the output. Can be found only in dispersive media. In a waveguide, phase velocity varies with frequency. In a filter, group delay tends resulting in pulse distortion. Whe

Johnny Candido

John Candido is an American semi-retired professional wrestler, is the younger brother of late professional wrestler Chris Candido. He is best known under the ring name Johnny Candido Candido trained under his brother and debuted in 2000, he did not reach a prominent position on the independent circuit until the death of his brother in April 2005, at which point he competed in several tribute matches. Candido wrestled in a World Wrestling Entertainment dark match against Balls Mahoney and Axl Rotten, he appeared at Unbreakable on September 11, 2005, to watch the four-way elimination match for the NWA World Tag Team Championship. The winners of the Chris Candido Memorial Tag Team Tournament, Alex Shelley and Sean Waltman, were scheduled to face incumbent champions The Naturals, Team Canada, America's Most Wanted; when Waltman no-showed the event, Candido left the audience, climbed onto the ring apron and assumed the role of Shelley's tag team partner. Candido and Shelley were eliminated soon after.

On September 17, 2005, Candido won a tournament to win the NWA Midwest Heavyweight Championship, vacated upon his brother's Chris' death. He vacated the championship in January 2007. Candido is working with the independent promotion National Wrestling Superstars, he wrestles for the independent federations Pro Wrestling Unplugged and USA Xtreme Wrestling. NWA Midwest NWA Midwest Heavyweight Championship National Wrestling Superstars NWS Hardcore Championship Johnny Candido on IMDb

Afterlife (Joe Jackson album)

Afterlife is a 2004 live album by Joe Jackson. It contains recordings from performances on 27 August 2003 at The Fillmore in San Francisco, CA, at House of Blues on 28 August in Los Angeles CA and on 29 August in Anaheim CA, on 31 August 2003 in San Diego CA at 4th and B. For these recording Jackson re-united with the musicians from his first successes: Graham Maby, Gary Sanford and Dave Houghton; as he made television appearances to promote the album, Jackson insisted that the quartet's reunion had been a one-off. His recording of "Steppin' Out" was used in a television advertisement for Lincoln-Mercury automobiles. All songs arranged by Joe Jackson, except where noted. MusiciansJoe Jackson – keyboards, vocals Graham Maby – bass, vocals David Houghton – drums, vocals Gary Sanford – guitar, vocalsProductionJoe Jackson - arrangements, producer Julie Gardner - recording engineer, mixing engineer Ray Staff - mastering engineer Paul Smith - mixing engineer Frank Orlinsky - art direction Tom Sheehan - photography Afterlife album information at The Joe Jackson Archive